Joel (prophet)

Joel (/ˈdʒoʊəl/; Hebrew: יוֹאֵלYōʾēl; Greek: ἸωήλIōḗl; Syriac: ܝܘܐܝܠ‎ – Yu'il) was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and the author of the Book of Joel. He is mentioned by name only once in the Hebrew Bible, in the introduction to his own brief book, as the son of Pethuel (Joel 1:1). The name Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH (or Yahweh), and El (god), and has been translated as "one to whom YHWH is God," that is, a worshiper of YHWH.[1]

He is believed to have lived in the 9th century BCE, but the dating of his book is still debated. The book's mention of Greeks [2] has not given scholars any help in dating the text since the Greeks were known to have had access to Judah from Mycenaean times (c. 1600–1100 BC).[3] However, the book's mention of Judah's suffering [4] and to the standing temple [5] have led some scholars to place the date of the book in the post-exilic period, after the construction of the Second Temple. Joel was originally from Judah/Judea, and, judging from its prominence in his prophecy, was quite possibly a prophet associated with the ritual of Solomon's or even the Second temple.[6]

According to a long-standing tradition, Joel was buried in Gush Halav.[7]

Fresco of the prophet Joel
Prophet Joel as imagined by Michelangelo (Fresco, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508–1512).
Venerated inJudaism
Major shrineGush Halav, Israel
FeastOctober 19 (Orthodox)
Major worksBook of Joel

In Christianity

On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, his feast day is October 19.[8]

In the Roman Martyrology the prophet is commemorated on July 13.[9]

He is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31.

Joel's statement that "I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions" was applied by St Peter in his sermon at Pentecost to the events of that day.[10] Since then, other religious figures have interpreted the words as having special significance for their own time.

According to the Eastern Orthodox Christian hymns, the ancient hymnographer Anatolius links Joel’s prophecy to the birth of Christ. In Joel 2:30, he says that the blood refers to the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, the fire to the Divinity of Christ, and the pillars of smoke to the Holy Spirit.[11]

In the Baha'i Faith

Joel is considered a minor prophet in the Baha'i Faith.[12] In the Kitab-i-Iqan, Baha'ullah states that previous prophecies by minor prophets such as Joel have symbolic meanings and significance and therefore should not be understood literally.[13]


  1. ^ "Commentary by A. R. Faussett". Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  2. ^ Joel 3:6 in chapter divisions of English bibles, 4:6 in the Hebrew Bible
  3. ^ A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Joel
  4. ^ Joel 3:19; 4:19 in the Hebrew Bible
  5. ^ Joel 1:14
  6. ^ Leslie C. Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976), p.31
  7. ^ "Gush HaLav". Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  8. ^ "Prophet Joel in the Eastern Orthodox Church". Orthodox Church of America. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018.
  9. ^ Editor. "Roman Martyrology July, in English". Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  10. ^ Acts 2:16-21
  11. ^ "Prophet Joel". Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  12. ^ Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahái̓́ Theology – Volume 8 – Page 32, J. A. McLean – 1997
  13. ^ Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith – Page 251, J. E. Esslemont – 2006

External links

Angel (Michelangelo)

The statue of an Angel (1494–1495) was created by Michelangelo out of marble. Its height is 51.5 cm. It is situated in the Basilica of San Domenico, Bologna.

Awakening Slave

The Awakening Slave is a 2.67m high marble statue by Michelangelo, dated to 1525-1530. It is one of the 'Prisoners', the series of unfinished sculptures for the tomb of Pope Julius II. It is now held in the Galleria dell'Accademia in Florence.

Battle of Cascina (Michelangelo)

The Battle of Cascina is a never-completed artwork commissioned for creation by Michelangelo for the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. He created only the prepatory drawing before being called to Rome by Pope Julius II, where he worked on the Pope's tomb; before completing this project, he returned to Florence for some months to complete the cartoon.

Casa Buonarroti

Casa Buonarroti is a museum in Florence. The building was a property owned by (but never occupied by) the sculptor Michelangelo, which he left to his nephew, Lionardo Buonarroti. The house was converted into a museum dedicated to the artist by his great nephew, Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger. Its collections include two of Michelangelo's earliest sculptures, the Madonna of the Steps and the Battle of the Centaurs. A ten-thousand strong library has accumulated there over the centuries, which includes the family's archive and some of Michaelangelo's letters and drawings.

Crouching Boy

Crouching Boy is a sculpture of the great Renaissance Italian painter and sculptor Michelangelo, preserved today at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, it is the only work by Michelangelo in the Hermitage Museum.

Cupid (Michelangelo)

The Cupid was a sculpture created by Renaissance artist

Michelangelo, which he artificially aged to make it look like an antique on the advice of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco. It was this sculpture which first brought him to the attention of patrons in Rome. The work is now lost.

Dawn (Michelangelo)

Dawn is a sculpture by Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo, executed for the Medici Chapel in the area of the tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, Italy.

It is part of a second pair (the second being Dusk), which followed Day and Night in his work on the Chapel.

Length: 6 feet 8 inches.

Day (Michelangelo)

Day is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo, datable to 1526–31. It is a pair with Night on the tomb of Giuliano de' Medici in the Medici Chapel in San Lorenzo in Florence.

Dusk (Michelangelo)

Dusk is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo, datable to 1524-34. It is a pair with Dawn on the tomb of Lorenzo II de' Medici in the Medici Chapel in San Lorenzo in Florence.

Gherardo Perini

Gherardo Perini was a model for Michelangelo and came to work for him around 1520. When Perini failed to show up to his studio, Michelangelo was distraught and stated "I beg you not to make me draw this evening since Perino's not here." On that same page, he drew a naked putto urinating into a vase. Scholar Robert Clements believes that their affair was homosexual and points to the verse written to Perini, "I had always thought I could come to term with love, Now I suffer, and you see how I burn."

Head of a Faun

Head of a faun is a lost sculpture by Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo, dating from c. 1489. His first known work of sculpture in marble, it was sculpted when he was 15 or 16 as a copy of an antique work with some minor alterations. According to Giorgio Vasari's biography of the artist, it was the creation of this work that secured the young Michaelangelo the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici.


Joel or Yoel is a name meaning "Yahweh Is God" and may refer to:

Joel (given name), origin of the name including a list of people with the first name

Joel (surname), a surname

Joel (prophet), a prophet of ancient Israel

Book of Joel, a book in the Jewish Tanakh, and in the Christian Bible, ascribed to the prophet

Joel (son of Samuel), firstborn son of Samuel

Joel, Georgia, a community in the United States

Leda and the Swan (Michelangelo)

Leda and the Swan is a lost tempera on canvas painting by Michelangelo, produced in 1530 but now only surviving in copies and variants. The work depicted the Greek myth of Leda and the Swan.

Luigi del Riccio

Luigi del Riccio was an acquaintance of Michelangelo who was deeply hurt by the death of his nephew Cecchino Bracci. He gave Michelangelo many gifts so that Michelangelo would keep writing him epitaphs.

Michelangelo became irritated by Riccio's gifts and wrote "This piece is said by the trout, and not by me; so if you don't like the verses, don't marinate them any more with pepper." Riccio's friendship with Michelangelo ended when he learned that Riccio had planned to publish all the epitaphs unaltered, and Michelangelo begged him to destroy them. Michelangelo was uncomfortable with the poem's homoeroticism and begged "You certainly have the power to disgrace me." Riccio relented.

Male Back With a Flag

Male Back With a Flag is a chalk drawing by Michelangelo Buonarroti, from 1504.

Pitti Tondo

Pitti Tondo is a marble bas-relief of the Virgin and Child by Michelangelo. It was produced between 1503 and 1504 and is now in the Museo nazionale del Bargello in Florence.

Prophet Jonah (Michelangelo)

The Prophet Jonah is one of the seven Old Testament prophets painted by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo (c. 1542–1545) on the Sistine Chapel ceiling. The Sistine Chapel is in Vatican Palace, in the Vatican City.

This particular fresco is painted above the High Altar, as the person of Jonah is of prophetic significance in Christianity. Behind the figure of Jonah, Michelangelo has painted a large fish, a reference to the fact that in the Book of Jonah, Jonah is swallowed by one.

St. Petronius (Michelangelo)

The statue of St. Petronius (1494–1495) was created by Michelangelo out of marble. Its height is 64 cm. It is situated in the Basilica of San Domenico, Bologna. Its subject is Saint Petronius, bishop of Bologna.

St. Proclus (Michelangelo)

The statue of St. Proclus (1494–1495) was created by Michelangelo out of marble. Its height is 58.5 cm. It is situated in the Basilica of San Domenico, Bologna. Its subject is Saint Proculus (Proculus), a martyr of Bologna.

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible
Patriarchs / Matriarchs
Israelite prophets
in the Torah
Mentioned in the
Former Prophets
Virgin Mary
See also

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