Joseph James Kelley (December 9, 1871 – August 14, 1943) was an American left fielder in Major League Baseball (MLB) who starred in the outfield of the Baltimore Orioles teams of the 1890s. Making up the nucleus of the Orioles along with John McGraw, Willie Keeler, and Hughie Jennings, Kelley received the nickname "Kingpin of the Orioles".
In his MLB career, Kelley played in the National League (NL) for the Boston Beaneaters (1891), Pittsburgh Pirates (1892), Baltimore Orioles (1892–1898), and Brooklyn Superbas (1899–1901), before he jumped to the upstart American League to play for the Baltimore Orioles (1902). He returned to the NL with Cincinnati Reds (1902–1906) and Boston Doves (1908). Kelley served as player-manager of the Reds (1902–1905) and Doves (1908). After extending his career in the minor leagues, he coached the Brooklyn Robins (1926), and scouted for the New York Yankees (1915–1916).
Kelley was regarded as an excellent batter, a good base runner, and a great leader. Over his seventeen-season MLB career, Kelley had a .317 batting average, and batted over .300 in eleven consecutive seasons. Kelley stole a career-high 87 bases in the 1896 season, which led MLB. He finished in the league's top ten in categories such as batting average, home runs, runs batted in (RBI), and stolen bases numerous times. He served as team captain of the Orioles and the Superbas. In recognition of his career achievements, Kelley was elected a member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1971.
Kelley with the Cincinnati Reds
|Left fielder / Manager|
|Born: December 9, 1871|
|Died: August 14, 1943 (aged 71)|
|July 27, 1891, for the Boston Beaneaters|
|Last MLB appearance|
|October 8, 1908, for the Boston Doves|
|Runs batted in||1,194|
|Career highlights and awards|
|Member of the National|
|Baseball Hall of Fame|
|Election Method||Veterans Committee|
Kelley was born to Patrick Kelly and Ann Kelly (née Carney) in Cambridge, Massachusetts on December 9, 1871. Kelley's parents emigrated to the United States from Ireland, and he had five siblings. According to the 1880 United States Census, Patrick worked as a marble cutter.
As a child, Kelley was educated at a parochial grammar school and St. Thomas Aquinas College in Cambridge, where he starred for the school's baseball team as a pitcher. He worked for a local piano manufacturer and the John P. Lowell Arms Company. He practiced with the Harvard Crimson, the college baseball team of Harvard University, and played semi-professional baseball for the Lowell Arms Company.
Kelley made his professional debut with the Lowell Indians of the New England League (NEL) in 1891, at age 19. During games he did not pitch, Lowell's manager put him in the lineup as an infielder. Kelley had a 10–3 win–loss record and a NEL-leading .323 batting average with Lowell.
Lowell folded in July. Three days later, Kelley signed with the Boston Beaneaters of the National League (NL). Kelley made his major league debut in August 1891 with the Beaneaters. After batting .244 in twelve games played, the Beaneaters released Kelley after the season. Kelley began the 1892 season with the Omaha Omahogs of the Class–A Western League, turning down a $1,200 salary ($33,462 in current dollar terms) from the Oakland Oaks of the Pacific Coast League. With Omaha, Kelley batted .316 with 19 stolen bases in 58 games.
The Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL purchased Kelley's contract from Omaha for $500 ($13,943 in current dollar terms) on July 2, 1892. Ned Hanlon, new manager of the Baltimore Orioles, traded George Van Haltren to the Pirates for Kelley and $2,000 ($55,770 in current dollar terms) in September 1892. Hanlon had succeeded Van Haltren as Orioles' manager during the season; remaining with the Orioles as a player, Van Haltren openly criticized Hanlon. Hanlon mentioned that he "had [his] eye on Kelley for a long time."
Hanlon taught Kelley how to play center field. During the 1893 season, Kelley batted .305, with 120 runs scored, and stole 33 bases. He finished ninth in the NL with a .476 slugging percentage (SLG), and tied Eddie Burke for ninth in home runs with 9. The Orioles won the NL pennant in 1894, 1895, and 1896. Kelley moved to left field in 1894 with the acquisition of Steve Brodie, who played center. That year, he batted .393 with 111 runs batted in (RBI), 199 hits, and 165 runs scored, tying teammate Willie Keeler for second in runs and finishing sixth in batting average and eighth in hits. Combined with 107 walks, which were tied for second most in the NL with Cupid Childs and behind only Billy Hamilton, Kelley posted a .502 on-base percentage (OBP), finishing second in the NL to Hamilton, and hit 48 doubles, good for second in the NL, behind only Hugh Duffy. His .602 SLG was the fourth best in the NL.
These Orioles teams, led by John McGraw, were known to break the rules in order to win, including tampering with their bats and the playing field. Kelley hid baseballs in the outfield, using the closest hidden ball instead of finding the ball batted into the outfield. Kelley hit ten home runs in 1895, a then-franchise record, tying him for fifth in the NL with five other players. He also tied Brodie for second with 134 RBI, finished fourth with 54 stolen bases, fifth with a .546 SLG, and sixth with a .456 OBP. In 1896, Kelley finished seventh in the NL in batting average (.364), fourth in runs scored (148), fourth in SLG (.543), fifth in OBP (.469), ninth in hits (189), and tied Gene DeMontreville for eighth in home runs (8).
In 1897, Kelley agreed to serve as the coach of the Georgetown Hoyas, the college baseball team of Georgetown University. That year, he finished fifth in the NL in batting average (.362) and RBI (118), seventh in OBP (.447), and eighth in SLG (.489).
By 1898, Kelley earned an annual salary of $2,500 ($75,290 in current dollar terms), plus a $200 ($6,023 in current dollar terms) bonus for serving as team captain. He finished third in the league with 110 RBI and ninth with a .438 SLG. Due to insolvency, the Brooklyn Superbas purchased the Orioles after the 1898 season and transferred Kelley, Hanlon, Keeler, Joe McGinnity, and Hughie Jennings to Brooklyn. Wanting an opportunity to manage, and to remain near Baltimore, Kelley requested a transfer to the Washington Senators, but Washington did not have enough talent to send to Brooklyn to make a trade.
With McGraw remaining in Baltimore, Hanlon named Kelley team captain. The Superbas won the NL pennant in 1899 and 1900, as Kelley finished tenth in RBI (93), OBP (.410), and tied several players for tenth in home runs (6) in 1899 and led the team with a .319 batting average in 1900, while finishing fourth in the league in SLG (.485), tying Hickman for seventh in RBI (91), and tying Jimmy Collins and Buck Freeman for tenth in home runs (6).
Kelley moved back to the infield, becoming the regular first baseman in 1901. After the 1901 season, Kelley denied reports that he would jump from the Superbas to the Detroit Tigers of the American League (AL), the former Western League which had decided to compete with the NL by creating franchises in east coast cities that housed NL franchises. However, the opportunity to return to Baltimore proved irresistible to Kelley, and after the AL's successful 1901 season, he jumped from the Superbas to the Baltimore Orioles AL. Kelley's father-in-law, John Mahon, was president and principal share holder of the AL's Orioles.
Kelley was named Orioles' captain and received some stock in the team. McGraw, player-manager of the Orioles, resigned from the team to take over as manager of the New York Giants on July 7, 1902. In his absence, Kelley and Wilbert Robinson took over in the interim. Under indefinite suspension by Ban Johnson by July 1902 for fighting with umpires, Kelley entertained the idea of leaving the Orioles with McGraw, who was becoming frustrated with Johnson, and had begun negotiating to join the New York Giants of the NL. With the team in financial straits, Kelley sold his shares of the Orioles to Mahon, who had purchased McGraw's shares when he left for New York, becoming principal shareholder of the Orioles. Mahon then sold controlling interest in the Orioles to Andrew Freedman, principal owner of the Giants, and John T. Brush, principal owner of the Cincinnati Reds, on July 17. On the day they owned the franchise, they released the best players on the Orioles from their contracts so that they could be signed by National League teams: Kelley and Cy Seymour signed with the Reds, while McGinnity, Roger Bresnahan, Dan McGann, and Jack Cronin signed with the Giants. Johnson, along with Orioles minority owners, took control of the Orioles franchise, which had to forfeit their game that day as they did not have enough players. Kelley stated that the Orioles owed $12,000 ($347,492 in current dollar terms), and that selling his shares was the only way Mahon could pay the team's debts.
The Superbas lodged a complaint against the Reds, claiming that Kelley was still under their control, seeking compensation from the Reds. However, the other NL owners saw the situation as a coup for their league, and compelled Hanlon to drop his complaint. Kelley did not immediately report to Cincinnati, instead traveling to Boston to attempt to convince members of the Boston Americans to join him in the NL. Kelley joined the Reds on July 31.
With rumors that Kelley was negotiating to become the Reds' manager, incumbent manager Bid McPhee resigned, and Kelley succeeded him. Kelley served as manager of the Reds from 1902 until 1905. In 1903, Kelley finished ninth in the NL in OBP (.402). He was dismissed as manager after the 1905 season, and replaced by Hanlon. He remained as a Reds player for the 1906 season. He batted .228 during the 1906 season, and the Reds released him.
Kelley signed with the Toronto Maple Leafs of the Class–AA International League (IL) in 1907, receiving a $5,000 salary ($134,446 in current dollar terms), the highest for a minor league player to date. Kelley batted .322 for the Maple Leafs as a part-time player, spending time in left field and first base. The Maple Leafs won the IL pennant that season.
With Fred Tenney set to leave the Boston Doves of the NL for the Giants, the Doves claimed Kelley from the Maple Leafs, signing Kelley to a two-year contract with an annual salary of $5,500 ($153,369 in current dollar terms). Kelley announced that he would play left field. Kelley feuded with Doves' owner George Dovey, as Dovey wanted George Browne fined for "indifferent play", which Kelley refused to do. Dovey fired Kelley in December 1908. Kelley threatened legal action against Dovey, stating in the press that Dovey was releasing him to cut salary. Kelley and Dovey settled their case, freeing Kelley from the second year of his Doves contract.
Maple Leafs president James McCafferey secured Kelley's return to the club in 1909. He played with the Maple Leafs through 1910, managing the Maple Leafs from 1912 to 1914, winning a second pennant in 1912.
After the 1914 season, the Maple Leafs released Kelley. The New York Yankees considered hiring Kelley as their manager after the 1914 season. Kelley scouted for the Yankees in 1915 and 1916. Former teammate Wilbert Robinson, then manager of the Brooklyn Robins, hired Kelley and McGinnity to join his coaching staff for the 1926 MLB season. Kelley and McGinnity were not retained after the season.
As a player, Kelley had 11 consecutive .300-plus seasons during his MLB career. Kelley was also known as a good base runner and stole a career-high 87 bases in 1896. He retired with a career .317 batting, .402 OBP, 65 home runs, 1,421 runs, 1,194 RBI and 443 stolen bases in 1,853 career games. His 194 triples ranks him ninth all-time. Kelley tied Fred Carroll's MLB record with nine hits in a doubleheader, which he presently shares with eight other players.
Additionally, he was known as a great leader. He compiled a 338–321 win–loss record as an MLB manager.
Kelley was considered by the Veterans Committee for induction into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1964, but was not selected. He was voted into the Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1971.
The Baltimore Orioles won their first National League pennant in 1894. They won 24 of their last 25 games. After the regular season's conclusion, the Orioles participated in the first Temple Cup competition against the second-place New York Giants. The Orioles lost to the Giants in a sweep, four games to none.
The Orioles roster contained six future Hall of Famers: Wilbert Robinson, John McGraw, Dan Brouthers, Hughie Jennings, Wee Willie Keeler and Joe Kelley. Every man in their starting line up hit .300 for the season. They bunted, hit-and-ran, Baltimore chopped, backed up throws, cut off throws, and had pitchers cover first. They also deadened balls by icing them, tilted baselines so bunts would roll fair, and put soap around the mound so opposing pitchers would get slippery fingers if he tried to dry his hands in the dirt.1899 Brooklyn Superbas season
The 1899 Brooklyn Superbas season was the 16th season of the current-day Dodgers franchise and the 9th season in the National League. The team won the National League pennant with a record of 101–47, 8 games ahead of the Boston Beaneaters, after finishing tenth in 1898.1901 Brooklyn Superbas season
The 1901 Brooklyn Superbas lost several players to the newly official major league, the American League, and fell to third place.1902 Baltimore Orioles season
The 1902 Baltimore Orioles season finished with the Orioles in 8th in the American League (AL) with a record of 50–88. The team was managed by John McGraw and Wilbert Robinson. The team played at Oriole Park in Baltimore, Maryland.
During the season, Andrew Freedman, principal owner of the National League's (NL) New York Giants, with the financial backing of John T. Brush, principal owner of the NL's Cincinnati Reds, purchased the Orioles from John Mahon, who was deeply in debt. They raided the Orioles roster, releasing several of Baltimore's better players so that they could sign them to the Giants and Reds. AL president Ban Johnson seized control of the Orioles the next day and restocked their roster with players received on loan from other AL teams.
The Orioles' second season in Baltimore would ultimately prove to be their last, as the team was moved to New York after the season, where they became known as the New York Highlanders.1902 Cincinnati Reds season
The 1902 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished fourth in the National League with a record of 70–70, 33.5 games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates.1903 Cincinnati Reds season
The 1903 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished fourth in the National League with a record of 74–65, 16½ games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates.1904 Cincinnati Reds season
The 1904 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished third in the National League with a record of 88–65, 18 games behind the New York Giants.1905 Cincinnati Reds season
The 1905 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished fifth in the National League with a record of 79 wins and 74 losses, 26 games behind the New York Giants.1906 Cincinnati Reds season
The 1906 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished sixth in the National League with a record of 64–87, 51½ games behind the Chicago Cubs.1908 Boston Doves season
The 1908 Boston Doves season was the 38th season of the franchise.1971 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting
Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1971 featured a new committee on the Negro Leagues that met in February and selected Satchel Paige. The museum planned to honor Paige and those who would follow in a special permanent exhibit outside the Hall of Fame but controversy about the nature of the honor began at the event announcing his election, February 9, and continued until the induction ceremonies six months later. At the latter event Paige was inducted to the Hall of Fame itself, the same as the major league figures.
Otherwise the elections continued a system of annual elections in place since 1968.
The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and elected no one.
The Veterans Committee met in closed-door sessions to select from executives, managers, umpires, and earlier major league players.
It elected seven, the biggest year in its 1953 to 2001 history: Dave Bancroft, Jake Beckley, Chick Hafey, Harry Hooper, Joe Kelley, Rube Marquard, and George Weiss.Dan McGann
Dennis Lawrence "Dan" McGann (July 15, 1871 – December 13, 1910) was an American professional baseball first baseman and second baseman. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Boston Beaneaters (1896), Baltimore Orioles (1898), Brooklyn Superbas (1899), Washington Senators (1899), St. Louis Cardinals (1900–1901), Baltimore Orioles (1902), New York Giants (1902–1907), and Boston Doves (1908). He was also a member of the 1905 World Series champions.
After beginning his professional career in minor league baseball in 1895, McGann played in MLB for the Boston Beaneaters (1896), Baltimore Orioles (1898), Brooklyn Superbas (1899), Washington Senators (1899), and St. Louis Cardinals (1900–1901) of the National League (NL) before jumping to the rival American League to play for the Baltimore Orioles in 1902. He returned to the NL, playing for the New York Giants (1902–1907) and Boston Doves (1908). In 1909–10, he played for the Milwaukee Brewers in the American Association.
McGann had a troubled personal life. He suffered from depression, and several members of his family committed suicide. After the 1910 season, with rumors of McGann signing with another minor league team, McGann committed suicide with a firearm.Jay Hughes
James Jay Hughes (January 22, 1874 – June 2, 1924) was an American Major League Baseball pitcher, who played four seasons from 1898 to 1902.
Hughes was born in Sacramento, California. He attracted attention in 1897 when he threw a three hit shutout during a west coast exhibition game against the famed Baltimore Orioles, a team featuring such notable baseball stars as Wilbert Robinson, John McGraw, Hughie Jennings, Willie Keeler, and Joe Kelley. Orioles Manager Ned Hanlon hired him and brought him east, where he had four excellent seasons, including a league-leading 28-6 mark with the 1899 Brooklyn Superbas.
He pitched a no-hitter on April 22, 1898 (another no-hitter, by Cincinnati's Ted Breitenstein, was thrown the same day, marking the first time that two no-hitters were thrown on the same day). Hughes was transferred to the Brooklyn Superbas in 1899; the Orioles and Superbas were both owned by the same group of individuals. Jennings, Keeler, and several other key Orioles were transferred, including manager Ned Hanlon, who had an ownership stake. The owners wanted to transfer McGraw and Robinson as well, but they refused to leave due to their business interests and family in Baltimore.
Preferring to play on the west coast, he joined the Pacific Coast League in 1903. As a Sacramento native, he hated pitching in the East, and on several occasions refused to sign contracts with eastern clubs so he could remain on the west coast. In 1903, playing for the Seattle Rainiers, he tied Doc Newton for the lead in wins with 34, including 12 in a row from September 8 through November 4. He pitched there until a back injury ended his career.
He died when he fell from a train in Sacramento, fracturing his skull. He was laid to rest at St. Joseph Cemetery in Sacramento. His older brother, Mickey Hughes, won 25 games for the 1888 Brooklyn Bridegrooms.John Mahon (baseball)
John J. Mahon was a politician and professional baseball executive. He served as president and principal owner of the Baltimore Orioles of the American League in 1902. He was also a notable political boss in Baltimore, Maryland, affiliated with the Democratic Party.Left fielder
In baseball, a left fielder (LF) is an outfielder who plays defense in left field. Left field is the area of the outfield to the left of a person standing at home plate and facing towards the pitcher's mound. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the left fielder is assigned the number 7.List of Los Angeles Dodgers coaches
The following is a list of coaches, including position, year(s) of service(s), who appeared at least in one game for the Los Angeles Dodgers National League franchise also known previously as the Brooklyn Dodgers.List of Major League Baseball triples records
There are various Major League Baseball records for triples.Mert Hackett
Mortimer Martin "Mert" Hackett (November 11, 1859 – February 22, 1938), was an American Major League Baseball player from Cambridge, Massachusetts, who played mainly as a catcher from 1883 to 1887 for three different teams; the Boston Beaneaters, Kansas City Cowboys, and Indianapolis Hoosiers. His brother, Walter Hackett, and cousins John Clarkson, Walter Clarkson, and Dad Clarkson as well as Tim Keefe and Joe Kelley (all born in Cambridge, Massachusetts) also played in the majors.Hackett died in his hometown of Cambridge at the age of 78, and is interred at St. Paul Cemetery. His brother, Walter, named one of his sons Mortimer Martin Hackett after him.Ned Hanlon (baseball)
Edward Hugh Hanlon (August 22, 1857 – April 14, 1937), also known as "Foxy Ned", and sometimes referred to as "The Father of Modern Baseball," was an American professional baseball player and manager whose career spanned from 1876 to 1914. He was posthumously inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1996 by vote of the Veterans Committee.
Hanlon was a manager in Major League Baseball from 1889 to 1907, compiling a 1,313–1,164 (.530) record with five different clubs. He is best remembered as the manager of the Baltimore Orioles (1892–1898) and Brooklyn Superbas (1899–1905). In the seven seasons from 1894 to 1900, Hanlon compiled a 635–315 (.668) record, and his teams won five National League pennants. During his years with the Orioles, Hanlon was also credited with inventing and perfecting the "inside baseball" strategy, including the "hit and run" play and the Baltimore chop.
Hanlon also played 13 seasons in Major League Baseball, principally as a center fielder. He played in over 800 games as an outfielder for the Detroit Wolverines, remaining with the team during all eight years of its existence from 1881 to 1888. He compiled a career batting average of .260 and an on-base percentage of .325 with 930 runs scored and 1,317 hits. Although stolen base records are not available for the early portion of his playing career, Hanlon stole 329 bases (an average of 55 per year) in his last six years as a full-time player.
* denotes co-captain
|Negro League Committee|
|J. G. Taylor Spink Award|
Italics denotes players who have been voted in but not yet inducted.