Joaquín Rodrigo

Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre, 1st Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez (Spanish: [xoaˈkin roˈðɾiɣo]; 22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999), commonly known as Joaquín Rodrigo, was a Spanish composer and a virtuoso pianist.

Rodrigo's music is among the most popular music of the 20th century. In particular, his Concierto de Aranjuez is considered one of the pinnacles of Spanish music and of the guitar concerto repertoire.

Joaquín Rodrigo
Joaquin Rodrigo en Rosario
Monument in Rosario, Argentina
Born22 November 1901
Died6 July 1999 (aged 97)
Madrid, Spain
NationalitySpanish
Spouse(s)Victoria Kamhi

Life

Rodrigo was born in Sagunto, Valencia, and completely lost his sight at the age of three after contracting diphtheria. He began to study solfège, piano and violin at the age of eight; harmony and composition from the age of 16. Although distinguished by having raised the Spanish guitar to dignity as a universal concert instrument and best known for his guitar music, he never mastered the instrument himself. He wrote his compositions in Braille, which was transcribed for publication.

Rodrigo studied music under Francisco Antich in Valencia and under Paul Dukas at the École Normale de Musique in Paris. After briefly returning to Spain, he went to Paris again to study musicology, first under Maurice Emmanuel and then under André Pirro. His first published compositions[1] date from 1923. In 1943 he received Spain's National Prize for Orchestra for Cinco piezas infantiles ("Five Children's Pieces"), based on his earlier composition of the same piece for two pianos, premiered by Ricardo Viñes. From 1947 Rodrigo was a professor of music history, holding the Manuel de Falla Chair of Music in the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, at Complutense University of Madrid. Notable students include Yüksel Koptagel, Turkish composer and pianist.

His most famous work, Concierto de Aranjuez, was composed in 1939 in Paris for the guitarist Regino Sainz de la Maza. In later life he and his wife declared that it was written as a response to the miscarriage of their first child.[2] It is a concerto for guitar and orchestra. The central adagio movement is one of the most recognizable in 20th-century classical music, featuring the interplay of guitar with cor anglais. This movement was later adapted by the jazz arranger Gil Evans for Miles Davis' 1960 album "Sketches of Spain". The Concerto was adapted by the composer himself for Harp and Orchestra at the request of Nicanor Zabaleta and dedicated to Zabaleta.

The success of this concerto led to commissions from a number of prominent soloists, including Nicanor Zabaleta, for whom Rodrigo dedicated his Concierto serenata for Harp and Orchestra, Julian Lloyd Webber, for whom Rodrigo composed his Concierto como un divertimento for cello and orchestra, and James Galway, for whom Rodrigo composed his Concierto pastoral for flute and orchestra. In 1954 Rodrigo composed Fantasía para un gentilhombre at the request of Andrés Segovia. His Concierto Andaluz, for four guitars and orchestra, was commissioned by Celedonio Romero for himself and his three sons.

Aranjuez MonumentoJoaquinRodrigo1
Monument in Aranjuez, Spain

None of Rodrigo's works, however, achieved the popular and critical success of the Concierto de Aranjuez and the Fantasia para un gentilhombre. These two works are very often paired in recordings.

He was awarded Spain's highest award for composition, the Premio Nacional de Música, in 1983. On 30 December 1991 Rodrigo was raised into the Spanish nobility by King Juan Carlos I with the hereditary title of Marqués de los Jardines de Aranjuez[3][4] (English: Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez). He received the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award—Spain's highest civilian honor—in 1996. He was named Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French government in 1998.

He married Victoria Kamhi, a Turkish-born pianist whom he had met in Paris, on 19 January 1933, in Valencia. Their daughter, Cecilia, was born on 27 January 1941. Rodrigo died in 1999 in Madrid at the age of 97, and his daughter succeeded him as Marquesa de los Jardines de Aranjuez. Joaquín Rodrigo and his wife Victoria are buried at the cemetery at Aranjuez.

Works

Orchestral

  • Orchestra
    • Juglares (1923); first public performance: 1924, Valencia
    • Cinco Piezas Infantiles (1928)
    • Tres viejos aires de danza (1929; first performance on 20 January 1930 by the Orquesta Sinfónica de Valencia conducted by José Manuel Izquierdo)
    • Dos miniaturas andaluzas (1929; first performance on 22 November 1999 at the Palau de la Música de Valencia, Spain, by the Orquesta de Cámara Joaquín Rodrigo)
    • Zarabanda lejana y Villancico (1930; first performance on 9 March 1931 at the Ecole Normale de Musique in Paris, by the Orquesta Femenina de París, conducted by Jane Evrard)
    • Per la flor del Lliri Blau, symphonic poem (1934; First Prize, Círculo de Bellas Artes)
    • Soleriana (first performance by the Berlin Philharmonic conducted by Hans von Benda, on 22 August 1953 in Berlin)
    • Pavana Real (1955)
    • Música para un jardín (1957) [Orchestration of his two piano Berceuses]
    • A la busca del más allá (1976; commissioned by the Houston Symphony for the United States Bicentennial, Rodrigo was inspired by the thought of space exploration)
    • Palillos y panderetas (1982)
  • Rondalla
    • Estudiantina (1962)
  • Symphonic Wind Ensemble
    • Homenaje a la Tempranica (1939; first performance, 1939, in Paris by the Orquesta Femenina de París, conducted by Jane Evrard)
    • Homenaje a Sagunto (1955)
    • Adagio Para Orquesta de Instrumentos de Viento (1966; first performance in June 1966 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by the American Wind Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Robert Austin Boudreau)
    • Pasodoble para Paco Alcalde (1975)

Concertante

  • Cello
    • Dos piezas caballerescas for four-piece cello orchestra (1945; first performance on 27 May 1945 in Madrid by cello ensemble students of Juan Ruiz Casaux) - later transcribed for four guitars by Peter Jermer
    • Concierto en modo galante (1949; first performance on 4 November 1949 in Madrid by Gaspar Cassadó, with the Orquesta Nacional de España, conducted by Ataulfo Argenta)
    • Concierto como un divertimento (1981)
  • Flute
  • Guitar
  • Harp
    • Concierto serenata (1954)
    • Sones en la Giralda (1963; written as a wedding present for the harpist Marisa Robles) - later transcribed for guitar and orchestra by Pepe Romero
  • Piano
    • Concierto heroico (1943) (revised by the composer as Piano Concerto (1995) and first performed in 1999)
  • Violin
    • Dos esbozos for violin and piano (1923; Rodrigo's "Opus 1")
    • Cançoneta for violin and string orchestra (1923; first performance in 1923 in Valencia, Spain, by the Orquesta Sinfónica de Valencia, conducted by José Manuel Izquierdo)
    • Concierto de estío (1944; first performance on 16 April 1944 by Enrique Iniesta, at the Teatro San Carlos in Lisbon, Portugal, with the Orquesta Nacional de España, conducted by Bartolomé Pérez Casas)
    • Set Cançons Valencianes for violin and piano (1982)

Instrumental

  • Bandoneón
    • Motu perpetuo (1960)
  • Cello
    • Como una fantasía (1979; first performance on 17 March 1981 by Carlos Prieto, in Mexico City)
  • Guitar
    • Zarabanda lejana (1926; first performance by Joaquín Nin-Culmell, in Paris)
    • Toccata para guitarra (1933; first performance on 1 June 2006 by Marcin Dylla, in Madrid)
    • En Los Trigales (1938; first performance by Regino Sainz de la Maza; later published as part of Por los campos de España)
    • Tiento Antiguo (1942; first performance in 1942 by Regino Sainz de la Maza)
    • Three Spanish Pieces - Tres Piezas Españolas (Fandango, Passacaglia, Zapateado) (1954; dedicated to Andrés Segovia)
    • Bajando de la meseta (1954; first performance by Nicolás Alfonso in Brussels; later published as part of Por los campos de España)
    • Entre olivares (1956; dedicated to Manuel López Ramos; later published as part of Por los campos de España)
    • En tierras de Jerez (1957; dedicated to Luise Walker)
    • Tonadilla (1959; first performance by the guitar duo of Ida Presti and Alexandre Lagoya)
    • Junto al Generalife (1959; first performance by Siegfrid Behrend)
    • Sonata Giocosa (1960; dedicated to Renata Tarragó)
    • Invocación y danza (1961; first performance on 12 May 1962 by Alirio Díaz at the Château de la Brède near Bordeaux, France—First prize, Coupe International de Guitare, awarded by Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française [ORTF])
    • Sonata a la Española (1963; dedicated to Ernesto Bitetti)
    • Tres pequeñas piezas (Ya se van los pastores, Por caminos de Santiago, Pequeña Sevillana) (1963)
    • Elogio de la guitarra (1971; written for the guitarist Angelo Gilardino, who gave the first performance)
    • Pajaros de primavera (1972; commissioned by Dr. Isao Takahashi, a promotor of classical guitar in Japan, for his wife Take Takahashi; first performed in 1972 at the hospital bedside of Take Takahashi in Japan, "interpreted by a guitarist friend," as she was dying of cancer[5]Christopher Parkening gave the first public performance, also in Japan)
    • Dos preludios (1976; first performance in 1989 by Celedonio Romero in Los Angeles, CA, and first recording by Wolfgang Lendle)
    • Tríptico (1978; first performance in 1978 by Alexandre Lagoya at the Château de Rougerie in France)
    • Un tiempo fue Itálica famosa (1981; first performance in 1989 by Randy Pile in San Diego, CA)
    • Ecos de Sefarad (1987; first performance in 1989 by Sherri Rottersman at the Círculo Medina in Madrid)
    • ¡Qué buen caminito! (1987; first performance in 1987 by Mariá Esther Guzmán at the Conservatorio de Música de Sevilla)
  • Harp
    • Impromptu (1959; first performance by Ana María Martini Gil)
  • Piano (solo), and harpsichord
    • Suite pour piano (1923)
    • Berceuse d'automne (1923)
    • Preludio al Gallo mañanero (1926)
    • Zarabanda lejana (1926)
    • Pastorale (1926)
    • Bagatela (1926)
    • Berceuse de printemps (1928)
    • Air de Ballet sur le nom d'une Jeune Fille (1930)
    • Serenata Española (1931)
    • Sonada de adiós ('Homenaje a Paul Dukas') (1935)
    • Cuatro Piezas (Caleseras, Fandango del ventorrillo, Prayer of the Princess of Castile, Danza Valenciana) (1936-1938)
    • Tres Danzas de España (Rústica, Danza de los tres doncellas, Serrana) (1941)
    • A l'ombre de Torre Bermeja (1945)
    • Cuatro Estampas Andaluzas (1946-1952)
    • El Album de Cecilia (María de los Reyes, Jota de las Palomas, Canción del Hada rubia, Canción del Hada morena, El negrito Pepo, Borriquillos a Belén) (1948)
    • Cinco Sonatas de Castilla, con Toccata a modo de Pregón (1950-1951)
    • Aranjuez ma pensée (1968) (arranged by the composer from his 'Concierto de Aranjuez')
    • Danza de la Amapola (1972)
    • Preludio y Ritornello (1979) (for HARPSICHORD)
    • Tres Evocaciones (Tarde en el parque, Noche en el Guadalquivir, Triana) (1980-1981)
    • Preludio de Añoranza (1987)
  • Piano (duet and two pianos)
    • Juglares (1923) (PIANO DUET) (arranged by the composer from his first work for orchestra)
    • Cinco Piezas Infantiles (Son chicos que pasan, Después de un cuento, Mazurka, Plegaria, Gritería) (1924) (TWO PIANOS) (arranged by the composer from his second work for orchestra)
    • Gran Marcha de los Subsecretarios (1941) (PIANO DUET)
    • Atardecer (1975) (PIANO DUET)
    • Sonatina para dos Muñecas (1977) (PIANO DUET)
  • Violin
    • Capriccio (1944; first performance on 8 January 1946 by Enrique Iniesta in Madrid)

Vocal/choral

  • Ave Maria for unaccompanied choir (1923)
  • Ausencias de Dulcinea (1948); First prize, Cervantes Competition
  • Cuatro Madrigales Amatorios (1948)
  • De las doce canciones españolas (Textos populares adaptados por Victoria Kamhi) (1951)
  • Villancicos y canciones de navidad (1952); Ateneo de Madrid Prize
  • Cuatro canciones sefardíes (1965)
  • El Hijo Fingido, Zarzuela
  • Porque toco el pandero
  • Cántico de San Francisco de Asís (1982)
  • Tres canciones[6]

Guitar and voice

  • Coplas del Pastor Enamorado (1935)
  • Tres Canciones Españolas (1951)
  • Tres Villancicos (1952)
  • Romance de Durante (1955)
  • Folías Canarias (1958)
  • Aranjuez, ma pensée (1988)

References

  1. ^ A suite for piano, and "Dos esbozos", suite for piano and violín and Siciliana, for cello
  2. ^ The Sound of Magnolias, BBC Radio 4, 20 October 2009. Irma Kurtz investigates Spanish composer Rodrigo's Concerto de Aranjuez. (Downloadable audio documentary)
  3. ^ "Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez"; since 1999, his daughter Cecilia Rodrigo Camhi, has been 2nd Marquesa de los Jardines de Aranjuez.
  4. ^ "boe.es" (PDF).
  5. ^ Victoria Kamhi de Rodrigo, Hand in Hand With Joaquin Rodrigo: My Life at the Maestro's Side, trans. Ellen Wilkerson (Pittsburgh: Latin American Literary Review Press, 1992), 231.
  6. ^ Graham Wade, Joaquín Rodrigo: A Life in Music: Travelling to Aranjuez, 2006, p. 156: " ... He has also completed for voice, Tres canciones, with classical texts".

Bibliography

External links

Articles

Recordings

Videos

DVD containing: Shadows and Light documentary, Concierto de Aranjuez
Spanish nobility
New title Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez
30 December 1991 – 6 July 1999
Succeeded by
Cecilia Rodrigo Kamhi
Compositores de España International Piano Competition

The Compositores de España International Piano Competition is held annually at Las Rozas de Madrid's Joaquín Rodrigo Auditorium since 2000. Each edition revolves around the works of a usually living Spanish composer.

Concierto

Concierto is an album by the Jim Hall sextet, featuring Paul Desmond, Chet Baker, Ron Carter, Steve Gadd and Roland Hanna. It was produced by Creed Taylor for his CTI Records label and recorded at Van Gelder Studio in New Jersey on April 16 and 23, 1975. Concierto is named after the featured 19-minute jazz version of the classical piece for guitar, Concierto de Aranjuez by Joaquín Rodrigo.

Concierto Andaluz

The Concierto Andaluz (Spanish: Andalusian concerto) is a 1967 work by Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo for four guitars and orchestra. It has three movements, and was heavily influenced by Spanish impressionist and baroque musical styles. It was commissioned by Spanish guitarist Celedonio Romero and first performed by Los Romeros with the San Antonio Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Victor Alessandro, in San Antonio, Texas, USA on 18 November, 1967.

Concierto como un divertimento

Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto como un divertimento, for cello and orchestra received its first performance at the Royal Festival Hall, London, on April 15, 1982. The performers were the British cellist Julian Lloyd Webber, who had commissioned the concerto, and the London Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Jesús López-Cobos. Lloyd Webber had approached the Spanish composer, who was by then nearly eighty, with the idea of him writing a new work for cello and orchestra in 1979. Concierto como un divertimento is lightly scored but with the added colours of xylophone and celesta. It is cast in three movements:

Allegretto

Adagio nostalgico

Allegro scherzandoThe work was well received at its premiere when the final movement had to be encored. The concerto and its creation was the subject of a South Bank Show television programme which included the complete first performance. The concerto was subsequently recorded for RCA Red Seal with the same performers.

Concierto de Aranjuez

The Concierto de Aranjuez is a guitar concerto by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo. Written in 1939, it is by far Rodrigo's best-known work, and its success established his reputation as one of the most significant Spanish composers of the 20th century.

Concierto de Aranjuez (disambiguation)

Concierto de Aranjuez is a composition for classical guitar and orchestra by Joaquín Rodrigo.

Concierto de Aranjuez may also refer to:

Concierto de Aranjuez, an album by the German band Cusco

Concierto de Aranjuez (Paco de Lucía album)

Concerto d'Aranjuez / Sounds of Spain, a 1967 album released by the Paris-based Swingle Singers (released as Spanish Masters in the U.S.)

Concierto de Aranjuez, a 1984 album by Dorothy Ashby

Concierto heroico

The Concierto heroico for piano and orchestra was composed by Joaquín Rodrigo for pianist Leopoldo Querol between 1935 and 1943.

Rodrigo began work on the concerto in 1935 and completed the first two movements before setting the work aside; having forgotten about it, he returned and completed it in 1945. The piece is called "heroic" because of the martial rhythms and fanfares of the first movement. Such touches were common to the era and were sometimes erroneously taken to suggest Rodrigo's support of Francisco Franco.A modified version of the concerto, produced for Joaquín Achúcarro, was first performed in 1999; this removed two virtuosic cadenzas and balanced the relationship between the piano and orchestral parts.

Concierto pastoral

The Concierto pastoral is a concerto for flute and orchestra by Joaquín Rodrigo. Rodrigo wrote the work from 1977-1978 on commission from James Galway, who had first encountered the composer's work in 1974 when he asked permission to transcribe the Fantasia para un Gentilhombre for flute. Galway gave its premiere on October 17, 1978, in London, with Eduardo Mata conducting the Philharmonia Orchestra.

Concierto serenata

The Concierto serenata for harp and orchestra was composed in 1952 by Joaquín Rodrigo. It was written for Nicanor Zabaleta, who premiered the work in Madrid on November 9, 1956; Paul Kletzki conducted the Spanish National Orchestra.

The concerto is in three movements; a typical performance lasts around 20 minutes. The first of the three movements represents a group of young musicians walking in the street; the third represents evening. The second is written in form of a canon.The movements are:

Estudiantina (Allegro ma non troppo — Andante)

Intermezzo (Molto tranquillo)

Sarao (Allegro deciso)

Fantasía para un gentilhombre

Fantasía para un gentilhombre (Fantasia for a Gentleman) is a concerto for guitar and orchestra by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo. The concerto is Rodrigo's second most popular work after the famous Concierto de Aranjuez.

The four movements were based on six short dances for solo guitar by the 17th-century Spanish composer Gaspar Sanz, taken from a three-volume work (1674, 1675, 1697) now commonly known as Instrucción de música sobre la guitarra española (Musical Instruction on the Spanish Guitar) (Donis 2005:75). Most of the movements retain the names that Sanz originally gave them. Rodrigo expanded on Sanz's themes to produce a work lasting more than 20 minutes.

Rodrigo composed the concerto in 1954 at the request of guitarist Andrés Segovia, who was evidently the gentilhombre referenced in the title. Segovia took the solo part at the premiere performance on March 5, 1958, in San Francisco. The San Francisco Symphony was conducted by Enrique Jordá.

Jesús Arámbarri

Jesús Arámbarri Gárate (1902, Bilbao – 1960, Madrid) was a Spanish classical music conductor and composer native to the Basque Country.

Jesús Arámbarri has been classed among the cultural treasures of the region, with Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Jesús Guridi, Luís de Pablo, Maurice Ravel, and Pablo de Sarasate. His place in 20th century classical music is part of a tradition which also includes Isaac Albéniz, José Antonio de Donostia, Manuel de Falla, Felipe Pedrell, Joaquín Rodrigo, Joaquín Turina, and José María Usandizaga.After his early music education at the Bilbao Conservatory of Music, Arámbarri's teachers included Paul Le Flem, Paul Dukas and Vladimir Golschmann in Paris and Felix Weingartner in Basel.

Arámbarri composed some of his most important works while he was a student. After his return to Bilbao he was primarily a conductor and composed only a few more works, which included In memoriam for Juan Carlos de Gortázar (1939), Ofrenda (Offering) for Manuel de Falla (1946), and Dedicatoria (Dedication) for Javier Arisqueta (1949).From 1933 in Bilbao, Arámbarri conducted the (then part-time) Bilbao Symphony Orchestra, which he developed into the first full-time civic orchestra in Spain. He also arranged musical activities throughout the country and conducted large-score choral works with Basque choirs in Northern Spain. He was a professor at the Madrid Royal Conservatory, a conductor of the Madrid Symphony Orchestra, and served as president of the Spanish Conductors' Association. In 1953, he was appointed conductor of the Banda Sinfónica de Madrid, which had been founded in 1909.

Jesús Arámbarri died in 1960 at the Parque del Buen Retiro while conducting the Banda Sinfónica de Madrid in concert.

Marisa Robles

Marisa Robles (born May 4, 1937) is a Spanish harpist.She was born in Spain, where she studied the harp with Luisa Menarguez, and studied music at the Madrid Conservatory, graduating at the age of sixteen in 1953. She made her concert debut at seventeen, performing with flautist Jean-Pierre Rampal.

The Concerto for Flute and Harp by Mozart which they performed together was to become the piece for which she is best known. She has recorded and performed it with James Galway and with her husband 1968 - 1985 Christopher Hyde-Smith, among others. In 1963 she premiered Sones en la Giralda on the BBC, a wedding present written for her by Joaquín Rodrigo.

In 1958 she married, and in 1960 she came to live permanently in the UK. In 1971 she became a teacher at the Royal College of Music.

Robles was artistic director for the first two Cardiff World Harp Festivals in 1991 and 1994.

Marqués de los Jardines de Aranjuez

Marqués de los Jardines de Aranjuez (English: Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez) is a hereditary title in the Spanish nobility. This marquisate was bestowed by King Juan Carlos on the composer Joaquín Rodrigo on 30 December 1991. His music counts among some of the most popular of the 20th century. Rodrigo's title recalls his Concierto de Aranjuez, which is considered one of the pinnacles of the Spanish music. It was inspired by the gardens at Palacio Real de Aranjuez, the spring resort palace and gardens built by King Philip II in the last half of the 16th century. The work attempts to transport the listener to another place and time through the evocation of the sounds of nature.

The current holder of the title is Joaquín Rodrigo's daughter Cecilia. The heir apparent is her elder daughter, Cecilita León Rodrigo.

Música en Compostela

Música en Compostela (Music in Compostela) is an annual summer course in music performance and composition held in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. It was founded by the Spanish guitarist Andrés Segovia and the diplomat José Miguel Ruiz Morales in 1958. The goal of the founders was to foster the appreciation of Spanish classical music and give students from both Spain and abroad the opportunity to study under some of the country's most prominent musicians and composers. Segovia's masterclasses at Compostela, like those at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena, were considered "a virtual necessity for aspiring guitar virtuosos." Over the years, composers Óscar Esplá, Federico Mompou, Xavier Montsalvatge, and Joaquín Rodrigo, pianist Alicia de Larrocha, and singers Victoria de los Angeles, Montserrat Caballé and Conchita Badía have also taught courses there.

Rolando Valdés-Blain

Rolando Valdés-Blain (8 March 1922 – 2 April 2011) was a Cuban classical guitarist, born in Havana, and immigrated to New York as a child. In the 1930s he and his brother Alberto had a weekly music show on WNYC radio. He served in Burma from 1942 to 1946 during World War II and afterwards studied at the Madrid Royal Conservatory, where he was awarded the Grand Prize for concert guitar playing by Joaquín Rodrigo. He toured worldwide under the management of impresario Sol Hurok and his United States tours as guitar soloist included Yale University, Carnegie Recital Hall, and the Spanish Ballet. He was one of the pioneering classical guitarists to perform as soloist together with a symphony orchestra, in 1955 with the Radio City Music Hall Symphony Orchestra and the Joffrey Ballet at the New York City Center. He appeared in Tennessee Williams's Broadway play Camino Real and he also composed the music for the play Bullfight. He was vice-president and adviser of Manuel Velazquez guitars and founder of the Guitar Department at the Manhattan School of Music. In 1968 he was invited to give a command performance at the White House. The New York Times called his performance "a musical gem…reflecting every baroque nuance of the music".

Sonata a la Española

Sonata a la Española is a sonata for solo guitar composed in 1969 by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo.

The piece has three movements. The first of these, allegro assai, introduces a steady tread against music with a nasal-like sound. The second, adagio, has a theme centered on the lower strings of the guitar. The final, allegro moderato, is a bolero mixed with the Spanish music.

Spanish jazz

Jazz in Spain began with an interest in Dixieland or New Orleans jazz. In that time it evolved into other styles often influenced by visiting Americans. In 1947 Don Byas introduced Tete Montoliu to bebop and later efforts to fuse jazz with flamenco occurred. Catalan and Galician music is also an influence in some regions.

Still, jazz in Spain initially suffered from many difficulties. One example being that the cultural, political, and economic climate was unsuitable for the creativity and freedom required of a jazz movement. This predates Francisco Franco's regime to some extent, but his rule placed far more restraints on jazz, due in part to his regime's restrictions and in part due to Spain being isolated on various cultural fronts, preferring an inward-looking, more easily digested form of culture. Thus, a particularly fruitful period for jazz in general – the period spanning the 1940s, 1950s and the early 1960s – passed almost unnoticed in Spain. The return to democracy, and the development of the economy, has allowed for there to be an increased jazz scene in the last twenty years.One particular feature of live jazz in Spain is the multitudinous attendance at outdoor jazz festivals, the first of which, the Donostia-San Sebastian Jazz Festival dates back to 1966. It would not be until the mid-1970s, however, that major international figures would attend the festival, including, over the years, Charles Mingus, Tete Montoliu, Ella Fitzgerald, Oscar Peterson, Dizzy Gillespie, Herbie Hancock, Lionel Hampton, John Lee Hooker, Sonny Rollins, B.B. King, Woody Herman, Freddie Hubbard, Weather Report, Gato Barbieri, Art Blakey, Mercer Ellington, McCoy Tyner, Chick Corea, Clark Terry, and Miles Davis.

The festival held in Vitoria-Gasteiz, set up in 1977, also attracts major international names.

In a related vein Spanish classical or folk music has been an influence on jazz musicians both inside and outside Spain. Concierto de Aranjuez by Joaquín Rodrigo has been interpreted by Miles Davis.

Suvini Zerboni

Suvini Zerboni (ESZ) Italian music publishing house founded in 1907 in Milan, taking its name from the theater society of the same name. The ESZ catalogue included, besides operetta favourites, the best of Italian contemporary music, such composers as Goffredo Petrassi, Luigi Dallapiccola, Luciano Berio, Ildebrando Pizzetti, and Gian Francesco Malipiero. Since the 1950s, ESZ has been the Italian agent of Schott Music, representing composers such as Igor Stravinsky, Carl Orff, Paul Hindemith, Richard Strauss, Luigi Nono, Krzysztof Penderecki, Joaquín Rodrigo and Alessandro Solbiati. The ESZ catalalogue of modern Italian composers active since the 1970s is extensive. ESZ also publishes the bulletin “ESZ News” with information on the activities and performances of its composers. Until 1999 ESZ published Il Fronimo, the guitar magazine founded by Ruggero Chiesa in 1972, and La Cartellina, a magazine on choral and pedagogical music, founded by Roberto Goitre in 1977 and subsequently headed by Giovanni Acciai.

Yasuharu Nanri

Yasuharu Nanri (南里 康晴, Nanri Yasuharu, born October 6, 1985 in Fukuoka) is a Japanese figure skater. He is the 2007 and 2008 Japanese national bronze medalist. He competed at the 2008 World Championships, placing 19th with a personal best total score in international competition.

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