Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre, 1st Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez (Spanish: [xoaˈkin roˈðɾiɣo]; 22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999), commonly known as Joaquín Rodrigo, was a Spanish composer and a virtuoso pianist.
Rodrigo's music is among the most popular music of the 20th century. In particular, his Concierto de Aranjuez is considered one of the pinnacles of Spanish music and of the guitar concerto repertoire.
Monument in Rosario, Argentina
|Born||22 November 1901|
|Died||6 July 1999 (aged 97)|
Rodrigo was born in Sagunto, Valencia, and completely lost his sight at the age of three after contracting diphtheria. He began to study solfège, piano and violin at the age of eight; harmony and composition from the age of 16. Although distinguished by having raised the Spanish guitar to dignity as a universal concert instrument and best known for his guitar music, he never mastered the instrument himself. He wrote his compositions in Braille, which was transcribed for publication.
Rodrigo studied music under Francisco Antich in Valencia and under Paul Dukas at the École Normale de Musique in Paris. After briefly returning to Spain, he went to Paris again to study musicology, first under Maurice Emmanuel and then under André Pirro. His first published compositions date from 1923. In 1943 he received Spain's National Prize for Orchestra for Cinco piezas infantiles ("Five Children's Pieces"), based on his earlier composition of the same piece for two pianos, premiered by Ricardo Viñes. From 1947 Rodrigo was a professor of music history, holding the Manuel de Falla Chair of Music in the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, at Complutense University of Madrid. Notable students include Yüksel Koptagel, Turkish composer and pianist.
His most famous work, Concierto de Aranjuez, was composed in 1939 in Paris for the guitarist Regino Sainz de la Maza. In later life he and his wife declared that it was written as a response to the miscarriage of their first child. It is a concerto for guitar and orchestra. The central adagio movement is one of the most recognizable in 20th-century classical music, featuring the interplay of guitar with cor anglais. This movement was later adapted by the jazz arranger Gil Evans for Miles Davis' 1960 album "Sketches of Spain". The Concerto was adapted by the composer himself for Harp and Orchestra at the request of Nicanor Zabaleta and dedicated to Zabaleta.
The success of this concerto led to commissions from a number of prominent soloists, including Nicanor Zabaleta, for whom Rodrigo dedicated his Concierto serenata for Harp and Orchestra, Julian Lloyd Webber, for whom Rodrigo composed his Concierto como un divertimento for cello and orchestra, and James Galway, for whom Rodrigo composed his Concierto pastoral for flute and orchestra. In 1954 Rodrigo composed Fantasía para un gentilhombre at the request of Andrés Segovia. His Concierto Andaluz, for four guitars and orchestra, was commissioned by Celedonio Romero for himself and his three sons.
None of Rodrigo's works, however, achieved the popular and critical success of the Concierto de Aranjuez and the Fantasia para un gentilhombre. These two works are very often paired in recordings.
He was awarded Spain's highest award for composition, the Premio Nacional de Música, in 1983. On 30 December 1991 Rodrigo was raised into the Spanish nobility by King Juan Carlos I with the hereditary title of Marqués de los Jardines de Aranjuez (English: Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez). He received the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award—Spain's highest civilian honor—in 1996. He was named Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French government in 1998.
He married Victoria Kamhi, a Turkish-born pianist whom he had met in Paris, on 19 January 1933, in Valencia. Their daughter, Cecilia, was born on 27 January 1941. Rodrigo died in 1999 in Madrid at the age of 97, and his daughter succeeded him as Marquesa de los Jardines de Aranjuez. Joaquín Rodrigo and his wife Victoria are buried at the cemetery at Aranjuez.
|New title|| Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez
30 December 1991 – 6 July 1999
Cecilia Rodrigo Kamhi
The Compositores de España International Piano Competition is held annually at Las Rozas de Madrid's Joaquín Rodrigo Auditorium since 2000. Each edition revolves around the works of a usually living Spanish composer.Concierto
Concierto is an album by the Jim Hall sextet, featuring Paul Desmond, Chet Baker, Ron Carter, Steve Gadd and Roland Hanna. It was produced by Creed Taylor for his CTI Records label and recorded at Van Gelder Studio in New Jersey on April 16 and 23, 1975. Concierto is named after the featured 19-minute jazz version of the classical piece for guitar, Concierto de Aranjuez by Joaquín Rodrigo.Concierto Andaluz
The Concierto Andaluz (Spanish: Andalusian concerto) is a 1967 work by Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo for four guitars and orchestra. It has three movements, and was heavily influenced by Spanish impressionist and baroque musical styles. It was commissioned by Spanish guitarist Celedonio Romero and first performed by Los Romeros with the San Antonio Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Victor Alessandro, in San Antonio, Texas, USA on 18 November, 1967.Concierto como un divertimento
Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto como un divertimento, for cello and orchestra received its first performance at the Royal Festival Hall, London, on April 15, 1982. The performers were the British cellist Julian Lloyd Webber, who had commissioned the concerto, and the London Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Jesús López-Cobos. Lloyd Webber had approached the Spanish composer, who was by then nearly eighty, with the idea of him writing a new work for cello and orchestra in 1979. Concierto como un divertimento is lightly scored but with the added colours of xylophone and celesta. It is cast in three movements:
Allegro scherzandoThe work was well received at its premiere when the final movement had to be encored. The concerto and its creation was the subject of a South Bank Show television programme which included the complete first performance. The concerto was subsequently recorded for RCA Red Seal with the same performers.Concierto de Aranjuez
The Concierto de Aranjuez is a guitar concerto by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo. Written in 1939, it is by far Rodrigo's best-known work, and its success established his reputation as one of the most significant Spanish composers of the 20th century.Concierto de Aranjuez (disambiguation)
Concierto de Aranjuez is a composition for classical guitar and orchestra by Joaquín Rodrigo.
Concierto de Aranjuez may also refer to:
Concierto de Aranjuez, an album by the German band Cusco
Concierto de Aranjuez (Paco de Lucía album)
Concerto d'Aranjuez / Sounds of Spain, a 1967 album released by the Paris-based Swingle Singers (released as Spanish Masters in the U.S.)
Concierto de Aranjuez, a 1984 album by Dorothy AshbyConcierto heroico
The Concierto heroico for piano and orchestra was composed by Joaquín Rodrigo for pianist Leopoldo Querol between 1935 and 1943.
Rodrigo began work on the concerto in 1935 and completed the first two movements before setting the work aside; having forgotten about it, he returned and completed it in 1945. The piece is called "heroic" because of the martial rhythms and fanfares of the first movement. Such touches were common to the era and were sometimes erroneously taken to suggest Rodrigo's support of Francisco Franco.A modified version of the concerto, produced for Joaquín Achúcarro, was first performed in 1999; this removed two virtuosic cadenzas and balanced the relationship between the piano and orchestral parts.Concierto pastoral
The Concierto pastoral is a concerto for flute and orchestra by Joaquín Rodrigo. Rodrigo wrote the work from 1977-1978 on commission from James Galway, who had first encountered the composer's work in 1974 when he asked permission to transcribe the Fantasia para un Gentilhombre for flute. Galway gave its premiere on October 17, 1978, in London, with Eduardo Mata conducting the Philharmonia Orchestra.Concierto serenata
The Concierto serenata for harp and orchestra was composed in 1952 by Joaquín Rodrigo. It was written for Nicanor Zabaleta, who premiered the work in Madrid on November 9, 1956; Paul Kletzki conducted the Spanish National Orchestra.
The concerto is in three movements; a typical performance lasts around 20 minutes. The first of the three movements represents a group of young musicians walking in the street; the third represents evening. The second is written in form of a canon.The movements are:
Estudiantina (Allegro ma non troppo — Andante)
Intermezzo (Molto tranquillo)
Sarao (Allegro deciso)Fantasía para un gentilhombre
Fantasía para un gentilhombre (Fantasia for a Gentleman) is a concerto for guitar and orchestra by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo. The concerto is Rodrigo's second most popular work after the famous Concierto de Aranjuez.
The four movements were based on six short dances for solo guitar by the 17th-century Spanish composer Gaspar Sanz, taken from a three-volume work (1674, 1675, 1697) now commonly known as Instrucción de música sobre la guitarra española (Musical Instruction on the Spanish Guitar) (Donis 2005:75). Most of the movements retain the names that Sanz originally gave them. Rodrigo expanded on Sanz's themes to produce a work lasting more than 20 minutes.
Rodrigo composed the concerto in 1954 at the request of guitarist Andrés Segovia, who was evidently the gentilhombre referenced in the title. Segovia took the solo part at the premiere performance on March 5, 1958, in San Francisco. The San Francisco Symphony was conducted by Enrique Jordá.Jesús Arámbarri
Jesús Arámbarri Gárate (1902, Bilbao – 1960, Madrid) was a Spanish classical music conductor and composer native to the Basque Country.
Jesús Arámbarri has been classed among the cultural treasures of the region, with Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Jesús Guridi, Luís de Pablo, Maurice Ravel, and Pablo de Sarasate. His place in 20th century classical music is part of a tradition which also includes Isaac Albéniz, José Antonio de Donostia, Manuel de Falla, Felipe Pedrell, Joaquín Rodrigo, Joaquín Turina, and José María Usandizaga.After his early music education at the Bilbao Conservatory of Music, Arámbarri's teachers included Paul Le Flem, Paul Dukas and Vladimir Golschmann in Paris and Felix Weingartner in Basel.
Arámbarri composed some of his most important works while he was a student. After his return to Bilbao he was primarily a conductor and composed only a few more works, which included In memoriam for Juan Carlos de Gortázar (1939), Ofrenda (Offering) for Manuel de Falla (1946), and Dedicatoria (Dedication) for Javier Arisqueta (1949).From 1933 in Bilbao, Arámbarri conducted the (then part-time) Bilbao Symphony Orchestra, which he developed into the first full-time civic orchestra in Spain. He also arranged musical activities throughout the country and conducted large-score choral works with Basque choirs in Northern Spain. He was a professor at the Madrid Royal Conservatory, a conductor of the Madrid Symphony Orchestra, and served as president of the Spanish Conductors' Association. In 1953, he was appointed conductor of the Banda Sinfónica de Madrid, which had been founded in 1909.
Jesús Arámbarri died in 1960 at the Parque del Buen Retiro while conducting the Banda Sinfónica de Madrid in concert.Marisa Robles
Marisa Robles (born May 4, 1937) is a Spanish harpist.She was born in Spain, where she studied the harp with Luisa Menarguez, and studied music at the Madrid Conservatory, graduating at the age of sixteen in 1953. She made her concert debut at seventeen, performing with flautist Jean-Pierre Rampal.
The Concerto for Flute and Harp by Mozart which they performed together was to become the piece for which she is best known. She has recorded and performed it with James Galway and with her husband 1968 - 1985 Christopher Hyde-Smith, among others. In 1963 she premiered Sones en la Giralda on the BBC, a wedding present written for her by Joaquín Rodrigo.
In 1958 she married, and in 1960 she came to live permanently in the UK. In 1971 she became a teacher at the Royal College of Music.
Robles was artistic director for the first two Cardiff World Harp Festivals in 1991 and 1994.Marqués de los Jardines de Aranjuez
Marqués de los Jardines de Aranjuez (English: Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez) is a hereditary title in the Spanish nobility. This marquisate was bestowed by King Juan Carlos on the composer Joaquín Rodrigo on 30 December 1991. His music counts among some of the most popular of the 20th century. Rodrigo's title recalls his Concierto de Aranjuez, which is considered one of the pinnacles of the Spanish music. It was inspired by the gardens at Palacio Real de Aranjuez, the spring resort palace and gardens built by King Philip II in the last half of the 16th century. The work attempts to transport the listener to another place and time through the evocation of the sounds of nature.
The current holder of the title is Joaquín Rodrigo's daughter Cecilia. The heir apparent is her elder daughter, Cecilita León Rodrigo.Música en Compostela
Música en Compostela (Music in Compostela) is an annual summer course in music performance and composition held in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. It was founded by the Spanish guitarist Andrés Segovia and the diplomat José Miguel Ruiz Morales in 1958. The goal of the founders was to foster the appreciation of Spanish classical music and give students from both Spain and abroad the opportunity to study under some of the country's most prominent musicians and composers. Segovia's masterclasses at Compostela, like those at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena, were considered "a virtual necessity for aspiring guitar virtuosos." Over the years, composers Óscar Esplá, Federico Mompou, Xavier Montsalvatge, and Joaquín Rodrigo, pianist Alicia de Larrocha, and singers Victoria de los Angeles, Montserrat Caballé and Conchita Badía have also taught courses there.Rolando Valdés-Blain
Rolando Valdés-Blain (8 March 1922 – 2 April 2011) was a Cuban classical guitarist, born in Havana, and immigrated to New York as a child. In the 1930s he and his brother Alberto had a weekly music show on WNYC radio. He served in Burma from 1942 to 1946 during World War II and afterwards studied at the Madrid Royal Conservatory, where he was awarded the Grand Prize for concert guitar playing by Joaquín Rodrigo. He toured worldwide under the management of impresario Sol Hurok and his United States tours as guitar soloist included Yale University, Carnegie Recital Hall, and the Spanish Ballet. He was one of the pioneering classical guitarists to perform as soloist together with a symphony orchestra, in 1955 with the Radio City Music Hall Symphony Orchestra and the Joffrey Ballet at the New York City Center. He appeared in Tennessee Williams's Broadway play Camino Real and he also composed the music for the play Bullfight. He was vice-president and adviser of Manuel Velazquez guitars and founder of the Guitar Department at the Manhattan School of Music. In 1968 he was invited to give a command performance at the White House. The New York Times called his performance "a musical gem…reflecting every baroque nuance of the music".Sonata a la Española
Sonata a la Española is a sonata for solo guitar composed in 1969 by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo.
The piece has three movements. The first of these, allegro assai, introduces a steady tread against music with a nasal-like sound. The second, adagio, has a theme centered on the lower strings of the guitar. The final, allegro moderato, is a bolero mixed with the Spanish music.Spanish jazz
Jazz in Spain began with an interest in Dixieland or New Orleans jazz. In that time it evolved into other styles often influenced by visiting Americans. In 1947 Don Byas introduced Tete Montoliu to bebop and later efforts to fuse jazz with flamenco occurred. Catalan and Galician music is also an influence in some regions.
Still, jazz in Spain initially suffered from many difficulties. One example being that the cultural, political, and economic climate was unsuitable for the creativity and freedom required of a jazz movement. This predates Francisco Franco's regime to some extent, but his rule placed far more restraints on jazz, due in part to his regime's restrictions and in part due to Spain being isolated on various cultural fronts, preferring an inward-looking, more easily digested form of culture. Thus, a particularly fruitful period for jazz in general – the period spanning the 1940s, 1950s and the early 1960s – passed almost unnoticed in Spain. The return to democracy, and the development of the economy, has allowed for there to be an increased jazz scene in the last twenty years.One particular feature of live jazz in Spain is the multitudinous attendance at outdoor jazz festivals, the first of which, the Donostia-San Sebastian Jazz Festival dates back to 1966. It would not be until the mid-1970s, however, that major international figures would attend the festival, including, over the years, Charles Mingus, Tete Montoliu, Ella Fitzgerald, Oscar Peterson, Dizzy Gillespie, Herbie Hancock, Lionel Hampton, John Lee Hooker, Sonny Rollins, B.B. King, Woody Herman, Freddie Hubbard, Weather Report, Gato Barbieri, Art Blakey, Mercer Ellington, McCoy Tyner, Chick Corea, Clark Terry, and Miles Davis.
The festival held in Vitoria-Gasteiz, set up in 1977, also attracts major international names.
In a related vein Spanish classical or folk music has been an influence on jazz musicians both inside and outside Spain. Concierto de Aranjuez by Joaquín Rodrigo has been interpreted by Miles Davis.Suvini Zerboni
Suvini Zerboni (ESZ) Italian music publishing house founded in 1907 in Milan, taking its name from the theater society of the same name. The ESZ catalogue included, besides operetta favourites, the best of Italian contemporary music, such composers as Goffredo Petrassi, Luigi Dallapiccola, Luciano Berio, Ildebrando Pizzetti, and Gian Francesco Malipiero. Since the 1950s, ESZ has been the Italian agent of Schott Music, representing composers such as Igor Stravinsky, Carl Orff, Paul Hindemith, Richard Strauss, Luigi Nono, Krzysztof Penderecki, Joaquín Rodrigo and Alessandro Solbiati. The ESZ catalalogue of modern Italian composers active since the 1970s is extensive. ESZ also publishes the bulletin “ESZ News” with information on the activities and performances of its composers. Until 1999 ESZ published Il Fronimo, the guitar magazine founded by Ruggero Chiesa in 1972, and La Cartellina, a magazine on choral and pedagogical music, founded by Roberto Goitre in 1977 and subsequently headed by Giovanni Acciai.Yasuharu Nanri
Yasuharu Nanri (南里 康晴, Nanri Yasuharu, born October 6, 1985 in Fukuoka) is a Japanese figure skater. He is the 2007 and 2008 Japanese national bronze medalist. He competed at the 2008 World Championships, placing 19th with a personal best total score in international competition.