João Manuel, Prince of Portugal

João Manuel, Prince of Portugal (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃ mɐnuˈɛɫ]) (3 June 1537 – 2 January 1554) was a Portuguese infante (prince), the eighth son of King John III of Portugal by his wife Catherine of Austria, daughter of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile. As the heir to the throne he was styled Prince of Portugal.

João Manuel
Prince of Portugal
John, Prince of Portugal (c.1552-4) - Anthonis Mor
João, Prince of Portugal; Antonis Mor, 1552
Born3 June 1537
Royal Palace of Évora, Évora
Died2 January 1554 (aged 16)
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon
SpouseJoanna of Austria
IssueSebastian I of Portugal
FatherJohn III of Portugal
MotherCatherine of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Early life

Joao Manuel, Prince of Portugal by Hieronymus Cock
Portrait of Prince João Manuel; Hieronymus Cock, c. 1550-1554.

João Manuel was born on 3 June 1537 in the Royal Palace of Évora and became the heir to the throne of Portugal in 1539. He survived his four older brothers who died in childhood but was a sickly teenager. The successive inter-marriages between the houses of Spain and Portugal are believed to have some responsibility for his ill health. In 1552 he married Princess Joanna of Spain, his first cousin, through both paternal and maternal line, daughter of his paternal aunt Isabella of Portugal and of his maternal uncle, Emperor Charles V.


João Manuel died of what the sources refer to as consumption, which may refer to tuberculosis, on 2 January 1554, but some historians believe his death occurred as a result of diabetes, a disease he may have inherited from his maternal grandfather Philip I. Eighteen days later, a posthumous son was born from his marriage: the future King Sebastian I of Portugal.

External links

João Manuel, Prince of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Burgundy
Born: 3 June 1537 Died: 2 January 1554
Portuguese nobility
Preceded by
Prince of Portugal
Succeeded by

Year 1554 (MDLIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Court painter

A court painter was an artist who painted for the members of a royal or noble family, sometimes on a fixed salary and on an exclusive basis where the artist was not supposed to undertake other work.

Especially in the Late Middle Ages, they were often given the office of valet de chambre. Usually they were given a salary and formal title, and often a pension for life, though arrangements were highly variable. For the artist, a court appointment had the advantage of freeing them from the restriction of local painters' guilds, although in the Middle Ages and Renaissance they also often had to spend large amounts of time doing decorative work about the palace, and creating temporary works for court entertainments and displays. In England the role of Serjeant Painter was set up for this, leaving the "King's painter" (and the queen's) free to paint mostly portraits. See category of Italian art collectors for lists that included non-aristocratic patrons. Some artists, like Jan van Eyck or Diego Velázquez, were used in other capacities at court, as diplomats, functionaries, or administrators.

In Islamic cultures, especially between the 14th and 17th centuries, similar arrangements operated for miniaturists and artists in other media. In the Persian miniature, the shah and other rulers typically maintained a "court workshop" or "atelier", of calligraphers, miniaturists, binders and other crafts, usually managed by the royal librarian. More than in the West, the courts were the essential patrons of large-scale commissions, and political changes, or changes in personal tastes, could have a significant effect on the development of a style. The name by which Riza Abbasi is usually known includes the honorific title "Abbasi", which he and others were given by Shah Abbas I of Persia to associate them with their patron. Abd as-Samad, a Persian painter who moved to the Mughal Empire, was given a number of significant administrative jobs, as indeed was his artist son. The court remained the focus of patronage of painting in the "sub-Mughal" princely courts of India, whether Muslim or Hindu.

At many periods rulers owned or controlled royal workshops or factories making high-quality tapestries, porcelain or pottery, silks and other types of object. This was especially the case in China and in the Byzantine Empire. Often court artists worked on the designs for these products; for example the finest carpets of Persia, Ottoman Turkey and Mughal India reflect very closely developments in style found in other media such as Ottoman illumination, and it is usually assumed that designs were sent to the weavers from the court. The same process can be better documented in 17th century France, where the court painter Charles Le Brun was director of the royal Gobelins Manufactory, then producing far more than just tapestries, and also designed the royal commissions from the private Savonnerie manufactory of carpets. Le Brun dominated, and largely created, the style found throughout Louis XIV's palaces, which was then hugely influential in France and throughout Europe.

By the 20th century court painters was an obsolete position. Commonly more artists were granted permission by royalty who would sit for official portraits whether for private of patron purposes.

Diogo, Constable of Portugal

Diogo of Portugal (1425–1443) was a Portuguese royal prince, who briefly served as Constable of Portugal and Master of the Order of Santiago.

Diogo was the eldest son of John, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, Infante of Portugal, and of his wife (and niece) Isabella of Barcelos. Through his father, Diogo was the grandson of King John I of Portugal and through his mother, the grandson of Afonso of Barcelos (future first duke of Braganza).

John of Reguengos had been the master of the Order of Santiago since 1418 and Constable of Portugal since 1431. Upon John's premature death in October 1442, the Portuguese regent, Peter of Coimbra decided to appoint John's son Diogo as the new Constable of Portugal. Diogo was elected on 24 January 1443, as 11th Master of the Order of Santiago. Diogo died a few days later, without issue. Peter appointed his own son, also named Peter, to succeed him as constable.

These appointments were contested by Diogo's half-uncle (and grandfather), Afonso, Count of Barcelos. Afonso had married the daughter of the late beatified constable Nuno Álvares Pereira, and believed their son, Afonso of Ourem, had superior rights to succeed as Constable of Portugal. Peter of Coimbra challenged Barcelos and Ourem to provide documentary proof of the legitimacy of this lineage (which they were unable to produce). Peter of Coimbra attempted to mollify them by creating the title of Duke of Braganza, and investing it in Afonso of Barcelos. However, this failed to heal the breach between Peter and Afonso, which would only grow with time.

Diogo, Duke of Viseu

Infante Diogo of Viseu (1450–1484) was the second son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, and his wife Beatriz, Duchess of Viseu.

Edward, King of Portugal

Duarte ([duˈaɾt(ɨ)]; 31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438), known in English as Edward and called the Philosopher (o Rei-Filósofo) or the Eloquent (o Eloquente), was King of Portugal from 1433 until his death. He was born in Viseu, the son of John I of Portugal and his wife, Philippa of Lancaster. Edward was the oldest member of the "Illustrious Generation" of accomplished royal children who contributed to the development of Portuguese civilization during the 15th century. As a cousin of several English kings, he became a Knight of the Garter.

Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu

Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu and Beja (or Fernando, Portuguese pronunciation: [fɨɾˈnɐ̃du], 1433 – 1470) was the third son of Edward, King of Portugal and his wife Eleanor of Aragon.

House of Aviz

The House of Aviz (modern Portuguese: Avis; Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈviʃ]) known as the Joanine Dynasty was the second dynasty of the kings of Portugal. In 1385, the Interregnum of the 1383-1385 crisis ended when the Cortes of Coimbra proclaimed the Master of the monastic military Order of Aviz as King John I. John was the natural (illegitimate) son of King Peter I and Dona Teresa Lourenço, and so was half-brother to the last king of the Portuguese House of Burgundy or Afonsine Dynasty, Ferdinand I of Portugal. The House of Aviz continued to rule Portugal until Philip II of Spain inherited the Portuguese crown with the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.

The descendants of King John I were still also Masters of Aviz, though at times that title passed to one descendant of John and the Crown of Portugal to another. The title of Grand Master of the Order of Aviz was permanently incorporated into the Portuguese Crown toward the end of rule by the House of Aviz, in 1551.

John, Constable of Portugal

Infante John, Constable of Portugal (Portuguese: João, Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 13 January 1400 – 18 October 1442) was a Portuguese infante (prince) of the House of Aviz, Constable of Portugal and master of the Portuguese Order of St. James (Santiago). In Portugal, he is commonly referred to as the O Infante Condestável ("the Constable Prince").

John, Prince of Antioch

John, Prince of Antioch (1431–1457), was the second son of Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra, and Isabella of Urgell, Duchess of Coimbra.

John, Prince of Portugal (1451)

John, Prince of Portugal (English: John) was a Portuguese infante, son of Afonso V and Isabella of Coimbra. He was born heir to the throne in 1451, but he died young during the same year. The title of Prince of Portugal then passed again to Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, his uncle.

John II of Portugal

John II (Portuguese: João II; [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), called the Perfect Prince (Portuguese: o Príncipe Perfeito), was King of Portugal from 1481 until his death in 1495, and also for a brief time in 1477. He is known for re-establishing the power of the Portuguese monarchy, reinvigorating the Portuguese economy, and renewing his country's exploration of Africa and the Orient.

João, Duke of Viseu

Infante João of Viseu (ca. 1448 – 1472) was the older son of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu and of his wife Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.

In 1470, following his father's death, he inherited the titles of Duke of Viseu and Duke of Beja, as well as the Lordships of Covilhã and Moura

He also became Master of the Order of Christ and of the Order of Santiago, becoming also Constable of Portugal.

In July 1472, his uncle, King Afonso V granted him the Moroccan city of Anfa (in Portuguese Anafé).

He died young and single, without issue. His brother, Infante Diogo, inherited his titles and estates.

João, Prince of Brazil

João, Prince of Brazil (Lisbon, 30 August 1688 - Lisbon, 17 September 1688) was the first child of Pedro II of Portugal and Maria Sophia of Neuburg. He was made Prince of Brazil and Duke of Braganza upon his birth. He died at the age of three weeks.

João Manuel

João Manuel may refer to:

João Manuel (bishop of Guarda) (1416–1476)

João Manuel, Prince of Portugal (1537–1554)

João Manuel (footballer, born 1967) (1967-2005), Portuguese footballer

João Manuel (footballer, born 1994), Portuguese footballer

Manuel I of Portugal

Manuel I (European Portuguese: [mɐnuˈɛɫ]; 31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese history distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and in the arts. In spite of Portugal’s small size and population in comparison to the great European land powers of France, Italy and even Spain, the classical Portuguese Armada was the largest in the world at the time. During Manuel's reign Portugal was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions, the first in world history to reach global dimensions. The landmark symbol of the period was the Portuguese discovery of Brazil and South America in April 1500.

Pedro, Prince of Brazil

Pedro, Prince of Brazil (Lisbon, 19 October 1712 – Lisbon, 29 October 1714) was the second child of John V of Portugal and Maria Ana of Austria. He was made Prince of Brazil and Duke of Braganza upon his birth. He died at the age of two, making his brother Joseph (future Joseph I of Portugal) the new Prince of Brazil.

Sebastian of Portugal

Sebastian (Portuguese: Sebastião I Portuguese pronunciation: [sɨbɐʃˈti.ɐ̃w̃]; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.

He was the son of João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, and his wife, Joanna of Austria. He was the grandson of King John III of Portugal and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He disappeared (presumably killed in action) in the battle of Alcácer Quibir. Sebastian I is often referred to as The Desired (Portuguese: o Desejado) or The Asleep (Portuguese: o Adormecido), as the Portuguese people longed for his return to end the decline of Portugal that began after his death. He is considered to be the Portuguese example of the King under the mountain legend as Portuguese tradition states his return, in a foggy dawn, on Portugal's greatest hour of need.

Ancestors of João Manuel, Prince of Portugal
16. Edward I of Portugal
8. Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
17. Eleanor of Aragon
4. Manuel I of Portugal
18. John, Constable of Portugal
9. Beatrice of Portugal
19. Isabel of Barcelos
2. John III of Portugal
20. John II of Aragon
10. Ferdinand II of Aragon
21. Juana Enríquez
5. Maria of Aragon
22. John II of Castile
11. Isabella I of Castile
23. Isabella of Portugal
1. João Manuel, Prince of Portugal
24. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
12. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
25. Eleanor of Portugal
6. Philip I of Castile
26. Charles I, Duke of Burgundy
13. Mary, Duchess of Burgundy
27. Isabella of Bourbon
3. Catherine of Austria
28. John II of Aragon (= 20)
14. Ferdinand II of Aragon (= 10)
29. Juana Enríquez (= 21)
7. Joanna I of Castile
30. John II of Castile (= 22)
15. Isabella I of Castile (= 11)
31. Isabella of Portugal (= 23)
1st generation
2nd generation
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23rd generation
24th generation

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