Jiyuan

Jiyuan (simplified Chinese: 济源; traditional Chinese: 濟源; pinyin: Jǐyuán) is a sub-prefecture-level city in northwestern Henan province, People's Republic of China. It borders the prefecture-level cities of Jiaozuo and Luoyang to the east and southwest respectively, as well as the province of Shanxi to the north.

Jiyuan

济源市
Location of Jiyuan City jurisdiction in Henan
Location of Jiyuan City jurisdiction in Henan
Jiyuan is located in China
Jiyuan
Jiyuan
Location in China
Coordinates: 35°04′01″N 112°36′07″E / 35.067°N 112.602°ECoordinates: 35°04′01″N 112°36′07″E / 35.067°N 112.602°E
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHenan
Area
 • Total1,931 km2 (746 sq mi)
Population
 • Total660,000
 • Density340/km2 (890/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal Code
454650
Area code(s)0391
GDP¥12.076 billion (2004)
Major NationalitiesHan
Township-level divisions16
Websitejiyuan.gov.cn

Administration

The sub-prefecture-level city of Jiyuan administers 8 towns, 4 townships and 4 subdistricts. Jiyuan is named after the Ji river whose source is said to be a spring located on the west of the city.

History

Jiyuan was a county belonging to Jiaozuo City in the past, then it was divided from the city. The former Ji River—one of the ancient "Four Rivers", alongside the Yangtze, Huai, and Yellow Rivers—originated around Jiyuan, which was the source of its name, Chinese for "Source of the Ji". (Today, the Ji has been entirely subsumed by the Yellow River, which shifted to the bed of the Ji during its massive 1852 flood.)[1] According to the latest archaeological findings, as early as around 10,000 years ago, precisely at the end of the Paleolithic Period and the beginning of the Neolithic Period, people have lived here. It used to be the capital of the Xia Dynasty and was well known for its wealth between the Period of Warring States and Han Dynasty.

Agriculture

There are many crops grown in Jiyuan, such as wheat, peanut, cotton, sweet potato, maize and others.

Transportation

External links

References

Citations

  1. ^ Pletcher & al. (2011), p. 171.
  2. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Jiyuan, China". Weatherbase. 2011. Retrieved on November 24, 2011.

Bibliography

Battle of Pungdo

The Battle of Pungdo or Feng-tao (Japanese: Hoto-oki kaisen (豊島沖海戦)) was the first naval battle of the First Sino-Japanese War. It took place on 25 July 1894 off Asan, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, between cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy and components of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet. Both China and Japan had been intervening in Korea against the Donghak Peasant Revolution. While China tried to maintain her suzerain relationship with Korea, Japan wanted to increase her sphere of influence. Both countries had already sent troops to Korea as requested by different factions within the Korean government. Chinese troops from the Huai Army, were stationed in Asan, south of Seoul, numbering 3,000 men in early July, could be effectively supplied only by sea through the Bay of Asan. This presented a situation very similar to the British position at the beginning of the Yorktown campaign during the American Revolution. The Japanese plan was to blockade the entrance of the Bay of Asan, while her land forces moved overland to encircle the Chinese detachment in Asan before reinforcements arrived by sea.

Battle of the Yalu River (1894)

The Battle of the Yalu River (simplified Chinese: 黄海海战; traditional Chinese: 黃海海戰; pinyin: Huáng Hǎi Hǎizhàn; Japanese:Kōkai-kaisen (黄海海戦, "Naval Battle of the Yellow Sea")) was the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War, and took place on 17 September 1894, the day after the Japanese victory at the land Battle of Pyongyang. It involved ships from the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Chinese Beiyang Fleet. The battle is also known by a variety of names: Battle of Haiyang Island, Battle of Dadonggou, Battle of the Yellow Sea and Battle of Yalu, after the geographic location of the battle, which was in the Yellow Sea off the mouth of the Yalu River and not in the river itself. There is also no agreement among contemporary sources on the exact numbers and composition of each fleet.

Bystrowiana

Bystrowiana is an extinct genus of bystrowianid chroniosuchian from upper Permian deposits of Vladimir Region, Russia and Jiyuan, China. Chroniosuchians are often thought to be reptiliomorphs, but some recent phylogenetic analyses suggest instead that they are stem-tetrapods. The genus is named in honour of Dr. Alexey Bystrow, who was a Russian paleontologist. It was first named by Vyushkov in 1957 and the type species is Bystrowiana permira. Two species—B. permira and B. sinica—are known.Bystrowiana is known from a 30 cm skull, which suggests it was a large animal, up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in total body length.

Chinese cruiser Jiyuan

Jiyuan (simplified Chinese: 济远; traditional Chinese: 濟遠; pinyin: Jiyuan, sometimes Chiyuan; Wade–Giles: Tsi Yuan), was a protected cruiser of the Imperial Chinese Navy, assigned to the Beiyang Fleet. She was constructed in Germany as China lacked the industrial facilities needed to build them at the time. Jiyuan was originally intended to be the third ironclad battleship of the Dingyuan class, but was reduced in size due to funding issues. Upon completion, she was prevented from sailing to China during the Sino-French War.

In the First Sino-Japanese War, she was involved in the Battle of Pungdo, and at the Battle of Yalu River, which resulted in the subsequent execution of her captain. She was captured by the Imperial Japanese Navy as a prize of war at the Battle of Weihaiwei, and commissioned as Saien (済遠 巡洋艦, Saien jun'yōkan) on 16 March 1895. Under the Japanese flag, she was used to bombard positions in the Japanese invasion of Taiwan, and was sunk on 30 November 1904 after striking a Russian mine during the Battle of Port Arthur of the Russo-Japanese War.

Dromotectum

Dromotectum is an extinct genus of bystrowianid reptiliomorph from the Late Permian of China and Early Triassic of Russia. Two species have been named: the type species D. spinosum and the species D. largum. D. spinosum, the first species to be named, comes from Lower Triassic deposits in the Samara Region of European Russia and is known from the holotype PIN 2424/23, which consists of armor scutes, and from PIN 2424/65, 4495/14 and 2252/397. It was found in the Staritskaya Formation of the Rybinskin Horizon and named by I.V. Novikov and M.A. Shishkin in 2000. The generic name means “corridor with hipped vault” (dromos in Greek) + “roof” (tecton), and the specific name means “spinous” (spinosum in Latin). A second species, D. largum, was named by Liu Jun, Xu Li, Jia Song-Hai, Pu Han-Yong, and Liu Xiao-Ling in 2014 from the Shangshihezi Formation near Jiyuan in Henan province, China on the basis of specimen IVPP V 4013.1, a large scute.

Jiaozuo

Jiaozuo (Chinese: 焦作; pinyin: Jiāozuò [tɕjáu.tswô]; postal: Tsiaotso) is a prefecture-level city in northern Henan province, China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the south, Xinxiang to the east, Jiyuan to the west, Luoyang to the southwest, and the province of Shanxi to the north.Jiaozuo is one of the core cities of the Central Plains urban agglomeration and a regional central city in the Jin-Yu border area.link

Its population was 3,700,000 at the 2016 census whom 1,301,732 live in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County being urbanized.

Jiaozuo enjoys a humid subtropical climate with continental climate influences. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. Average temperature ranges from 0.3 °C in January to 27.5 °C in July. Extremes exist from -22.4 °C to 43.6 °C. Precipitation averages 659 mm.

Jiaozuo–Liuzhou railway

The Jiaozuo–Liuzhou railway or Jiaoliu railway (simplified Chinese: 焦柳铁路; traditional Chinese: 焦柳鐵路; pinyin: jiāoliǔ tiělù), is a major trunkline railroad in China between Jiaozuo in central China and Liuzhou in southern China. The line is 1,639 km (1,018 mi) long and runs north–south through four provinces. The line was built between 1969 and 1978.

Major cities along route include Jiaozuo, Jiyuan, Luoyang, Nanyang and Dengzhou in Henan Province; Xiangyang and Jingmen in Hubei Province; Shimen, Zhangjiajie, Jishou and Huaihua in Hunan Province and Liuzhou in the Guangxi Autonomous Region.

Jiyuan Yu

Jiyuan Yu (July 5, 1964 – November 3, 2016) was a moral philosopher noted for his work on virtue ethics. Yu was a long-time and highly admired Professor of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Buffalo, in Buffalo, New York, starting in 1997. Prior to his professorship, Yu completed a three-year post as a research fellow at the University of Oxford, England (1994-1997). He received his education in China at both Shandong University and Renmin University, in Italy at Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, and in Canada at the University of Guelph. His primary areas of research and teaching included Ancient Greek Philosophy (esp. Plato, Aristotle), and Ancient Chinese Philosophy (esp. Classical Confucianism).

He served on the Editorial Boards of History of Philosophy Quarterly (2002-2005), World Philosophy (2000-present), Frontiers in Philosophy (2006–present), the Chinese translation of the Complete Works of Aristotle (1988-1998), and the book series on Chinese and Comparative Philosophy (New York: Global Publications). He received the University's Exceptional Scholar (Young Investigator) Award, as well as the SUNY Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2002. He was appointed a 2003–2004 Fellow at the National Humanities Center and a SUNY Buffalo Humanities Institute Faculty Fellow in the spring of 2008.

Yu served as Director of the Confucius Institute at SUNY Buffalo. He was a Wu Yuzhang Chair Professor (2007-2009) at Renmin University of China, and a Changjiang Chair Professor at Shandong University. Yu also served as President (2012-2013) and Executive Director (2012-2016) of the International Society for Chinese Philosophy (ISCP).

Jiyuanitectum

Jiyuanitectum is an extinct genus of chroniosuchian tetrapod from the Late Permian Shangshihezi Formation of China. It is known from a single bony scute from Jiyuan in Henan province, ascribed to the type species Jiyuanitectum flatum in 2014. Plate-like scutes, which formed armor-like coverings on the backs of chroniosuchians, are the most commonly found chroniosuchian remains. They are also the most informative when it comes to distinguishing between species due to small variations in scute anatomy between different taxa. For example, a shallow groove along the midline of the scute is unique to Jiyuanitectum. The flatness of the scute is another unusual characteristic, giving it the species name flatum. Jiyuanitectum shares several features in common with the chroniosuchians Synesuchus and Bystrowiella, including the upper surface of the scute being covered in ridges that are mostly oriented perpendicular to the midline, and the absence of a bony projection on the front of the scute called the anteromedial articular processes, which is seen in other chroniosuchians. These features suggest that Jiyuanitectum belongs to the family Bystrowianidae. The narrowness of the scute suggests that it may be one of the most basal members of the group.The scute of Jiyuanitectum was found within a diverse Late Permian fossil assemblage in Jiyuan that includes abundant remains of the pareiasaur Shihtienfenia as well as fossils of two other chroniosuchian species: Bystrowiana sinica and Dromotectum largum. Therapsid remains are also known from the assemblage.

List of administrative divisions of Henan

The administrative divisions of Henan, a province of the People's Republic of China, consists of prefecture-level divisions subdivided into county-level divisions then subdivided into township-level divisions.

Liu Chong

Liu Min (劉旻) (c. 895 – 954), named Liu Chong (劉崇) before 951, also known by his temple name Shizu (世祖), was the founding emperor of imperial China's Northern Han state during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. He was an ethnic Shatuo and the younger brother of Later Han's founder Liu Zhiyuan.

Liu Chong created Northern Han in the Shatuo base in modern Shanxi after his eldest son was killed in 951 by general Guo Wei, who overthrew Later Han to found the Later Zhou. In 954, Liu Chong was defeated by Guo's successor Chai Rong in the Battle of Gaoping and died soon afterwards.

Liu Jiyuan

Liu Jiyuan (劉繼元) (died in 992), was the last ruler of China's Northern Han kingdom in its Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. He was the grandson of Liu Min. He ruled Northern Han from 968 until 979, when he surrendered to the Song forces under Emperor Taizong of Song.

Lu Tong

Lú Tóng (pinyin; Wade–Giles: Lu T'ung; simplified Chinese: 卢仝; traditional Chinese: 盧仝; 790–835) was a Tang dynasty Chinese poet, known for his lifelong study of the tea culture. He never became an official, and is better known for his love of tea than his poetry.

Ma Jiyuan

Ma Jiyuan (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ جِ ﻳُﻮًا‎, January 18, 1921 – February 27, 2012) was a Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the northwestern province of Qinghai. He was the son and only child of general Ma Bufang and commanded nationalist forces against the communists at the Heshui Campaign, Meridian Ridge Campaign, and the Lanzhou Campaign during the Chinese Civil War. Ma was 28 years old when he defeated the Communists in 1948. On the Heshui campaign in 1948 Ma defeated 30,000 Communists. He led the 82nd division, a Cavalry division, of which 30 percent of whom were Muslims to charge the Communists with swords. Ma complained that the Kuomintang government was not resupplying him enough and that there was no more "revolutionary spirit". On the opposing side General Zhao Shoushan led the Communists, Chao formerly attended the same school as Ma.He became a colonel at the age of 16 and was promoted to major general at the age of 20. He had attended the Whampoa Military Academy. Ma was given a silver cup by the Divine Word Missionaries after he came back from the northwestern front.In May 1949, General Hu Zongnan and Ma set up a planned trap. Hu faked a retreat, then Communist General Peng Dehuai advanced with 120,000 men from Xi'an to Sichuan, but at 75 miles Hu started a pitched battle and then Ma personally led 20,000 of his cavalry forces to defeat the Communist forces and send them fleeing, and he continued to battle the Communist forces throughout July around Xi'an.In August 1949, Ma Bufang personally traveled by plane to the KMT government in Canton request supplies via airdrop, while his son Ma Jiyuan assumed command over the KMT forces at Lanzhou, who promised to defend the city to journalists, saying "Na shih yi ting ti" "(That is definite)", and, "Lanchow will never fall to the Communists". However, the government denied his request, and Ma flew back to Lanzhou, then abandoned lanzhou, retreating all the way back to Xining on trucks. He defended Gansu during the Lanzhou Campaign from the Communists.Ma also was married to two women, and enjoyed watching American movies. His upbringing was under strict discipline, Chinese proverbs could be found posted around his HQ.He moved with his father to Egypt then to Saudi Arabia when his father was appointed as ambassador of the Republic of China to Saudi Arabia. In between the move he also traveled to Taiwan to advise the Ministry of National Defense (Republic of China) and the Kuomintang party.

The passing away in Jeddah on 27 February of Ma Jiyuan was greeted with sorrow by the People's Republic of China consulate.

Meridian Ridge Campaign

The Meridian Ridge Campaign was a series of battles fought between the nationalists and the communists in the Shaanxi province of northwest China during the Chinese Civil War in the post World War II era, resulting in a nationalist victory.

Shanxi Brave Dragons

The Shanxi Fenjiu Loongs (山西汾酒猛龙) or Shanxi Fenjiu or Shanxi Loongs are a professional basketball team based in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, which plays in the North Division of the Chinese Basketball Association. The Shanxi Fenjiu Company is the club's corporate sponsor, while its mascot is a dragon.

The team was known in English as the Shanxi Brave Dragons from the Summer of 2007 until September 2018, when a rebranding ceremony was held, unveiling a new logo and nickname. Loongs is the Cantonese term for Dragons, although the vast majority of people in Shanxi do not speak Cantonese.

Sub-prefectural city

A sub-prefectural municipality (simplified Chinese: 副地级市; traditional Chinese: 副地級市; pinyin: fùdìjíshì), sub-prefectural city, or vice-prefectural municipality, is an unofficial designation for a type of administrative division of China. A sub-prefectural city is officially considered to be a county-level city, but it has more power de facto because the cadres assigned to its government are one half-level higher in rank than those of an "ordinary" county-level city—though still lower than those of a prefecture-level city.

While county-level cities are under the administrative jurisdiction of prefecture-level divisions, sub-prefectural cities are often (but not always) administered directly by the provincial government, with no intervening prefecture level administration.

Examples of sub-prefectural cities that does not belong to any prefecture: Jiyuan (Henan Province), Xiantao, Qianjiang and Tianmen (Hubei), Shihezi, Tumxuk, Aral, and Wujiaqu (Xinjiang).

Examples of sub-prefectural cities that nevertheless belong to a prefecture: Golmud (Haixi, Qinghai), Manzhouli (Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia).

Wang Jiyuan

Wang Jiyuan was a Chinese artist. He co-founded the Juelan Society along with Ni Yide, Pang Xunqin, Chen Cheng-po, and others. Juelan members promoted innovation in the Chinese arts under the motto “fierce passion, firm rationality”

Xu Jingye (PRC)

Xu Jingye (born 1951 in Jiyuan, Henan) was chairman of the Chongqing Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) from January 2013 to January 2017.

Climate data for Jiyuan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6
(42)
8
(46)
14
(57)
21
(69)
27
(80)
32
(89)
32
(89)
30
(86)
26
(78)
21
(69)
14
(57)
8
(46)
20
(67)
Average low °C (°F) −3
(26)
−1
(30)
3
(37)
9
(48)
15
(59)
20
(68)
23
(73)
22
(71)
16
(60)
10
(50)
3
(37)
−2
(28)
10
(49)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.6
(0.3)
13
(0.5)
25
(1.0)
38
(1.5)
53
(2.1)
66
(2.6)
140
(5.6)
97
(3.8)
79
(3.1)
46
(1.8)
28
(1.1)
10
(0.4)
600
(23.7)
Source: Weatherbase [2]
Prefecture-level cities
Sub-prefecture-level
city
Major cities along the Yellow River
Province-level
subdivisions
Gansu
Ningxia
Inner Mongolia
Shanxi
Shaanxi
Henan
Shandong

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