Jinotega

The city of Jinotega (Spanish pronunciation: [xinoˈteɣa]) is the capital of the department of Jinotega in the north central region of Nicaragua.

The city is located in a long valley surrounded by the cool climate and Dariense Isabelia ridge located 142km north of the capital Managua. Jinotega has a population of 123,548 inhabitants (city) and 417,372 department [CENSUS 2012]. Jinotega produces 80% of Nicaragua's coffee, which is exported to the United States, Russia, Canada and Europe.

Also in Jinotega are several rivers and a lake. Apanas, an artificial lake of 51 square kilometers that provides hydropower to much of the country Although there is some contradiction as to the origin of the name, Jinotega is generally known as "The City of Mists" (Ciudad de la Brumas) for the magnificent whisks of clouds continuously feathering through the top of the valley. Another generally accepted name is" The Eternal City of Men "(" City of Eternal Men " ).

Jinotega is bordered to the

  • north by the municipalities of Santa María de Pantasma and Wiwili
  • south by the municipalities of Matagalpa and Sébaco
  • east by the municipalities of El Cua, Bocay, and Tuma La Dalia
  • west by the municipalities of La Trinidad, San Rafael del Norte, La Concordia, and San Sebastian de Yali
Jinotega
Jinotega, Nicaragua
Jinotega, Nicaragua
Flag of Jinotega

Flag
Official seal of Jinotega

Seal
Jinotega is located in Nicaragua
Jinotega
Jinotega
Location in Nicaragua
Coordinates: 13°5′18.207″N 85°59′57.838″W / 13.08839083°N 85.99939944°WCoordinates: 13°5′18.207″N 85°59′57.838″W / 13.08839083°N 85.99939944°W
Country Nicaragua
DepartmentJinotega
MunicipalityJinotega
Founded1891
Government
 • MayorLeónidas Centeno Rivera Flag of the FSLN.png
 • Vice MayorRosalpina Pineda Zeledón Flag of the FSLN.png
Elevation
1,000 m (3,000 ft)
Population
 (2014)
 • City51,073 [1]
 • Metro
429,240
 • Demonym
Jinotegano/a
Time zoneUTCGMT-6
Area code(s)Ni-Ji
ClimateAw
Websitehttp://www.alcaldiajinotega.gob.ni/ (in Spanish) http://monumental96.com/jinotega/ (in Spanish)

Geography

Apanaslake
Lake Apanas, north of Jinotega
  • Mountains: Cuspire, Chimborazo, Kilambe (1750m), Peñas Blancas, Zinica, Saslaya, Baba, Asan Rahra
  • Valleys: Jinotega city, Pantasma, Cua, Wiili, Wamblan, Bocay
  • Rivers: Coco, Yali, Montecristo, Pantasma, Cua, Wamblan, ULwaskin, Bocay, Wina, Amaka, Tuma, Viejo
  • Lakes: Apanas
  • Municipalities nearby: Yali, Pantasma, San Rafel del Norte, La Concordia, El Cua, Wiwili, Bocay

The climate is subtropical and tropical in the high valleys, dry in summer, rainy in winter and cool in the mountains.

History

Church in Jinotega, Nicaragua 2
San Juan Cathedral in the city of Jinotega

The Indian city of Jinotega existed before the Spanish arrived. It is unknown when the first Spanish settled in Jinotega. It had to be after the year 1581, because the Spanish Census of 1581 shows it was still an Indian town. Even in 1703 when missioner Fray Margil de Jesus visited Jinotega there were no permanent Spanish settlers there. However by 1731 there were some permanent ones, like Juan de Castro, other Spaniard lastnames like Gadea, Duarte, Altamirano, Alburquerque, Fray Juan de Zeledon, and some soldiers. Zeledon is said to have invited some nephews to come here who let descendants who still live there: some of them are Zeledon of La Concordia, Umure and Ocotal Espeso and Pacsila, idilic communities located between the cities of Matagalpa and Jinotega. According to locals, Jinotega was founded when five Spanish families moved north from Nueva Segovia by year 1700 to settle the "dry zone" or "zona seca" community of Jocomico, Naranjo, Umure, Ocotal Espeso, which lies bout 15 kilometers south of the city. The city of Jinotega was formed in the middle of a bowl-like mountainous area. In 1703 a large cross was placed by Spanish friar Margil de Jesus at the highest point of Chirinagua in the western edge of the city, now called Cerro de la Cruz. It is illuminated at night, and tourists organize hiking tours to this peak.

BLI en operación 01
BLI "contra" soldiers marching through Jinotega in 1985

The name Jinotega derives presumably from the Nahuatl word "Xinotencatl". Linguists disagree on the meaning of this word. Some interpret it as "City of the Eternal Men", whereas others translate it as "Neighbors of the Jiñocuabos". The word "Neighbors" here should be understood as being like the ending "ville" or "land". The interpretation as "Neighbors of the Jiñocuabos" is more likely to be the right one, since Jiñocuabo is a tree (Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.) praised by the natives for curative properties. In the Nahuatl-Language Jiñocuabo seems to mean "mangy tree".

The Jinotega region is perhaps the most war-torn region in Nicaragua's history. Its remote location as well as its proximity to the border with Honduras made it a haven for rebel forces throughout the last seven decades. The most intense battles took place in the Department of Jinotega between 1927 and 1934 under Augusto C. Sandino and his troops (popularly known as "los bandoleros") against the American occupation troops. Later, at the end of the 1970s, Jinotega was a place of bitter war between the troops of Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the civilian rebel population. Somoza was defeated on July 19, 1979. After a short period of peace, civil war began again between government troops of the new Sandinista regime and the Contra rebels who felt betrayed by the Sandinistas and were funded by the United States.

Economy

Planta de café de Cuetzalan
Beans from a coffee plant

Starting from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Jinotega was driven by the economics of coffee. Jinotega is still a major supplier of coffee for Nicaragua and for other countries. The basic grains (corn, beans, and wheat), vegetables (tomato, lettuce, onion, cabbage, parsley, radish, celery, broccoli, potatoes, taro, carrot, cucumber) and fruit species also contribute to its economy.

Hydroelectrical energy generated by Centro América Plant supplies energy for much of the country.

There are three universities in Jinetoga:[2]

Public Universities
  • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua León (UNAN)
  • Instituto Nacional Tecnológico (INATEC).
Private University
  • Universidad del Norte de Nicaragua (UNN).

Notable people

International relations

Jinotega is twinned with:

References

  1. ^ http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=what+is+the+population+of+jinotega%2c+nicaragua%3f
  2. ^ http://www.altillo.com/universidades/universidades_nicaragua.asp

Further reading

  • ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Monografía de Jinotega, by Dr. Julián N. Guerrero and Lolita Soriano (1966), translated into German by Edgard Arturo Castro-Frenzel (2006), also available at the Iberoamerican Institut Berlin (www.iai.spk-berlin.de). German version (pdf-file) might be downloaded (http://www.bio-nica.info/topic/index.html).
  • ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Jinotega-Recopilación histórica, by Simeón Jarquín Blandón (1991), N 972.85 I37, translated into German by Edgard Arturo Castro-Frenzel (2006), also available at the Iberoamerican Institut Berlin (www.iai.spk-berlin.de). German version (pdf-file) might be downloaded (http://www.bio-nica.info/topic/index.html).

Other books related to Jinotega

  • Nicaragua en mis recuerdos, by Dr. Simeón Rizo Gadea, in Spanish
  • Monografía de Jinotega, by Julián N. Guerrero y Lolita Soriano, in Spanish (1966).
  • Monografía de Jinotega, by Julián N. Guerreo und Lolita Soriano, translated into German by Edgard Arturo Castro-Frenzel (2006), available at the virtual library of Bio-Nica (bio-nica.info)
  • Jinotega- Recopilación histórica, by Simeón Jarquín Blandón, in Spanish (1991), N 972.85 I 37.
  • Jinotega- Recopilación histórica, by Simeón Jarquín Blandón, transtlated into German by Edgard Arturo Castro-Frenzel (2006), available at the virtual library of Bio-Nica (bio-nica.info)
  • The Naturalist in Nicaragua, by Thomas Belt, in English (1873)
  • El Naturalista en Nicaragua, by Thomas Belt, in Spanish, translated by Dr. Jaime Incer Barquero (1975)
  • Nicaragua, by René Moser, in French, English, German and Spanish, in one volume (1974), ISBN 2-85518-008-2
  • Deutsches Leben in Nicaragua-Auswanderer-Schicksale, by Dr. Götz Freiherr von Houwald, former German ambassador to Nicaragua, in German (1986), ISBN 3-925290-60-5, also available at the Iberoamerican Institut Berlin (www.iai.spk-berlin.de)
  • Los alemanes en Nicaragua, by Dr. Götz Freiherr von Houwald, former German ambassador to Nicaragua, in Spanish, translated from German by Mrs. Resie Pereira (1975)
  • Mayangna-Wir - Zur Geschichte der Sumu-Indianer in Mittelamerika, by Dr. Götz Freiherr von Houwald, former German ambassador to Nicaragua, in German (1990), also available at the Iberoamerican Institut Berlin (www.iai.spk-berlin.de), ISBN 3-87673-134-8
  • Mayangna- Apuntes sobre la historia de los indígenas Sumu en Centroamérica, by Dr. Götz Freiherr von Houwald, former German ambassador to Nicaragua, in Spanish, translated from German by Edgard Arturo Castro-Frenzel (2003), also available at the Iberoamerican Institut Berlin (www.iai.spk-berlin.de), ISBN 99924-53-15-X
  • Raices del centro-norte de Nicaragua, by Eddy Kuhl, 2010. Historian, Member of the Academy of Geography and History of Nicaragua
  • Belli, Gioconda (2003) [2000]. El país bajo mi piel : memorias de amor y guerra [The Country Under My Skin: A Memoir of Love and War]. Bloomsbury. OCLC 59462896.

External links

Bartolomé Martínez

Not to be confused with Cardinal Bartolomé Martí (d. 1500).Bartolomé Martínez González (24 August 1873 in Jinotega – 30 January 1936 in Matagalpa) was Nicaraguan politician from the Conservative Party. He served as Vice President of Nicaragua from January 1921 to October 1923. After the death of Diego Manuel Chamorro, Martínez was sworn in to serve the remainder of Chamorro's term as President of Nicaragua from 27 October 1923 to 1 January 1925.In a short time he recovered for national government the customs, the National Bank and the Railroad of Nicaragua, which were in the hands of the American bankers Brown and Seligman. He formed a National Government, including the Liberals.

Cerro Kilambé Natural Reserve

Cerro Kilambé Natural Reserve is a nature reserve in Nicaragua. It is one of the 78 reserves that are under official protection in the country.

El Cuá

El Cuá is a municipality in the Jinotega department of Nicaragua. Formerly part of the municipality of El Cuá-Bocay, it became a separate municipality in 2002. Its population rose from 43305 in 2005 to 56897 in 2012.The area around El Cuá saw bitter fighting during the Contra War in the 1980s, and the village was the home of that war's only known United States casualty, the engineer Ben Linder. The hydroelectric plant on which Linder worked continues to be the source of electric power in El Cuá and neighboring San José de Bocay.

Fauna of Nicaragua

The fauna of Nicaragua is characterized by a very high level of biodiversity. Much of Nicaragua's wildlife lives in protected areas. There are currently 78 protected areas in Nicaragua, covering more than 22,000 square kilometers (8,500 sq mi), or about 17% of its landmass.

These protected areas encompass a wide variety of habitats, including rainforests, lakes, mountains, and volcanoes throughout the country. For example, Bosawás Biosphere Reserve in state of Jinotega (border with Honduras), covers 7,300 square kilometers (2,800 sq mi), making it the second largest rainforest in the Americas after the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil.

Jinotega Department

Jinotega (Spanish pronunciation: [xinoˈteɣa]) is a department of Nicaragua. Its departmental head is Jinotega. It is located in the north of the country, on the border with Honduras.

The Department of Jinotega has a population of 452,973 inhabitants in 2017 and an area of 9,222.40 km². It is one of the 15 most extensive departments in the country. Founded on October 15, 1891.

The city of Jinotega "Las Brumas" is the departmental capital of the homonymous department with an urban population of 53 265 inhabitants in the year 2017. It is located in a valley at an altitude of 1,003.87 meters above sea level with a cool climate at an average temperature of 25 ° C and a distance of 142 km from Managua (2h 44 min, by Carr.Panamericana / Panamericana Nte./CA-1).

Source: National Institute for Development Information (INIDE) - Nicaragua. Statistical Yearbook 2016 - 18

The department generates its own power through Lake Apanás Dam, which is also a tourist attraction. Isabelia Mountain Range contains several cloud forests peaks and massifs such as Chimborazo (1,688 m), Datanlí Diablo (1,550 m) with "la Bujona" waterfall. Also, Penas Blancas Massif (1,700 m) containing several water drops, and Bosawás Biosphere Reserve, the largest biosphere reserve in Central America with about 22,000 sq km.

José Rizo Castellón

José Rizo Castellón (27 September 1944 – 23 April 2019) was a Nicaraguan politician, affiliated with the Constitutional Liberal Party (PLC). Rizo was a lawyer trained at the Universidad Centroamericana of Managua in Nicaragua; he also studied in the London School of Economics.

La Concordia, Jinotega

La Concordia (Spanish pronunciation: [la koŋˈkoɾðja]) is a municipality in the Jinotega department of Nicaragua.

Lake Apanás

Lake Apanás is a reservoir located in northern Nicaragua and formed by Mancotal Dam on the Tuma River to the north of Jinotega department (border with Honduras). The reservoir has an area of 45.90 square kilometres.It is a source of much of nation's hydropower for the Centro América Power Plant.

List of twin towns and sister cities in Nicaragua

This is a List of twin towns and sister cities in Nicaragua. Cities are listed with their twin town or sister city in a different country.

Macizos de Peñas Blancas Natural Reserve

Macizos de Peñas Blancas Natural Reserve is a nature reserve in Nicaragua. It is one of the 78 reserves that are under official protection in the country.

Matagalpa Department

Matagalpa (Spanish pronunciation: [mataˈɣalpa]) is a department in central Nicaragua. It covers an area of 8,523 km² and has a population of 604,900 (2010 est). The capital is the city of Matagalpa with about 200,000.

Matagalpa is the second region of the country in population size, and the fourth in area (after the North Atlantic, the South Atlantic, and Jinotega.

Matagalpa is the most diversified region producing coffee, cattle, milk products, vegetables, wood, gold, flowers. Its extensive forests, rivers and geography are suited for ecotourism.

Municipalities of Nicaragua

The 15 departments and 2 autonomous regions of Nicaragua are divided into 153 municipalities. The formation and dissolution of municipalities is governed by the Law of Municipalities (in Spanish: Ley No.40 - Ley de Municipalidades), drafted and approved by the National Assembly on July 2. 1988.

The municipalities are responsible for planning and urban development, collection of municipal taxes, maintenance of public utilities and other services, such as parks, sewerage and public cemeteries. Whilst municipal governments may not be responsible for large highways, small roads and tracks usually come under their control. Additionally, municipal governments may issue permits for the operation of urban and intermunicipal bus services.

Other functions of municipal governments include the establishment of libraries, museums, municipal bands, zoos, the promotion of traditional and folklore festivals and all kinds of activities that promotes education, culture, sports and tourism in the municipality.

Odorico D'Andrea

José D'Andrea Valeri (Montorio al Vomano,Italy, 5 March 1916 – Matagalpa, Nicaragua, 22 March 1990) known as "Padre Odorico D'Andrea", was a Catholic Italo-Nicaraguan priest. He founded the Franciscan Sisters Pilgrims of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (Hermanas Franciscanas Pelegrinas del Corazon Inmaculado de Maria), along with Father Francisco Javier Munguía Alvarado, also a Franciscan. He was a missionary of the Order of Friars Minor (Ordo Fratrum Minorum) or Franciscans, devoted to the mission in the communities of the City of San Rafael del Norte in the department of Jinotega,Nicaragua.

He is known as Servant of God (Siervo de Dios) Fr. Odorico D'Andrea.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Jinotega

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Jinotega (erected 18 June 1982, as the Territorial Prelature of Jinotega) is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Managua. It was elevated on 30 April 1991.

San José de Bocay

San José de Bocay is a municipality in the Jinotega department of Nicaragua.

With an area of 3,990.40 km², the municipality of San José de Bocay was created on March 13, 2002, as a result of the division of the El Cuá-Bocay municipality. As of 2006, San José de Bocay is the newest municipality in Nicaragua.

San Rafael del Norte

San Rafael del Norte is a municipality and a town in the Jinotega department.

The town is located 188 kilometres (117 mi) north of Managua, the capital of Nicaragua. Elevated at over 3,000 feet, it is the highest town in Nicaragua, which attracts tourists from many countries for hiking, swimming and vacations.

San Sebastián de Yalí

San Sebastián de Yalí is a municipality in the Jinotega department of Nicaragua.

There is a website dedicated to helping Yali [1].

St. John Cathedral, Jinotega

The St. John Cathedral (Spanish: Catedral de San Juan) Also Jinotega Cathedral Is the name given to a religious building affiliated with the Catholic Church located in the central park of the city of Jinotega, capital of the department of the same name in the Central American country of Nicaragua.A small straw structure was installed in 1752, the first church was built in its original form in 1805 and rebuilt in 1882 and again between 1952 and 1958. In 2008 it was reported that the church was in need of a renovation.

The temple follows the Roman or Latin rite and is the seat of the Diocese of Jinotega (Dioecesis Xinoteganus) that was created in 1991 through the bull "Quod Praelatura Xinotegana" of Pope John Paul II.

It is under the pastoral responsibility of Bishop Carlos Enrique Herrera Gutiérrez.

Wiwilí de Jinotega

Wiwilí de Jinotega (Spanish pronunciation: [wiwiˈli]) is a municipality in the Jinotega department of Nicaragua.

Municipalities

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