Jinn (Arabic: الجن, al-jinn), also Romanized as djinn or Anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source), are supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology. Jinn are not a strictly Islamic concept; rather, they may be various pagan beings integrated into Islam. Since jinn are not inevitably evil (nor good), Islam was able to adapt spirits from other religions during its expansion.
Besides the jinn, Islam acknowledges the existence of demons (Shayāṭīn). The lines between demons and jinn are blurred, since malevolent jinn are also called shayāṭīn. However both Islam and non-Islamic scholarship generally distinguishes between angels, jinn and demons (shayāṭīn) as three different types of spiritual entities in Islamic traditions. The jinn are distinguished from demons, by that they can be both evil or good, while genuine demons are steeped in evil.
In an Islamic context, the term jinn is used for both a collective designation for any supernatural creature and also to refer to a specific type of supernatural creature.
Jinn is an Arabic collective noun deriving from the Semitic root JNN (Arabic: جَنّ / جُنّ, jann), whose primary meaning is "to hide" or "to conceal". Some authors interpret the word to mean, literally, "beings that are concealed from the senses". Cognates include the Arabic majnūn ("possessed", or generally "insane"), jannah ("garden", also “heaven”), and janīn ("embryo"). Jinn is properly treated as a plural, with the singular being jinnī.
The origin of the word Jinn remains uncertain. Some scholars relate the Arabic term jinn to the Latin genius, as a result of syncretism during the reign of the Roman empire under Tiberius Augustus, but this derivation is also disputed. Another suggestion holds that jinn may be derived from Aramaic "ginnaya" (Classical Syriac: ܓܢܬܐ) with the meaning of "tutelary deity", or also "garden". Others claim a Persian origin of the word, in the form of the Avestic "Jaini", a wicked (female) spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the possibly even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran.
The Anglicized form genie is a borrowing of the French génie, from the Latin genius, a guardian spirit of people and places in Roman religion. It first appeared in 18th-century translations of the Thousand and One Nights from the French, where it had been used owing to its rough similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits, in contrast to the malevolent spirits called demon and heavenly angels, in literature. In Assyrian art, creatures ontologically between humans and divinities are also called genie.
Jinn were worshipped by many Arabs during the Pre-Islamic period, but, unlike gods, jinn were not regarded as immortal. In ancient Arabia, the term jinn also applied to all kinds of supernatural entities among various religions and cults; thus, Zoroastrian, Christian, and Jewish angels and demons were also called "jinn".
The exact origins of belief in jinn are not entirely clear. Some scholars of the Middle East hold that they originated as malevolent spirits residing in deserts and unclean places, who often took the forms of animals; others hold that they were originally pagan nature deities who gradually became marginalized as other deities took greater importance. According to common Arabian belief, soothsayers, pre-Islamic philosophers, and poets were inspired by the jinn. However, jinn were also feared and thought to be responsible for causing various diseases and mental illnesses. Julius Wellhausen observed that such spirits were thought to inhabit desolate, dingy, and dark places and that they were feared. One had to protect oneself from them, but they were not the objects of a true cult.
In the Islamic sense, jinn is used in two different ways:
In Islamic tradition, Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both human and jinn communities, and that prophets and messengers were sent to both communities. Traditionally Surah 72 is held to tell about the revelation to Jinn and several stories mention one of Muhammad's followers accompanied him, witnessing the revelation to the Jinn.
Another Islamic prophet, who is related to interactions with Jinn, is Solomon. In Quran, he is said to be a king in ancient Israel and was gifted by God to talk to animals and Jinn. God granted him authority over the rebellious Jinn or marid, thus Solomon forced them to build the First Temple. Beliefs regarding Solomon and his power over the Jinn were later extended in folklore and folktales.
Related to common traditions, the angels were created on Wednesday, the Jinn on Thursday and humans on Friday, but not the very next day, rather more than 1000 years later. The community of the Jinn race were like these of humans, but then corruption and injustice among them increased and all warnings sent by God were ignored. Consequently, God sent his angels to battle the infidel Jinn. Just a few survived, and were ousted to far islands or to the mountains. With the revelation of Islam, the Jinn were given a new chance to access salvation. But because of their prior creation, the jinn would attribute themselves to a superiority over humans and envy them for their place and rank on earth.
In early Islamic development, the status of jinn were reduced from that of deities to minor spirits. To assert a strict monotheism and the Islamic concept of Tauhid, all affinities between the jinn and God were denied, thus jinn were placed parallel to humans, also subject to God's judgment and able to attain Paradise or Hell. However, even though their status as tutelary deities was reduced, they were not consequently regarded as demons. In later revelations, the concept of demons and angels distinct from the pagan jinn were made. T. Fahd stated, the jinn were related to the pagan belief, while the demons and angels were borrowed from monotheistic concepts of angels and demons. In later revelations the demons and the jinn seems to be used interchangeably, here placing the jinn with the devil, against the angels and Muhammad.
When Islam spread outside of Arabia, belief in the jinn was assimilated with local belief about spirits and deities from Iran, Africa, Turkey and India. Persians, for example, identified the jinn in the Quran with the Div from Zoroastrian lore. Developed from various traditions and local folklore, but not mentioned in canonical Islamic scriptures, jinn were thought to be able to possess humans; Morocco especially has many possession traditions, including exorcism rituals. In Sindh the concept of the Jinni was introduced during the Abbasid Era and has become a common part of local folklore, also including stories of both male jinn called "jinn" and female jinn called "Jiniri". Folk stories of female jinn include stories such as the Jejhal Jiniri. Although, due to the cultural influence, the concept of jinn may vary, all share some common features. The jinn are believed to live in societies resembling these of humans, practicing religion (including Islam, Christianity and Judaism), having emotions, needing to eat and drink, and can procreate and raise families. Additionally, they fear iron, generally appear in desolate or abandoned places, and are stronger and faster than humans. Generally, jinn are thought to eat bones and prefer rotten flesh over fresh flesh. In later Albanian lore, jinn live either on earth or under the surface and may possess persons, who insulted them, by for example, if their children are trodden upon or hot water was thrown on them.
The composition and existence of jinn is the subject of various debates during the Middle Ages. According to Ashari, the existence of jinn can not be proven, because arguments concerning the existence of jinn are beyond human comprehension. Adepts of Ashʿari theology explained jinn are invisible to humans, because they lack the appropriate sense organs to envision them. Critics argued, if jinn exist, their bodies must either be ethereal or made of solid material; if they were composed of the former, they would not able to do hard work, like carrying heavy stones. If they were composed of the latter, they would be visible to any human with functional eyes. Critics therefore refused to believe in a literal reading on jinn in Islamic sacred texts, preferring to view them as "unruly men". On the other hand, advocates of belief in jinn assert that God's creation can exceed the human mind; thus, jinn are beyond human understanding. Since they are mentioned in Islamic texts, scholars such as Ibn Taimiyya and Ibn Hazm prohibit the denial of jinn. They also refer to spirits and demons among the Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews to "prove" their existence. Ibn Taymiyya believed the jinn to be generally "ignorant, untruthful, oppressive and treacherous". He held that the jinn account for much of the "magic" that is perceived by humans, cooperating with magicians to lift items in the air, delivering hidden truths to fortune tellers, and mimicking the voices of deceased humans during seances.
Other critics, such as Jahiz and Mas'udi, stated that sightings of jinn are due to psychological causes. According to Mas'udi, the jinn as described by traditional scholars, are not a priori false, but improbable. Jahiz states in his work Kitab al-Hayawan that loneliness induces humans to mind-games and wishful thinking, causing waswās (whisperings in the mind, traditionally thought to be caused by Satan). If he is afraid, he may see things that are not real. These alleged appearances are told to other generations in bedtime stories and poems, and with children of the next generation growing up with such stories, when they are afraid or lonely, they remember these stories, encouraging their imaginations and causing another alleged sighting of jinn.
Later Sufi traditions related the meaning of jinn back to its origin "something that is concealed from sights", thus they were related to the hidden realm, including angels from the heavenly realm and the jinn from a sublunary realm. Ibn Arabi stated: "Only this much is different: The spirits of the jinn are lower spirits, while the spirits of angels are heavenly spirits". The jinn share, due to their intermediary abode both angelic and human traits. According to some Sufi teachings, a jinn is like an "empty cup", composed of its own ego and intention, and a reflection of its observer. Because jinn are closer to the material realm, it would be easier for human to contact a jinn, than an angel.
Jinn can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights story of "The Fisherman and the Jinni"; more than three different types of jinn are described in the story of Ma‘ruf the Cobbler; two jinn help young Aladdin in the story of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp; as Ḥasan Badr al-Dīn weeps over the grave of his father until sleep overcomes him, and he is awoken by a large group of sympathetic jinn in the Tale of ‘Alī Nūr al-Dīn and his son Badr ad-Dīn Ḥasan. In some stories, jinn are credited with the ability of instantaneous travel (from China to Morocco in a single instant); in others, they need to fly from one place to another, though quite fast (from Baghdad to Cairo in a few hours).
Affirmation on the existence of Jinn as sapient creatures living along with humans is still widespread in the Middle Eastern world and mental illnesses are often attributed to jinn possession.
However some modernist commentators, on the basis of the word's meaning, reinterpretated references to jinn as microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses or undetectable uncivilized persons. Others try to reconcile the traditional perspective on jinn, with modern sciences. Fethullah Gülen, leader of Hizmet movement, had put forward the idea, that jinn may be the cause of schizophrenia and cancer and that the Quranic references to jinn on "smokeless fire" could for that matter mean "energy". Others again refuse connections between illness and jinn, but still believe in their existence, due to their occurrences in the Quran.
Modern Salafi tenets of Islam, refuse reinterpretations of jinn and adhere to literalism, arguing the threat of jinn and their ability to possess humans, could be proven by Quran and Sunnah. Jinn are taken as serious danger by adherents of Salafism. Saudi Arabia, following the Wahhabism strant of Salafism, impose death penalty for dealing with jinn to prevent sorcery and witchcraft. Further, there is no distinction made between demons and indifferent spirits from other cultures, as Salafi scholars Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashqar stated, that demons are actually simply unbelieving jinn.
According a survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center in 2012, at least 86% in Morocco, 84% in Bangladesh, 63% in Turkey, 55% in Iraq, 53% in Indonesia, 47% in Thailand and 15% elsewhere in Central Asia, Muslims affirm the existence of jinn. The low rate in Central Asia might be influenced by Soviet religious oppression.
Sleep paralysis is conceptualized as a "Jinn attack" by many sleep paralysis sufferers in Egypt as discovered by Cambridge neuroscientist Baland Jalal. A scientific study found that as many as 48 percent of those who experience sleep paralysis in Egypt believe it to be an assault by the Jinn. Almost all of these sleep paralysis sufferers (95%) would recite verses from the Quran during sleep paralysis to prevent future "Jinn attacks". In addition, some (9%) would increase their daily Islamic prayer (salah) to get rid of these attacks by Jinn. Sleep paralysis is generally associated with great fear in Egypt, especially if believed to be supernatural in origin.
The supernaturality of jinn does not mean they are transcendent to nature, but that they appear so in relation to human's perception of nature, due to their invisibility. They are "natural" in the classical philosopical sense by consisting of an element, undergoing change and being bound in time and space. Thus they are not purely spiritual, but also physical in nature, being able to interact in a tactile manner with people and objects, and also subject to bodily desires like eating and sleeping. Unlike the jinn in Islamic belief and folklore, jinn in Middle Eastern folktales are often depicted as monstrous or magical creatures, and unlike the former, generally considered to be fictional.
The appearance of jinn can be divided into three major categories:
Jinn are assumed to be able to appear in shape of various animals such as scorpions, cats, owls and onagers. The dog is also often related to jinn, especially black dogs. However piebald dogs are rather identified with hinn. Associations between dogs and jinn prevailed in Arabic-literature, but lost its meaning in Persian scriptures. Serpents are the animals most associated with jinn. Islamic traditions knows many narratitions concerning a serpent who was actually a jinni. However (except for the 'udhrut from Yemeni folklore) the jinn can not appear in form of wolves. The wolf is thought of as the natural predator of the jinn, who contrasts the jinn by his noble character and disables them to vanish.
The jinn are also related to the wind. They may appear in mists or sandstorms. Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who is held to have accompanied Muhammad during his lecture to the jinn, is said to view the jinn as shadowy ghosts with no individual structure. According to a narration Ghazali asked Ṭabasī, famous for jinn-incantations, to reveal the jinn to him. Accordingly Tabasi showed him the jinn, seeing them like they were "a shadow on the wall". After Ghazali requested to speak to them, Ṭabasī stated, that for now he could not see more. Although sandstorms are believed to be caused by jinn, others, such as Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini and Ghazali attribute them to natural causes. Otherwise sandstorms are thought to be caused by a battle between different groups of jinn.
A common characteristic of the jinn is their lack of individuality, but they may gain individuality by materializing in human forms,  such as Sakhr and several jinn known from magical writings. But also in their anthropomorphed shape, they stay partly animalic and are not fully human. Therefore, individual jinn are commonly depicted as monstrous and anthropomorphized creatures with body parts from different animals or human with animalic traits. Commonly associated with jinn in humanform are the Si'lah and the Ghoul. However, they stay partly animalic, their bodies are depicted as fashioned out of two or more different species. Some of them may have the hands of cats, the head of birds or wings rise from their shoulders.
Witchcraft (Arabic: سِحْر sihr, which is also used to mean "magic, wizardry") is often associated with Jinn and Afarit around the Middle East. Therefore, a sorcerer may summon a Jinn and force him to perform orders. Summoned Jinn may be sent to the chosen victim to cause demonic possession. Such summonings were done by invocation, by aid of talismans or by satisfying the Jinn, thus to make a contract. Jinn are also regarded as assistants of soothsayers. Soothsayers reveal information from the past and present; the Jinn can be a source of this information because their lifespans exceed those of humans.
Ibn al-Nadim, Muslim scholar of his Kitāb al-Fihrist, describes a book that lists 70 Jinn led by Fuqtus (Arabic: Fuqṭus فقْطس), including several Jinn appointed over each day of the week. Bayard Dodge, who translated al-Fihrist into English, notes that most of these names appear in the Testament of Solomon. A collection of late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century magico-medical manuscripts from Ocaña, Spain describes a different set of 72 Jinn (termed "Tayaliq") again under Fuqtus (here named "Fayqayțūš" or Fiqitush), blaming them for various ailments. According to these manuscripts, each Jinni was brought before King Solomon and ordered to divulge their "corruption" and "residence" while the Jinn King Fiqitush gave Solomon a recipe for curing the ailments associated with each Jinni as they confessed their transgressions.
A disseminated treatise on the occult, written by al-Ṭabasī, called Shāmil, deals with subjugating demons and jinn by incantations, charms and the combination of written and recited formulae and to obtain supernatural powers through their aid. Al-Ṭabasī distinguished between licit and illicit magic, the later founded on disbelief, while the first on purity.
Seven kings of the Jinn are traditionally associated with days of the week.
During the Rwandan genocide, both Hutus and Tutsis avoided searching local Rwandan Muslim neighborhoods because they widely believed the myth that local Muslims and mosques were protected by the power of Islamic magic and the efficacious Jinn. In the Rwandan city of Cyangugu, arsonists ran away instead of destroying the mosque because they feared the wrath of the jinn, whom they believed were guarding the mosque.
Beliefs in entities similar to the jinn are found throughout pre-Islamic Middle Eastern cultures. The ancient Sumerians believed in Pazuzu, a wind demon,:147–148 who was shown with "a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings.":147 The ancient Babylonians believed in utukku, a class of demons which were believed to haunt remote wildernesses, graveyards, mountains, and the sea, all locations where jinn were later thought to reside. The Babylonians also believed in the Rabisu, a vampiric demon believed to leap out and attack travelers at unfrequented locations, similar to the post-Islamic ghūl, a specific kind of jinn whose name is etymologically related to that of the Sumerian galla, a class of Underworld demon.
Lamashtu, also known as Labartu, was a divine demoness said to devour human infants.:115 Lamassu, also known as Shedu, were guardian spirits, sometimes with evil propensities.:115–116 The Assyrians believed in the Alû, sometimes described as a wind demon residing in desolate ruins who would sneak into people's houses at night and steal their sleep. In the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, entities similar to jinn were known as ginnayê, an Aramaic name which may be etymologically derived from the name of the genii from Roman mythology. Like jinn among modern-day Bedouin, ginnayê were thought to resemble humans. They protected caravans, cattle, and villages in the desert and tutelary shrines were kept in their honor. They were frequently invoked in pairs.
Shedim, one of several supernatural creatures in early Jewish mythology, resemble the Islamic concept of Jinn. Both are said to be invisible to human eyes but are subject to bodily desires, like procreating and the need to eat, and both may be malevolent or benevolent. Like the Islamic notion of jinn as Pre-Adamites, Jewish lore also regard shedim as Pre-Adamites, replaced by human beings in some legends. Narrations regarding Asmodeus, an antagonist in the Solomon legends, appears both in Islamic lore and in the Talmud as the king either of the jinn or the shedim.:120
Similar to the Islamic idea of spiritual entities converting to one's own religion can be found on Buddhism lore. Accordingly, Buddha preached among humans,Devas, Asura spiritual entities who are like humans subject to the cycle of life, that resembles the Islamic notion of Jinn, who are also ontologically placed among humans in regard of eschatological destiny.
Van Dyck's Arabic translation of the Old Testament uses the alternative collective plural "jann" (Arab:الجان}; translation:al-jānn) to render the Hebrew word usually translated into English as "familiar spirit" (אוב , Strong #0178) in several places (Leviticus 19:31, 20:6, 1 Samuel 28:3,7,9, 1 Chronicles 10:13).
In Guanche mythology from Tenerife in the Canary Islands, there existed the belief in beings that were similar to genies, such as the maxios or dioses paredros ("attendant gods", domestic and nature spirits) and tibicenas (evil genies), as well as the demon Guayota (aboriginal god of evil) that, like the Arabic Iblīs, is sometimes identified with a genie. The Guanches were the Berber natives of the Canary Islands before they were colonised and enslaved by the Europeans who claimed the island for themselves.
A "Blue Djinn" character appears in the 1960s sitcom I Dream Of Jeannie, season 2, episode 1.
A Jinni makes a short appearance in the novel American Gods by Neil Gaiman, originally published in 2001. American Gods was also made into a TV series for the Starz television cable television network in 2017. The television adaptation also features a Jinni.
The protagonist of the Bartimaeus Sequence is a jinni, and the books have an established hierarchy that include other types of spirits: imps, foliots, djinn, afrits, and marids (to use the author's own spelling). In this interpretation, jinn and all other spirits are not physical beings, but are instead from another dimension of chaos called "The Other Place". To exist on Earth at all, magicians must summon sprits and force them to take some kind of form, something so alien that it causes all spirits pain. As a result, magicians must put measures in place to force spirits to do what they want in a form of magical slavery.
In the popular American television series, "Supernatural", the jinn (alternatively 'djinn' or 'genies') are used as a plot device and one of the supernatural beings that the main characters come in contact with. They are depicted as blood-drinking entities that use psychological attacks to trap their victims in a dreamscape of their own devising. Mentioned in 8 episodes, 2.20 "What is and What Should Never Be", 6.01 "Exile on Main St", 6.10 "Caged Heat", 7.22 "There Will Be Blood", 8.20 "Pac-Man Fever", 9.20 "Bloodlines", 13.16 "Scoobynatural", and 14.05 "Nightmare Logic".
Sūrat al-Jinn (Arabic: سورة الجن, “The Jinn”) is the seventy-second chapter of the Quran with 28 verses. The name as well as the topic of this chapter is jinn. Similar to angels, the Jinn are spiritual beings invisible to the naked human eye. In the Quran, it is stated that humans are created from the earth and jinn from smokeless fire in more than one instance.
In the second verse the jinn recant their belief in false gods and venerate Muhammad for his monotheism. The jinn apologize for their past blasphemy and criticize mankind for either neglecting them or encouraging their disbelief. Verses 20-22 are especially important as Monotheism (tawhid) among the Jinn is reaffirmed and the inescapable wrath of God is emphasized. The Judgement in verse 7, and the Punishment in verse 25, are both references to the Islamic Judgement Day, Yaum al Qiyamah. Verse 25-28 establish that Qiyamah is known only to God, and that God takes into account all the deeds of a man when judging him.Aladdin
Aladdin (; Arabic: علاء الدين, ʻAlāʼ ud-Dīn/ ʻAlāʼ ad-Dīn, IPA: [ʕalaːʔ adˈdiːn]) is a folk tale of Middle Eastern origin. It is one of the tales in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (The Arabian Nights), and one of the best known—despite not being part of the original Arabic text. It was added to the collection in the 18th century by the Frenchman Antoine Galland, who attributed the tale to a Syrian storyteller, Ḥannā Diyāb.Since it first appeared in the early 18th century "Aladdin and the Magic Lamp" has been one of the best known and most retold of all fairy tales.Angels in Islam
In Islam, angels (Arabic: ملاك malāk; plural: ملاًئِكة mala'ikah) are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them. The angels from the angelic realm are subordinates in a hierarchy headed by one of the archangels in the highest heavens. Belief in angels is one of the six articles of faith in Islam.Beit Jinn
Beit Jinn (Arabic: بيت جن), also known as Bayt Jin, Beit Jann or Beyt Jene, is a town in southern Syria, administratively part of the Rif Dimashq Governorate, located southwest of Damascus on the foothills of Mount Hermon. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Beit Jinn had a population of 2,846 in the 2004 census. Its inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims.The town is the administrative center of the Beit Jinn Subdistrict, which consists of nine towns, with a combined population of 15,668. The subdistrict has a mixed Sunni and Druze population and Beit Jinn contains a Druze religious shrine. Nearby localities include Arnah to the north, Darbal to the northeast, Mazraat Beit Jinn to the east, Harfa to the southeast, and Hader to the southwest. The Nahr al-Awaj river (ancient Pharpar) passes near the town.Beit Jinn offensive
The Beit Jinn offensive was a military operation by the Syrian Arab Army against opposition groups in the Western Ghouta area, starting on 28 November 2017.Demon
A demon is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
The original Greek word daimon does not carry negative connotations. The Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates.
In Ancient Near Eastern religions and in the Abrahamic traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian demonology, a demon is considered a harmful spiritual entity which may cause demonic possession, calling for an exorcism.
In Western occultism and Renaissance magic, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman magic, Jewish Aggadah and Christian demonology, a demon is believed to be a spiritual entity that may be conjured and controlled.Demonology
Demonology is the study of demons or beliefs about demons, especially the methods used to summon and control them. The original sense of "demon", from the time of Homer onward, was a benevolent being, but in English the name now holds connotations of malevolence. (To keep the distinction, when referring to the word in its original Greek meaning, English may use the spelling "Daemon" or "Daimon".)
Demons, when regarded as spirits, may belong to either of the classes of spirits recognized by primitive animism. That is to say, they may be human, or non-human, separable souls, or discarnate spirits which have never inhabited a body. A sharp distinction is often drawn between these two classes, notably by the Melanesians, several African groups, and others. The Islamic jinn, for example, are not reducible to modified human souls. At the same time these classes are frequently conceived as producing identical results, e.g. diseases.The word demonology is from Greek δαίμων, daimōn, "divinity, divine power, god"; and -λογία, -logia.Exorcism in Islam
Exorcism in Islam is called ruqya (Arabic: رقية IPA: [ruqya]), and is thought to repair damage believed caused by jinn possession witchcraft (shir) or the evil eye. Exorcisms today are part of a wider body of contemporary Islamic alternative medicine called al-Tibb al-Nabawi (Medicine of the Prophet).Ghoul
A ghoul (Arabic: الغول, al-ghuûl), is a demon or monster originating in pre-Islamic Arabian religion associated with graveyards and consuming human flesh. In modern fiction, the term has often been used for a certain kind of undead monster.
By extension, the word ghoul is also used in a derogatory sense to refer to a person who delights in the macabre, or whose profession is linked directly to death, such as a gravedigger or graverobber.Iblis
Iblīs (or Eblis) is a figure frequently occurring in the Quran, commonly in relation to the creation of Adam and the command to prostrate himself before him. After he refused, he was cast out of heaven. For many classical scholars, he was an angel, but regarded as a jinn in most contemporary scholarship. Due to his fall from God's grace, he is often compared to Satan in Christian traditions. In Islamic tradition, Iblis is often identified with Al-Shaitan ("the Devil"). However, while Shaitan is used exclusively for an evil force, Iblis himself holds a more ambivalent role in Islamic traditions.Ifrit
Ifrit, also spelled as efreet, efrite, ifreet, afreet, afrite and afrit (Arabic: ʻIfrīt: عفريت, pl ʻAfārīt: عفاريت) are supernatural creatures in some Middle Eastern stories. In Islamic culture, they are usually a powerful type of jinn or identified with death-spirits.Jann (legendary creature)
Jann (Arabic: جَنّ / جُنّ, jann) is a type of Jinn in Arabian- and Islam-related lore which has several meanings:
Designation for the Jinn-genus, to distinguish them from the term "Jinn" as a collective noun for all supernatural creatures.
The father of all Jinn created from the fires of samum, sometimes identified with Iblis or Azazel.
A primitive type of Jinn, which dwelled on earth before the actual Jinn emerged or a transformed type of Jinn, comparable how apes are related to humans. These Jann are regarded as the most harmless class of supernatural creatures.Jannah
In Islam, Jannah (Arabic: جنّة Jannah; plural: Jannat), lit. "garden", is the final abode of the righteous and the Islamic believers, but also the Garden of Eden, where Adam and Hawwa dwelt. Firdaws (Arabic: فردوس) is the literal term meaning paradise, but the Quran generally uses the term Jannah symbolically referring to paradise. However "Firdaus" also designates the highest layer of heaven.In contrast to Jannah, the words Jahannam and Nār are used to refer to the concept of hell. There are many words in the Arabic language for both Heaven and Hell and those words also appear in the Quran and hadith. Most of them have become part of the Islamic traditions.Jannah is often compared to Christian concepts of Heaven.Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin (), lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China. Its name is sometimes written as Kin, Jurchen Jin or Jinn in English to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China whose name is identical when transcribed without tone marker diacritics in the Hanyu Pinyin system for Standard Chinese. It is also sometimes called the "Jurchen dynasty" or the "Jurchen Jin", because its founding leader Aguda (reign 1115–1123) was of Wanyan Jurchen descent.
The Jin emerged from Taizu's rebellion against the Liao dynasty (907–1125), which held sway over northern China until the nascent Jin drove the Liao to the Western Regions, where they became known as the Western Liao. After vanquishing the Liao, the Jin launched an over hundred-year struggles against the Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279), which was based in southern China. Over the course of their rule, the Jurchens of Jin quickly adapted to Chinese customs, and even fortified the Great Wall against the rising Mongols. Domestically, the Jin oversaw a number of cultural advancements, such as the revival of Confucianism.
The Mongols invaded the Jin under Genghis Khan in 1211 and inflicted catastrophic defeats on their armies. Though the Jin seemed to suffer a never-ending wave of defeats, revolts, defections, and coups, they proved to have tenacity. The Jin finally succumbed to Mongol conquest 23 years later in 1234.Jinnicky the Red Jinn
The Red Jinn, later known as Jinnicky, is one of Ruth Plumly Thompson's most frequently occurring characters in her Oz books.Mazraat Beit Jinn
Mazraat Beit Jen (Arabic: مزرعة بيت جن), also known as Mazraat Beit Jinn or Mazraat Bayt Jinn, is a Syrian village in the Qatana District of the Rif Dimashq Governorate. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Mazraat Beit Jen had a population of 5,073 in the 2004 census.Nearby localities include Beit Jinn to the west, Arnah to the northwest, Darbal to the north, Hinah to the north-northeast, Maghar al-Mir to the east, Harfa to the south, and Hader to the southwest.Qui-Gon Jinn
Qui-Gon Jinn is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise, portrayed by Liam Neeson as one of the main protagonists of the 1999 film Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace.Shaitan
Shayāṭīn (شياطين), singular: Shayṭān (Arabic: شيطان) are evil spirits, comparable to demons or devils, in Islamic theology and mythology. Usually, the shayatin are regarded as the offspring of Iblis, but other beings, such as evil jinn, idols and fallen angels are also referred to as shayatin. From an ontological perspective, the shayatin are all beings, which became a manifestation of evil and ugliness. Surah 6:112 collectively refers to the "shayatin" among Ins and jinn, whereupon some exegetes linked this expression to "evil among everything in shape" and "evil among everything invisible".Succubus
A succubus is a demon in female form, or supernatural entity in folklore (traced back to medieval legend), that appears in dreams and takes the form of a woman in order to seduce men, usually through sexual activity. The male counterpart is the incubus. Religious traditions hold that repeated sexual activity with a succubus may result in the deterioration of health or mental state, or even death.
In modern representations, a succubus may or may not appear in dreams and is often depicted as a highly attractive seductress or enchantress; whereas, in the past, succubi were generally depicted as frightening and demonic.