Jinan, alternately romanized as Tsinan,[a] is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.[3] The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub.[4] The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994.[4][5] Jinan is often called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs.[6] Its population was 6.8 million at the 2010 census.[7]


The modern-day name Jinan literally means "south of the Ji" and refers to the old Ji River that had flowed to the north of the city until the middle of the 19th century. The Ji River disappeared in 1852[8] when the Yellow River changed its course northwards and took over its bed. The current pronunciation of the character "Ji" with the third tone ("jǐ") was established in the late 1970s. Prior to this, it was pronounced with the fourth tone (""). Older texts spell the name as "Tsinan" (Wade-Giles romanization) or "Chi-nan".

During the times of the Zhou dynasty (1045 BC to 256 BC), the city of Lixia (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Lìxià) was the major settlement in the area. The name "Lixia" refers to the location of Jinan at the foot of Mount Li, which lies to the south of the city). Today, Lixia is the name of one of the city's districts.

The Battle of An, which was fought in the area during the Spring and Autumn period (in 589 BCE) between the states of Qi and Jin, is named for the ancient city of Ān (Chinese: ) which stood within the city limits of present-day Jinan. Marco Polo gives a brief description of Jinan under the name "Chingli"[9] or "Chinangli".[10] 19th and early 20th century texts frequently give the name of the city as "Tsinan Fu" where the additional "Fu" (Chinese: ) comes from the dated Chinese term for a provincial capital (Chinese: ).

Jinan is also referred to by the nickname "City of Springs" (Chinese: ), because of the many artesian springs in the urban city centre and its surroundings.


Early history

The area of present-day Jinan has been inhabited for more than 4000 years. The Neolithic Longshan culture was first discovered at Chengziya to the east of Jinan (Zhangqiu District) in 1928. One of the characteristic features of the Longshan culture are the intricate wheel-made pottery pieces it produced. Most renowned is the black "egg-shell pottery" with wall thicknesses that can go below 1 millimeter.[11]

During the Spring and Autumn period (722–481 BCE) and Warring States period (475–221 BCE), the area of Jinan was split between two states: the state of Lu in the west and the state of Qi in the east. In 685 BCE, the state of Qi started to build the Great Wall of Qi across Changqing county. Portions of the wall still remain today and are accessible as open air museums. Bian Que, according to the legend the earliest Chinese physician and active around 500 BCE, is said to have been a native of present-day Changqing County. Zou Yan (305–240 BCE), a native of Zhangqiu City, developed the concepts of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements. Joseph Needham, a British sinologist, describes Zou as "The real founder of all Chinese scientific thought."[12]

During the times of the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), Jinan was the capital of the Kingdom of Jibei (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: bĕi Guó) and evolved into the cultural and economic hub of the region. The Han dynasty tomb where the last king of Jibei, Liú Kuān (/), was buried at Shuangru Mountain was excavated by archaeologists from Shandong University in 1995 and 1996.[13] More than 2000 artifacts such as jade swords, jade masks, and jade pillows have been recovered within the 1,500 square meter excavation site, emphasizing the wealth of the city during the period.[14] Cao Cao (155 – 220 CE) was an official in Jinan before he became the de facto ruler of the Han dynasty.[15] His son, Cao Pi, overthrew the last emperor of the Han and founded the Wei Kingdom (220 – 265 CE) of the Three Kingdoms Period.

Beginning in the 5th century CE, Buddhism flourished in Jinan. The Langgong Temple (; Lǎnggōng, later renamed Shentong Temple, (; Shéntōng, and now in ruins) in the southern county of Licheng was one of the most important temples in northern China at that time. The same period witnessed extensive construction of Buddhist sites in the southern counties of Licheng and Changqing such as the Lingyan Temple and the Thousand-Buddha Cliff. In particular, a large number of cave temples were established in the hills south of Jinan.[9]

Jinan remained the cultural center of the region during the Song dynasty (960 – 1279 CE). The Song rulers promoted Jinan to a superior prefecture in 1116 CE. Two of the most important poets of the Southern Song were both born in Jinan: Li Qingzhao (1084–1151 CE), the most renown female poet in Chinese history, and Xin Qiji (1140–1207 CE), who was also a military leader of the Southern Song dynasty. Both poets witnessed a series of crushing defeats of the Song dynasty at the hands of the Jurchens who gained control over almost half of the Song territories and established the Jin dynasty in northern China. After Jinan came under control of the Jin dynasty, both Li Qingzhao and Xin Qiji had to abandon their homes and reflected this experience in their works.

During the Civil War that followed the proclamation of Kublai Khan as Great Khan in 1260 CE, Jinan was at the center of a rebellion by Yizhou governor Li Tan against Mongol rule in 1262 CE. The rebellion was crushed in a decisive battle that was fought not far from Jinan in late March or early April 1262 CE. After losing 4000 of his troops in the battle, Li Tan retreated to Jinan to make his last stand. After defections of his defenders had made his position untenable, Li Tan tried to commit suicide by drowning himself in Daming Lake. However, he was rescued by the Mongols in order to execute him by trampling him to death with their horses.[16]

Despite such violent conflicts, culture in Jinan continued to thrive during the Jin (1115–1234) and Yuan (1271–1368) dynasties: One of the most renowned artists of the Yuan dynasty, Zhao Mengfu (1254–1322) was appointed to the post of governor of Jinan in 1293 and spent three years in the city. Among the extraordinary art works he completed during his stay in Jinan, the best known painting is "Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains" (《》). Geographer Yu Qin (1284–1333) also served as an official in Jinan and authored his geography book Qi Cheng there.

Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains (鹊华秋色)
Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains ()

When Shandong province was established under the Ming dynasty, Jinan became its capital.[9] Jinan was the site of a siege during the Jingnan Campaign where the city was defended by loyalists of the Jianwen Emperor led by Tie Xuan against the rebel Prince of Yan Zhu Di's army.

In 1852, the northward shift of the Yellow River into a new bed close to the city triggered the modern expansion of Jinan. The new course of the Yellow River connected the city to the Grand Canal and regional waterways in northern Shandong and southern Hebei.[9]

German influence in Jinan grew after the Qing dynasty ceded Qingdao to the German Empire in 1897. A German concession area was established to the west of the historical city center (in the vicinity of the Jinan Railway Station first established by the Germans). The Jiaoji (Qingdao–Jinan) railway was built by the Germans against local resistance.[17] Discontent over the construction of the railway was one of the sources fueling the Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901).[18] During the rebellion, foreign priests were evacuated from Jinan and Chinese Christians became a target of violence. The Jiaoji railway was completed in 1904, three years after the Boxer Rebellion had been put down, and opened the city to foreign trade.[9] The importance of Jinan as a transportation hub was cemented with the completion of the north–south Jinpu railway from Tianjin to Pukou in 1912.[9] Jinan became a major trading center for agricultural goods in northern China. Traded commodities included cotton, grain, peanuts, and tobacco.[9] Jinan also developed into a major industrial center, second in importance to Qingdao in the province.

Republican era

In 1919, after the First World War, the Japanese took over the German sphere of influence in Shandong, including control of the Jiaoji railway, and established a significant Japanese influence in Jinan.[9] According to estimates by a contemporary Japanese government official, about 2,000 Japanese were living in Jinan in 1931, about half of whom were involved in the opium trade for which the Japanese had a loosely controlled monopoly that was exploited with the participation of Chinese traders.[19]

During the Warlord era of the Republic of China, Zhang Zongchang, nicknamed the "Dogmeat General",[20] ruled Shandong from Jinan for a period that lasted from April 1925 until May 1928. Zhang was unpopular for his heavy-handed rule and in particular his heavy taxation.[21] Besides heavy taxes, he relied financially on opium to finance his periodic wars.[19] Zhang even planned to use some of the wealth extracted from these sources for building a living shrine and a large bronze statue for himself on the shore of Daming Lake, but these plans were not realized as his rule came to an end.

In the spring of 1928, the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition reached Jinan.[22] On May 3, 1928, clashes developed between Japanese troops stationed in Jinan and the Kuomintang troops moving into the city (Jinan Incident).[23] Cai Gongshi, a Kuomintang emissary sent to negotiate and 16 members of his entourage were cruelly executed by the Japanese. Japanese officers placed an order to slice off his nose and ears, and to gouge out his eyes and tongue. Sixteen other members of his negotiation team were also striped naked, recklessly whipped, dragged to the back-lawn, and slaughtered by machine guns on the same day.[24] After the incident, Japanese reinforcements were sent to Shandong and by 11 May, Japanese troops pushed the Chinese troops from the area, inflicted thousands of casualties[25] and killed over 2000 Chinese civilians.[26] The Japanese occupied Jinan for more than six months until they withdrew to their garrison in Tsingtao on the 28th of March 1929. When Chiang lectured a group of Chinese army cadets, he urged them to turn their energies to washing away the shame of Jinan, but to conceal their hatred until the last moment.[27] The Kuomintang government later decreed that May 3 be designated a "National Humiliation Memorial Day."

During the Nanjing decade of the Republic of China, Han Fuju, a military commander from the warlord era who had aligned himself with the Kuomintang, was rewarded with the military governorship of Shandong, after fighting against the rebel troops of Yen Hsi-shan and his former commander Feng Yu-hsiang in the Central Plains War in 1930.[28] He established his base in Jinan and is credited with curtailing banditry and drug trading, thereby bringing a measure of peace and prosperity to the city.[29] However, from 1935 onwards Han was under heavy pressure from the Japanese consul in Jinan to declare Shandong an "independent state" allied with Japan.

After the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese invasion force crossed the Yellow River 60 km (37 mi) north-east of Jinan on December 23, 1937.[30] Han Fuju abandoned Jinan the next day against orders to hold the city to the death.[30] He ordered the offices of the provincial government and the Japanese consulate in Jinan to be burned down[30] and the ensuing power vacuum led to widespread looting in the city.[30] Japanese troops from the 10th Division of the Manchurian Area Army[31] entered Jinan on December 27, 1937.[30] Han Fuju was arrested and executed for disobeying orders from superior commanders and retreating on his own accord[32] by Chiang Kai-Shek's chief of staff, General Hu Zongnan.[33][34]

Hero hill monument jinan 2009 07 18
Monument commemorating the war dead of the battle of Jinan on Hero Hill

After World War II

Japanese troops controlled Jinan until their defeat in 1945. After this, the Kuomintang regained short-lived control of the city during the period from 1946 to 1948. The provincial government during this time was led by Lieutenant-General Wang Yaowu, who also commanded the KMT army in the region. KMT rule over Jinan ended in September 1948 with the Battle of Jinan in which units of the People's Liberation Army under the command of Chen Yi took the city. The battle for Jinan took a decisive turn in favor of the attackers when KMT Lieutenant-General Wú Huàwén () defected to the Communist side with about 8,000 of his troops.[35] The most likely explanation for his defection is that he had been pressured through relatives of his who were held captive by the Communist forces.[35] Lieutenant-General Wu had been in charge of the vital outer ring of defenses that protected the main airfield, the railroad station, and the commercial district.[35] With these critical assets lost, the situation of the city's defenders became untenable. Following the weakening of the city's defenses, the People's Liberation Army breached the city wall and entered Jinan on September 24, 1948.

Cultural Revolution

In March 1966, the largest among the drawn-out sequence of earthquakes that made up the Xingtai earthquake damaged about 36,000 houses in Jinan.[36]

Entrance to Water Lily Street,a historical shopping street in Jinan.

On May 27, 1966, the Cultural Revolution started in Jinan with an article in the local newspaper "Jinan Evening News" () that denounced vice-governor Yu Xiu as a Bourgeois agent within the government.[36] Starting from early June 1966, the schools in Jinan were closed down by strikes as teachers were "struggled against". At the same time, big-character posters started to appear in the city.[36] Red Guards took to the streets of Jinan from late August 1966 onwards, damaging cultural heritage and setting up courts to prosecute perceived enemies of the revolution. In the spring of 1967, the "May 7th Incident" took place: When Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan, both later reviled as members of the Gang of Four, visited Jinan to support the Cultural Revolution and its local leader Wang Xiao Yu, fighting erupted in the front of the provincial government between two rival factions of the Cultural Revolution, the "April 22nd Group" and Wang Xiao Yu's "April 28th Group". In the end, more than 10,000 people had been involved in the fighting.[37] On October 11, 1967, the tallest statue of Mao Zedong in Shandong province was erected on the campus of Shandong Normal University.[38] On September 17, 1968, a large assembly of Jinan workers celebrated the arrival of a mango fruit in the "August 1st" Meeting Hall. The fruit had been a gift to the workers in Beijing by Mao and was subsequently passed on to the workers in Jinan. In November 1968, Wang Xiao Yu began to agitate against the local army units in Jinan and Shandong Province. By then unrest due to the Cultural Revolution had severely damaged the city's governmental and industrial infrastructure, with about 80 percent of all government institutions shut down.[39] Large public protests were staged on April 4 and 5, 1969, in which approximately 500,000 people protested the occupation of Zhenbao Island by the Soviet Union.[40] On July 29, 1970, the leadership of the Cultural Revolution passed a resolution to make sweeping changes to the city's educational system: The liberal arts departments of Shandong University were moved to Qufu and combined with Qufu Normal College to form a new Shandong University. The biology department was moved to Tai'an and merged into the Shandong Agricultural College. The rest of the sciences were to form the Shandong Science and Technology University. Shandong Normal University was to be moved to Liaocheng. Shandong Medical College and Shandong College of Traditional Chinese Medicine were to be merged and moved to Tai'an.[41] Shandong University was restored in its original form and the "Shandong Science and Technology University" was abolished in early 1974.[42] The first reversals of Cultural Revolution policies started in early 1971: On May 23 of that year, the Shandong Provincial Museum was reopened after having been closed for about 5 years (since May 1966).[43] In the next year, the Jinan Committee for the Cultural Revolution officially reverted the name changes of four city districts enacted in 1966. During the 6 years between the name change and its reversal, Lixia District had been known officially as "Hongwei", Tianqiao as "Face the Sun", Huaiyin as "East Wind", and Shizhong as "Red Flag".[44] As the Cultural Revolution came to an end, Jinan started to receive visitors from abroad. For example, it was visited by a delegation from the United States Congress between August 8 and 11, 1975.[45] On September 18, 1976, Mao's death was mourned by about 600,000 people at an official service in Jinan's August 1 Square.[46]

Post 1990s

Jinan was the host of the 11th All China Games during October 2009. These games are the selection games for the Chinese Olympic champions. For this occasion, security was heightened and a full volunteer force was out on the streets directing visitor traffic. The city conducted major renovations in its transportation and recreation services in anticipation of the Games' visitors.[47]


At the beginning of January, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved the approval of Shandong Province to adjust the administrative division of Laiwu City and Jinan City, cancel Laiwu City, and all jurisdiction of former Laiwu City belongs to Jinan City; establish Laiwu District of Jinan City to replace the former Laicheng District of Laiwu City with the same administrative area; establish Gangcheng District of Jinan City to replace the former Gangcheng District of Laiwu City with the same administrative area.[48]

Geography and climate

Jinan 117.02265E 36.67601N
Jinan and vicinities


Jinan Batouspringpark
Baotu Spring

Jinan is located in the north-western part of Shandong province at 36° 40 northern latitude and 116° 57′ east of Greenwich, about 400 kilometres (250 mi) south of the national capital of Beijing. It borders Liaocheng to the southwest, Dezhou to the northwest, Binzhou to the northeast, Zibo to the east, and Tai'an to the south. In the relief of the region, the city occupies a transition zone between the northern foothills of the Taishan Massif to the south of the city and the valley of the Yellow River to the north. Karst aquifers in limestone formations sloping down from the south to the north give rise to many artesian springs in the city center as well as in surrounding areas.


Jinan has a humid subtropical (Köppen: Cwa), considering a normal isotherm of −3 °C, or a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dwa), considering an isotherm of 0 °C but favoring the former, with four well-defined seasons. The city is dry and nearly rainless in spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold (with little snow) in winter. The average annual temperature is 14.70 °C (58.5 °F), and the annual precipitation is around slightly above 670 millimetres (26.4 in), with a strong summer maximum, and high variability from year to year. January is the coldest and driest month, with a mean temperature of −0.4 °C (31.3 °F) and 5.7 millimetres (0.22 in) of equivalent rainfall. July is the hottest and wettest month, the corresponding numbers are 27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and 201.3 mm (7.93 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48 percent in July to 63 percent in May, the city receives 2,547 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Due to the mountains to the south of the city, temperature inversions are common, occurring on about 200 days per year.[49] The high precipitation for northern Chinese standards, in tandem with the topography (mountains surrounding the city on three sides), leads to particularly oppressive summer weather and the city being named as a candidate for the fourth "furnace", c.e. Three Furnaces.[50] Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −19.7 °C (−3 °F) on 17 January 1953 to 42.5 °C (109 °F) on 24 July 1955.[51][52]

Air quality

Chinahaze tmo 2013341 lrg
7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog

According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and The Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Jinan is one of ten most air polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, 7 of 10 most air polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Jinan and Shijiazhuang.[54] As air pollution in China is at an all-time high, several northern cities are among the most polluted cities and has one of the worst air quality in China. Reporting on China's air quality has been accompanied by what seems like a monochromatic slideshow of the country's several cities smothered in thick smog. According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, Jinan is among China's 10 most polluted cities, and is the only Shandong city to be on this list. Other cities on the blacklist includes major Chinese cities like Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Zhengzhou, and 6 other prefectural cities all in Hebei Province.[55] These cities are all situated in traditional geographic subdivision of "Huabei (North China) Region".

A dense wave of smog began in the Central and Eastern part of China on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 kilometres (750 mi),[56] including Jinan and surrounding Shandong area. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region.[57] Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in North China region.[58] Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.[59]

Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Jinan has direct jurisdiction over ten districts and 2 counties after the annexation of Laiwu to Jinan in 2019:

Subdivision Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population(2010) Area (km²) Dens. (/km²)
Inner city
Lixia District 历下区 Lìxià Qū 754,136 101.18 7476.13
Shizhong District 市中区 Shìzhōng Qū 713,581 281.49 2545.51
Huaiyin District 槐荫区 Huáiyìn Qū 476,811 151.61 3144.13
Tianqiao District 天桥区 Tiānqiáo Qū 688,415 258.97 2660.94
Inner suburbs
Licheng District 历城区 Lìchéng Qū 1,124,306 1301.21 862.27
Changqing District 长清区 Chángqīng Qū 578,740 1208.59 478.88
Jiyang District 济阳区 Jǐyáng Qū 517,948 1098.81 472.09
Outer suburbs
Zhangqiu District 章丘区 Zhāngqiū Qū 1,064,210 1719.09 618.26
Laiwu District 莱芜区 Láiwú Qū 989,535 1739.61 518.93
Gangcheng District 钢城区 Gāngchéng Qū 308,994 506.42 910.04
Rural counties
Pingyin County 平阴县 Píngyīn Xiàn 331,712 715.06 463.81
Shanghe County 商河县 Shānghé Xiàn 564,125 1162.40 484.98

These are further divided into 146 township-level divisions, including 65towns, 27 townships and 54 subdistricts.


Skyline seen from the Thousand Buddha Mountain

With the shift of the Yellow River to a new bed right to the north of Jinan (in 1852) and the establishment of a railroad hub, the city became a major market for agricultural products from the productive farming regions to the north.[9] Following the trade in agricultural goods, the city developed a textile and clothing industry, flour mills, oil presses, as well as factories producing paper, cement, and matches.[9] In the 1950s, large iron and steel works as well as chemical factories were established around Jinan. The large metal works produce pig iron, ingot steel, as well as finished steel.[9] In 2008, steel manufacturing was restructured with the formation of the Shandong Iron and Steel Group. In the 1970s, Sinotruk established its headquarters and factories for the production of trucks and construction vehicles in the city.[60]

Jinan has a pool of high-quality labor resources. There are 18 universities and colleges in the city where more than 200,000 students are studying. Among the over 200 research institutes in the city, 10 are national laboratories.

The focus on technology-intensive industries has transformed Jinan from a city supported by heavy industry and textiles to a city with more diverse industrial structure. Information Technology, transportation tools, home appliances, and bio-engineered products, among others, have become important components of the area's industry. Jinan's IT-related economic output was ranked to be in the fourth place nationally in 2004.

Industrial zones include:

  • Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Founded in 1991, the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development zone was one of the first of its kind approved by the State Council. The zone is located to the east of the city and covers a total planning area of 83 km2 (32 sq mi) that is divided into a central area covering 33 km2 (13 sq mi), an export processing district of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi), and an eastern extension area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi). Since its foundation, the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted enterprises as LG, Panasonic, Volvo, and Sanyo. In 2000, it joined the world science and technology association and set up a China-Ukraine High-tech Cooperation Park. The Qilu Software Park became the sister park of Bangalore park of India.[61]

  • Jinan Export Processing Zone

The export processing zone is located in the eastern suburbs of Jinan, to the east of the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone and to the north of the Jiwang highway. The distances to the Jiqing Highway and the Jinan Airport are 9 km (5.6 mi) and 18 km (11 mi) respectively.[62]

  • Liaocheng Economic Development Zone


The South Mosque of Jinan 2009-03
The Great Southern Mosque, the oldest mosque in Jinan.

In 2005, the estimated population of the entire area under the jurisdiction of Jinan City was 5.69 million, with a total of 2.54 million living in urban areas. By 2009, the total population had grown to about six million. The census in 2010 counted 6.814 million inhabitants out of which about 4.335 million were living in 6 urban districts which made up the built-up area.[7]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 11 million.[1]

The population is predominantly Han (98.3 percent), with very small portions of Hui and Manchu Chinese. Jinan has a significant Muslim community centred in the city's Muslim quarter, located to the west of the historical center.

Culture and contemporary life


Local residents in the city proper, as well as in the surrounding areas, have traditionally spoken the Jinan dialect of Mandarin that is not readily understood even by native speakers of standard Mandarin. The younger people of Jinan are more likely to speak standard Mandarin, whereas many older residents retain strong local dialect elements in their speech. Nevertheless, even the younger residents of Jinan tend to retain a strong local accent and mix local vocabulary into the standardized Mandarin vocabulary. Due to the influx of migrant workers during the past decade of China's economic boom, many of the current population that are of working age are not natives of Jinan but have learned to understand the Jinan dialect.


Jinan has its own cuisine, the Jinan style of the Shandong cuisine, one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China. One of its features is the use of soup in its dishes. Modern cuisines in northern China —Beijing, Tianjin and the northeastern regions including Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning— are all branches of Shandong cuisine.

Shopping centers

Most shopping malls in Jinan are in the downtown area centered around Spring City Square and Spring City Road (). Spring City Square was built by the municipal government beside the city moat in the early 21st century; at the center is the statue "Spring" which has become a symbol of Jinan. The square borders on the ancient city moat. It has a music fountain, a 46,000 square meter underground shopping center and a memorial hall with statues of famous people from Shandong.

Spring City Road was rebuilt at the same time that Spring City Square was created. The government's intention was to create a modern business district and yet preserve the traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, newly built shopping malls with traditional Chinese architectural styles and modern western skyscrapers can be found side-by-side along Spring City Road. Notable retail businesses are Quancheng Bookstore – the largest bookstore of the city – and Walmart (near the western end of Spring City Road). Major shopping malls along the road are the Guihe Shopping Center (), the Sofitel Silver Plaza, the Shimao international shopping center, and the Wanda Shopping Mall (). Parc 66 (广) to the south of Spring City Road (opposite of Water Lily Street), opened in August 2011, is Jinan's largest shopping mall with seven levels of retail space and a total gross floor area of 171,000 square meters.[63]


Healthcare system



Jinan Railway Station
CRH at Jinan Railway Station
China Jinan 5197201
Jinan West Railway Station

Jinan is positioned at the intersection of two major railways: The Jinghu Railway that runs from Beijing to Shanghai is the major north–south backbone of the railway system in eastern China. In Jinan, it intersects with the Jiaoji Railway that connects Jinan to the sea port of Qingdao to the east. In addition, the Hanji Railway connects Jinan to the city of Handan (Hebei Province) in the west. Within Shandong province, the Jinghu Railway connects Jinan with the cities of Dezhou, Tai'an, Jining, and Zaozhuang; the Jiaoji Railway provides a link to the cities of Zibo, Qingdao, and Weifang; the Hanji Railway serves the cities of Yancheng and Liaocheng. Central Jinan is served by the Jinan Railway Station and the Jinan East Railway Station (just by Daming Lake).

The Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway calls at the new Jinan West Railway Station, which is outside the central metropolitan center and is in suburban western Jinan's Huaiyin District. Since it opened for public service on 30 June 2011,[64] it has become a future hub with west-east running high speed railways to Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang and Qingdao.


Major expressways include China National Highway 104, China National Highway 220, and China National Highway 309. Because of Jinan's location and role as a road and rail transportation hub, the Jinan Coach Terminus has one of the largest passenger flows nationally. On peak travel days, as many as 92,000 passengers per day have been counted, on off-peak days the number is around 42,000 passengers per day.[65]


Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is located about 33 km (21 mi) northeast of the city center and to the north of the town of Yaoqiang from which the name of the airport is derived. The airport is connected to the city center of Jinan by expressways. It has domestic flights to many of the major cities in China as well as to international destinations, in particular Helsinki[66], Osaka,[67] Seoul, Paris, Bangkok and Singapore.

Public transportation

Jinan's urban public transportation history began in 1938, and the city is now a major bus transportation hub. To ensure that buses have priority, most of the city's urban main roads have a bus lane, and bus rapid transit signal priority measures are gradually being implemented. The Jinan urban area has more than 220 public transportation routes.

According to the properties of bus lines, Jinan's urban bus network can be divided into five categories:

  • Bus rapid transit system: The Jinan BRT has 7 routes, connected by transfer stations. As a result of the BRT's isolated central lanes, signal priority and other measures, bus speeds have been greatly improved, improving public transport. Price:¥2.
  • Conventional buses: Have air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buses. Air-conditioned lines have a K perfix on their route numbers. Form 2018, most lines are air-conditioned lines (Include lines without K perfix)[68]. These lines comprise more than 200 routes covering the whole city. Price:¥1 (Air-conditioned is¥2).
  • Public trolleybuses: the Jinan trolleybus system, opened in 1977, once had 10 lines, but now has only four. These are Jinan's most important bus routes. Price:¥1.
  • Suburban and exurban buses – Operated by air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned vehicles. Most of these buses carries passengers from suburban/exurban area to urban area, while the others provide village-to-village or village-to-county service. Price: Varies from ¥1 to ¥12.
  • Student, supermarket and particular business bus lines – These are for large schools, supermarkets, business transfer students, customers, employees of private businesses. They operate side by side with the other bus systems.

Started by construction in 2013, Jinan Metro will open in 2018[69] and then will be extended to 3 lines toward 2030.

Main tourist attractions

Baotuspring 10000 bamboo garden courtyard 2008 09 14
Pavilion in the 10,000 Bamboo Garden of Baotu Spring Park
Qianfoshan buddha statues1
The Thousand Buddha Mountain, a religious landmark in Jinan

Jinan is renowned across China for its numerous springs, the lakes fed by the spring water, and the weeping willows that grow along the water edges. The late-Qing author Liu E describes Jinan's cityscape in his novel "The Travels of Lao Can" (, written 1903–04, published in 1907) as "Every family has spring water, every household has a willow tree".[70] Jinan was also the historical center of Buddhist culture for the whole province which is still manifest in the many historic sites that are left behind in its southern counties.

Springs and lakes

Jinan is known as the "City of Springs" because of the large number of natural artesian springs. The majority of the springs, many of which have been historically listed under the "72 Famous Springs" () are concentrated in the downtown district and flow north to converge in Daming Lake.[6] The Baotu Spring Park is the most popular of the springs in the City of Jinan proper. Besides the Baotu Spring, the park contains several other springs that are listed among the "72 Famous Springs". "Bào tū" () means "jumping and leaping" in Chinese. The water in the spring pool can be seen foaming and gushing, looking like a pot of boiling water. The spring was visited by the Qianlong Emperor (1711–1799) of the Qing dynasty who declared it "the best spring under the heaven" (Chinese: 天下第一泉; pinyin: tiān xià dì yī quán). A tablet with the Emperor's handwriting "Baotu Spring" has since been erected beside the spring pool.

Not far away to the northeast of Baotu Spring Park is the Daming Lake, which, together with Baotu Spring and the Thousand-Buddha Mountain () is often regarded as the "Three Greatest Attractions in Jinan". Other notable parks in the city include the Five Dragon Pool () near the Baotu Spring Park, the Black Tiger Spring () on the southern city moat, and the Baimai Springs () of Zhangqiu City to the east of Jinan.

Buddhist sites

Historic Buddhist sites are particularly common in Licheng County to the south-east of the city center of Jinan. The Four Gates Pagoda (), built in 661, is the oldest existing one-story stone tower in China. The pagoda houses four Buddhist statues dating from the 6th century, and the Cypress tree () standing next to the pagoda is more than 1000 years old. Below the hill on which pagoda stands lie the remnants of the Shentong Temple (), which was founded in the 4th century but was destroyed in the wars of later dynasties. The funerary stelae of monks from the temple which date from different historic periods display remarkable artistic features. The statues in the nearby Thousand-Buddha Cliff () form one of the best collections of Tang dynasty Buddhist statues in the region.

The Lingyan Temple in the southern county of Changqing was one of the four most famous temples (四大名刹) of the Tang dynasty. The temple was founded during the Jin dynasty and reached its heyday during the Tang and Song dynasties. During the Tang dynasty, the famous monk Xuanzang stayed in the temple and translated Buddhist manuscripts he had brought to China from India. Many emperors in Chinese history visited the temple before they went to Mount Tai (one of China's five sacred mountains, located south of Jinan) for ceremonies. The clay sculptures of Buddhas made in the Song dynasty are considered as "The Best of China" by scholar and journalist Liang Qichao. Buddhist architectures within the temple such as pagodas and tomb stelae are among the earliest and best protected in the region.

Museums and libraries

The Shandong Provincial Museum located at the foothill of Thousand-Buddha Mountain is the largest museum in the province. It has a large collection of natural as well as historical treasures from the whole province. The museum was established in its present form in 1982 and currently has 8 exhibition halls : "Treasures of Shandong Province"; "Stone Sculptures"; "Warship of the Ming dynasty"; "Ancient Coins"; "Art Treasures"; "Fossil Collections"; "Dinosaurs"; and "Specimens". The museum has more than 210,000 relics and specimens, making up ⅓ of the collections in museums of whole province. The Shandong Provincial Museum has been ranked No. 7 in terms of collection size among the museums of China.

The Shandong Art Museum holds a large collection of fine arts.

The Jinan Municipal Museum [71] is located at the south-western foot of the Thousand-Buddha Mountain, in the north of the city center. Although much smaller than the provincial museum, the municipal museum still houses a collection of more than 20,000 items, most of which were recovered in the city area.

The Shandong Provincial Library [72] in the eastern High-tech Park (address: 2912 Second Ring East Road) is the principal library of the province and is ranked among the Top 10 Chinese libraries. As of 2004, the library had more than 5.18 million documents, many of which date back many centuries and are important sources for research on Chinese history. The library also has a large collection of western journals/books. Originally, the library was built close to Daming Lake in 1909 by the then governor of Shandong. In the late 1990s, a project was undertaken to move the library to the eastern part of the city, and it reopened in 2002 with 35 reading rooms and more than 2000 seats.

Parks and Nature Reserves

Jinan Hundred Miles Yellow River Scenic Area is located in No.166 Luokou Huancheng Road in Tianqiao District.[73] It is designed as an ecological cultural theme park which focuses on ecological tourism, cultural tourism, and healthy tourism. The Yellow River of this section stretches 51.98 kilometers.[74] Jinan Hundred Miles Yellow River Scenic Area was awarded the title “Fifty Scenes of the Yellow River in China” on September 12, 2018.[75] The Levee extending along the Yellow River in this scenery area, is praised as “the Great Wall over water”.[76]

Yellow River Forest Park (Jinan) is located on the north bank of the Yellow River. The Yellow River Forest Park sprawls over 1500mu (100 hectares) and has 300,000 trees of various breeds.[77] Yellow River Forest Park is the only park equipping with a forest racecourse, which has a course of 3 Li (unit), in Jinan City.[78] Yellow River Forest Park provides not only an area covering 5000 square meters for visitors to freely barbecue but also a fishing pond covering 1,800 square meters. Visitors can participate in various activities here, such as roller skating, cue sports, table tennis, archery, shooting, etc.

Daming Lake Park is located in the center of Jinan City, covering an area of 46.5 hectares. Daming Lake Park is considered as one of the "Three Must-see Tourist Spots of Jinan" (the others are Baotu Spring Park and Thousand-Buddha Mountain). Daming Lake Park has many scenic spots, such as the Daming lake and the Lixia Pavilion. Daming Lake is a natural lake consisting of many springs. It is unique because the lake has constant water level unaffected by heavy rains or drought.[79] Lixia Pavilion, which was built in the Northern Wei period, is in the center of the Daming Lake. There are so many ancient buildings in Daming Lake Park that it has an title describing them, which is "One terrace, three gardens, three towers, four ancestral halls, six isles, seven bridges and ten pavilions".[80]


Universities and colleges

Provincial high schools


Jinan is the former command center for the Jinan Military Region, one of the defunct seven military regions into which the People's Liberation Army is organized.[92] Jinan MR was considered as a strategic reserve of PLA. Jinan Military Region covered two of China's most populous provinces, Henan and Shandong.


The most renowned sports team in Jinan are the Shandong Golden Lions. The Shandong Golden Lions have been playing in the Chinese top basketball league for all the seasons (13 for basketball) since the league turned professional in 1995. The team's best season was 1997–1998 when it finished 3rd place. In the 2007–2008 season, the Shandong Golden Lions also reached the 3rd place at the end of the season, but they were knocked out at the first round of the playoffs.

The Shandong Luneng Football Club is the most widely known football team in Jinan. The club currently plays at the highest tier of Chinese football, the Chinese Super League. The Shandong Luneng Football Club is one of four clubs which have been playing in Chinese top football league every season since the league turned professional in 1994. Since 1994 the club has won 9 titles: Top League Champions (1999, 2006, 2008, 2010), FA Cups (1995, 1999, 2004, 2006), and CSL Cup (2004). Jinan was also one of four host cities of China during 2004 AFC Asian Cup.

In 2009, Jinan hosted the 2009 National Games of China, the premier sports event at the national level in China and the first major multi-sports event held in China after the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The National Games' main venue was the Jinan Olympic Sports Center.[93]

Twin towns and sister cities

Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany (January 29, 2004)
Coventry, England, United Kingdom (May 5, 1983)
Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia (September 4, 2004)
Kazanlak, Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria (January 21, 2013)
Kharkiv, Ukraine (July 31, 2006)
Kfar Saba, Israel (July 16, 2007)
Marmaris, Muğla Province, Turkey (September 19, 2011)
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (September 22, 1994)
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (February 29, 1988)
Porto Velho, State of Rondônia, Brazil (September 19, 2011)
Praia, Santiago Island, Cape Verde (April 9, 2009)
Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada (January 29, 1985)
Rennes, Brittany Region, France March 24, 2000)
Sacramento, California, United States (October 2, 1984)
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea (June 16, 1993)
Vantaa, Uusimaa, Finland (December 22, 2000)
Vitebsk, Belarus (August 17, 2009)
Wakayama, Honshu, Japan (April 20, 1982)
Yamaguchi City, Honshu, Japan (March 22, 1985)
Nagpur, Maharashtra, India (November 1, 2017)

See also


  1. ^ In addition to the names in the infobox above, Jinan has also been romanized as Tse-nan.[2]



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  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2010). Imperial warlord : a biography of Cao Cao 155-220 AD. Leiden Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18522-7.
  • Akira Iriye, After Imperialism: The Search for a New Order in the Far East, 1921-1931 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965; reprinted:Chicago: Imprint Publications, 1990): 193-205

External links

2018 Jinan International Open

The 2018 Jinan International Open was a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was the second (ATP) and first (ITF) editions of the tournament and was part of the 2018 ATP Challenger Tour and the 2018 ITF Women's Circuit. It took place in Jinan, China, on 6–12 August 2018.

China Railway Jinan Group

China Railway Jinan Group, officially abbreviated as CR Jinan or CR-Jinan, formerly, Jinan Railway Administration is a subsidiaries company under the jurisdiction of the China Railway (formerly the Ministry of Railway). It supervises the railway network within Shandong Province. It is in charge of the railway with total length of 8,283.9 kilometers, and consists of 295 railway stations. The railway administration was reorganized as a company on November 2017.

Greenland Puli Center

Greenland Puli Center is a supertall skyscraper in Jinan, Shandong, China. It has a height of 301 metres (988 ft). Construction began in 2010 and ended in 2015.

Jinan, Hama

Jinan (Arabic: الجنان‎) is a Syrian village located in the Subdistrict of the Hama District in the Hama Governorate. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Jinan had a population of 3,860 in the 2004 census.

Jinan, Iran

Jinan (Persian: جينان‎, also Romanized as Jīnān; also known as Janyān, Jainu, and Jeynū) is a village in Sedeh Rural District, Sedeh District, Qaen County, South Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 78, in 29 families.

Jinan Center Financial City

Jinan Center Financial City is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Jinan, Shandong, China. It will be 333 metres (1,092.5 ft) tall. Construction started in 2014.

Jinan International Open

The Jinan International Open is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour and the International Tennis Federation (ITF) Women's Circuit. It is held annually in Jinan, China since 2017.

Jinan Metro

Jinan Metro (Chinese: 济南地铁; pinyin: Jǐnán Dìtiě), also known as Jinan Rail Transit (Chinese: 济南轨道交通; pinyin: Jǐnán Guǐdào Jiāotōng) is a rapid transit system serving Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, China.

Jinan Military Region

The Jinan Military Region was a PLA Military Region located in the east of the People's Republic of China, covering the Shandong and Henan Provinces, which also form military districts. It appears that Yang Dezhi was one of the first commander of the Jinan MR, from 1958. It was considered a strategic reserve. It includes some of the area previously within the Wuhan Military Region, disbanded in 1985-88.

The 5th Air Corps was established in Weifeng, Shandong Province, in 1952, possibly from the disbanding 11th Corps, but was moved to Hangzhou in the Nanjing Military Region by 1954.After 1975 the 46th Army was transferred from Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province to Linyi, Shandong. It was disestablished in 1985.The Jinan Military Region was disbanded in the reorganisation of 2015-16, being replaced and incorporated into a Theatre Command.

There were previously three Group Armies within the Region, the 20th Group Army at Kaifeng, the 26th Group Army at Weifang, and the 54th in Xinxiang. It previously included the now disbanded 67th Group Army.

Jinan University

Jinan University (abbreviated JNU) is a public research and comprehensive university based in Tianhe District, Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China. It is one of the oldest universities established on China tracing back to the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

Jinan University was founded in 1906 in Nanjing, whose mission is to spread Chinese learning and culture from North to South, and from China overseas. It is the first university in China to recruit foreign students, and is currently a Chinese university with the largest number of international students.Jinan University is currently administered by both the Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council and the Chinese Ministry of Education. In 1996, it was included in the state's Project 211 for development of key universities. In 2017, it was listed as one of the “double first-class universities".Jinan University has a lot of famous subjects home and aboard, such as Science of Medicine, Pharmaceutical Science, Science of Chemistry, Science of Engineering, Science of Economics, Science of Finance, Science of Journalism and Communication. And Chinese Language and Literature, specially Overseas Chinese Language, is the characteristic subject of JNU.

Jinan West railway station

The Jinan West railway station (simplified Chinese: 济南西站; traditional Chinese: 濟南西站; pinyin: Jǐnánxī Zhàn) is a high-speed railway station in Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China.

Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport

Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport (IATA: TNA, ICAO: ZSJN) is the airport serving Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province, China. The airport is located approximately 33 kilometres (21 mi) northeast of the city center and immediately to the north of the town of Yaoqiang (遥墙镇) after which the airport is named. By road, the airport is connected to the Jinan Ring (济南绕城高速公路), Beijing–Shanghai, and Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressways.

In 2018, Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is the 25th busiest airport in China with 16,611,795 passengers.

In December 2016, Sichuan Airlines began non-stop intercontinental service from Jinan to Los Angeles.

Jinan dialect

Jinan dialect (simplified Chinese: 济南话; traditional Chinese: 濟南話; pinyin: jǐnánhuà) is a Mandarin Chinese dialect spoken in Jinan in Shandong province.

Jinan incident

The Jinan (Tsinan) incident (Japanese: 済南事件) or May 3 Tragedy (simplified Chinese: 五三惨案; traditional Chinese: 五三慘案; pinyin: Wŭsān Cǎn'àn) was an armed conflict between the Imperial Japanese Army and the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition army in Jinan (then romanized as Tsinan), the capital of East China's Shandong province in May 1928.

Jinan–Qingdao high-speed railway

The Jinan–Qingdao high-speed railway or Jiqing high-speed railway is a high-speed railway between Qingdao and Jinan, the two main cities of Shandong province. Currently, Qingdao and Jinan is served by a quadruple track railway corridor consisting of the high-speed Qingdao–Jinan Passenger Railway and the conventional Qingdao–Jinan Railway. This new railway is a part of the Qingdao–Yinchuan passageway, one of the 8+8 national high-speed rail gridline, and provides further relief to rail transport between Qingdao and Jinan. Planning was approved by the NDRC in June 10, 2014 with construction starting a year later. Tracklaying started in 2017 and the whole line was opened on 26 December 2018. The railway shortens travel times between Qingdao and Jinan to 1 hour. This is in contrast to the 2.5 hours needed on the Qingdao–Jinan Passenger Railway and 4 hours on the original conventional Qingdao–Jinan Railway.


Shandong (山东; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River. It has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, and was later established as the center of Confucianism.

Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous (99,470,000 inhabitants at the 2016 Census) and affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China, with a GDP of CNY¥7.65 trillion in 2018, or USD$1.156 trillion, making it China's third wealthiest province.

Shandong Airlines

Shandong Airlines Co,.Ltd. (Chinese: 山东航空; pinyin: Shāndōng Háng Kōng, nicknamed SDA or 山航; Shānháng) is an airline based in the Shandong Airlines Center (山东航空大厦; Shāndōng Hángkōng Dàshà) in Jinan, Shandong. The Chinese carrier operates a sizable domestic network from Jinan, Qingdao and Yantai to major cities across China, together with an international network to regional Asian destinations. The airline's two largest shareholders are Shandong Aviation Group with a 42% controlling stake and Air China, a strategic partner, holding 22.8% of the airlines shares.Shandong Airlines was established on 12 March 1994 and started operations in September of the same year. In September 1997 it became a founding member of the New Star (Xinxing) Aviation Alliance together with five other Chinese provincial airlines. The purpose of the alliance was to improve finances and deter takeover from larger competitors. The airline's first of many new international services commenced on 8 June 2004 connecting Jinan to Singapore.On 21 April 2014, Shandong Airlines committed to order 50 Boeing 737s, including 16 Next-Generation 737s and 34 737 MAXes.

Shandong Luneng Taishan F.C.

Shandong Luneng Taishan (simplified Chinese: 山东鲁能泰山; traditional Chinese: 山東魯能泰山; pinyin: Shāndōng Lǔnéng Tàishān) is a professional football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Jinan, Shandong and their home stadium is the Jinan Olympic Sports Center Stadium that has a seating capacity of 56,808. Their current majority shareholder is Shandong Electric Power Group Corporation , the biggest supplier of electric energy in Shandong province and itself part of the State Grid Corporation of China.. "Luneng" is the name of Luneng Group, now another subsidiary corporation of State Grid Corporation of China. The last part of the club name derives from Mount Tai.

The club's predecessor was called Shandong Provincial team who were founded in April 10, 1956 while the current professional football team was established in December 2, 1993. They were one of the founding members of the first fully professional top tier league in China. Since then they have gone on to win their first ever league title in the 1999 league season. They have continued to win domestic silverware with the 2006, 2008, 2010 league titles, making them one of the most successful Chinese football teams.

According to Forbes, Shandong are the 5th most valuable football team in China, with a team value of $126 million, and an estimated revenue of $24 million in 2015.

Shijiazhuang–Jinan passenger railway

The Shijiazhuang–Jinan passenger railway, abbreviated Shiji passenger railway (simplified Chinese: 石济客运专线; traditional Chinese: 石濟客運專線; pinyin: Shíjǐ Kèyùn Zhuān Xiàn) is a high-speed railway operated by China Railway High-speed, running between Shijiazhuang and Jinan, the provincial capitals of Hebei and Shandong, respectively. The line will additionally pass through and serve cities of Hengshui, Cangzhou and Dezhou. Traditionally, passengers travelling east from Shijiazhuang towards Shandong would need to detour towards Beijing or Tianjin. Its completion allowed trains to run directly between Shijiazhuang and Jinan at 250 km/h (160 mph), shortening travel times between the two cities from the previous 4 hours to 1 hour and 20 minutes.In late January 2013, it was announced that construction work on the Shijiazhuang–Jinan passenger railway would begin. The line started to operate on December 28, 2017.

Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinJǐnán
Bopomofoㄐㄧˇ   ㄋㄢˊ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhJii'nan
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationJái-nàahm
Southern Min
Hokkien POJChè-lâm
Climate data for Jinan (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
Average high °C (°F) 3.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4
Average low °C (°F) −3.9
Record low °C (°F) −19.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.9 3.1 3.9 5.1 6.5 8.2 13.3 11.6 6.5 4.6 3.9 3.2 72.8
Average relative humidity (%) 53 51 47 46 51 55 72 75 64 58 56 55 57
Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.9 172.4 212.8 242.9 275.2 258.2 214.5 219.0 221.1 215.1 177.1 167.6 2,546.8
Percent possible sunshine 56 57 58 62 63 59 48 52 59 62 58 56 58
Source: China Meteorological Administration[53]
Shandong topics
Visitor attractions
Sub-provincial cities
Prefecture-level cities
Major cities along the Yellow River
Inner Mongolia


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