Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin (/dʒɪn/),[3] lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China. Its name is sometimes written as Kin, Jurchen Jin or Jinn in English to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China whose name is identical when transcribed without tone marker diacritics in the Hanyu Pinyin system for Standard Chinese.[4] It is also sometimes called the "Jurchen dynasty" or the "Jurchen Jin", because its founding leader Aguda (reign 1115–1123) was of Wanyan Jurchen descent.

The Jin emerged from Taizu's rebellion against the Liao dynasty (907–1125), which held sway over northern China until the nascent Jin drove the Liao to the Western Regions, where they became known as the Western Liao. After vanquishing the Liao, the Jin launched an over hundred-year struggles against the Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279), which was based in southern China. Over the course of their rule, the Jurchens of Jin quickly adapted to Chinese customs, and even fortified the Great Wall against the rising Mongols. Domestically, the Jin oversaw a number of cultural advancements, such as the revival of Confucianism.

After being the overlords of the Mongols for centuries. The Mongols invaded the Jin under Genghis Khan in 1211 and inflicted catastrophic defeats on their armies. Though the Jin seemed to suffer a never-ending wave of defeats, revolts, defections, and coups, they proved to have tenacity. The Jin finally succumbed to Mongol conquest 23 years later in 1234.

Great Jin

大金
Amba-an Ancu-un
1115–1234
Location of Jin dynasty (blue), c. 1141
Location of Jin dynasty (blue), c. 1141
Circuits of Jin
Circuits of Jin
CapitalHuining Prefecture
(1122–1153)
Zhongdu
(1153–1214)
Kaifeng
(1214–1233)
Caizhou
(1233–1234)
Common languagesMiddle Chinese, Jurchen, Khitan
Religion
Buddhism,
Taoism,
Confucianism,
Chinese folk religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 1115–1123
Taizu (first)
• 1161–1189
Shizong
• 1234
Modi (last)
Historical eraMedieval Asia
• Founded by Aguda
28 January 1115
• Destruction of the Liao dynasty
1125
• Capture of Bianliang from the Northern Song dynasty
9 January 1127
• Mongol invasion
1211
• Fall of Caizhou to the Mongol Empire
9 February 1234
Area
1126 est.[1][2]2,300,000 km2 (890,000 sq mi)
CurrencyChinese coin, Chinese cash, and paper money
See: Jin dynasty coinage (1115–1234)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Liao dynasty
Northern Song
Mongol Empire
Southern Song
Qara Khitai
Eastern Xia
Today part of
Jin dynasty
Chinese name
Chinese金朝
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese大金
Literal meaningGreat Jin
Khitan name
KhitanNik, Niku

Name

The Jin dynasty was officially known as the "Great Jin" at that time. Furthermore, the Jin emperors referred to their state as China, Zhongguo (中國), just as some other non-Han dynasties.[5] Non-Han rulers expanded the definition of "China" to include non-Han peoples in addition to Han people whenever they ruled China.[6] Jin documents indicate that the usage of "China" by dynasties to refer to themselves began earlier than previously thought.[7]

History

The Jin dynasty was created in modern Jilin and Heilongjiang by the Jurchen tribal chieftain Aguda in 1115. According to tradition, Aguda was a descendant of Hanpu. Aguda adopted the term for "gold" as the name of his state, itself a translation of "Anchuhu" River, which meant "golden" in Jurchen.[8] This river known as Alachuke in Chinese, was a tributary of the Songhua River east of Harbin.[9] The Jurchens' early rival was the Khitan-led Liao dynasty, which had held sway over modern north and northeast China and Mongolia, for several centuries. In 1121, the Jurchens entered into the Alliance Conducted at Sea with the Han Chinese-led Northern Song dynasty and agreed to jointly invade the Liao dynasty. While the Song armies faltered, the Jurchens succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia. In 1125, after the death of Aguda, the Jin dynasty broke its alliance with the Song dynasty and invaded north China. When the Song dynasty reclaimed the southern part of the Liao where Han Chinese lived, they were "fiercely resisted" by the Han Chinese population there who had previously been under Liao rule, while when the Jurchens invaded that area, the Han Chinese did not oppose them at all and handed over the Southern Capital (present-day Beijing, then known as Yanjing) to them.[10] The Jurchens were supported by the anti-Song, Beijing-based noble Han clans.[11] The Han Chinese who worked for the Liao were viewed as hostile enemies by the Song dynasty.[12] Song Han Chinese also defected to the Jin.[13] One crucial mistake that the Song made during this joint attack was the removal of the defensive forest it originally built along the Song-Liao border. Because of the removal of this landscape barrier, in 1126/27, the Jin army marched quickly across the North China Plain to Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng).[14] On 9 January 1127, the Jurchens ransacked Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern Song dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong and his father, Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of the Jin invasion. Following the fall of Bianjing, the succeeding Southern Song dynasty continued to fight the Jin dynasty for over a decade, eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, which called for the cession of all Song territories north of the Huai River to the Jin dynasty and the execution of Song general Yue Fei in return for peace. The peace treaty was formally ratified on 11 October 1142 when a Jin envoy visited the Song court.[15]

Having conquered Kaifeng and occupied North China, the Jin later deliberately chose earth as its dynastic element and yellow as its royal color. According to the theory of the Five Elements (wuxing), the earth element follows the fire, the dynastic element of the Song, in the sequence of elemental creation. Therefore, this ideological move shows that the Jin regarded the Song reign of China was officially over and themselves as the rightful ruler of China Proper.[16]

Migration south

Chenglingpagodazhengding
The Chengling Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built between 1161 and 1189.

After taking over Northern China, the Jin dynasty became increasingly sinicised. About three million people, half of them Jurchens, migrated south into northern China over two decades, and this minority governed about 30 million people. The Jurchens were given land grants and organised into hereditary military units: 300 households formed a mouke (company) and 7–10 moukes formed a meng-an (battalion).[17] Many married Han Chinese, although the ban on Jurchen nobles marrying Han Chinese was not lifted until 1191. After Emperor Taizong died in 1135, the next three Jin emperors were grandsons of Aguda by three different princes. Emperor Xizong (r. 1135–1149) studied the classics and wrote Chinese poetry. He adopted Han Chinese cultural traditions, but the Jurchen nobles had the top positions.

Later in life, Emperor Xizong became an alcoholic and executed many officials for criticising him. He also had Jurchen leaders who opposed him murdered, even those in the Wanyan clan. In 1149 he was murdered by a cabal of relatives and nobles, who made his cousin Wanyan Liang the next Jin emperor. Because of the brutality of both his domestic and foreign policy, Wanyan Liang was posthumously demoted from the position of emperor. Consequently, historians have commonly referred to him by the posthumous name "Prince of Hailing".[18]

Rebellions in the north

Having usurped the throne, Wanyan Liang embarked on the program of legitimising his rule as an emperor of China. In 1153, he moved the empire's main capital from Huining Prefecture (south of present-day Harbin) to the former Liao capital, Yanjing (present-day Beijing).[18][19] Four years later, in 1157, to emphasise the permanence of the move, he razed the nobles' residences in Huining Prefecture.[18][19] Wanyan Liang also reconstructed the former Song capital, Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng), which had been sacked in 1127, making it the Jin's southern capital.[18]

Wanyan Liang also tried to suppress dissent by killing Jurchen nobles, executing 155 princes.[18] To fulfil his dream of becoming the ruler of all China, Wanyan Liang attacked the Southern Song dynasty in 1161. Meanwhile, two simultaneous rebellions erupted in Shangjing, at the Jurchens' former power base: led by Wanyan Liang's cousin, soon-to-be crowned Wanyan Yong, and the other of Khitan tribesmen. Wanyan Liang had to withdraw Jin troops from southern China to quell the uprisings. The Jin forces were defeated by Song forces in the Battle of Caishi and Battle of Tangdao. With a depleted military force, Wanyan Liang failed to make headway in his attempted invasion of the Southern Song dynasty. Finally he was assassinated by his own generals in December 1161, due to his defeats. His son and heir was also assassinated in the capital.[18]

Map of China 1142
China, 1142

Although crowned in October, Wanyan Yong (Emperor Shizong) was not officially recognised as emperor until the murder of Wanyan Liang's heir.[18] The Khitan uprising was not suppressed until 1164; their horses were confiscated so that the rebels had to take up farming. Other Khitan and Xi cavalry units had been incorporated into the Jin army. Because these internal uprisings had severely weakened the Jin's capacity to confront the Southern Song militarily, the Jin court under Emperor Shizong began negotiating for peace. The Treaty of Longxing (隆興和議) was signed in 1164 and ushered in more than 40 years of peace between the two empires.

In the early 1180s, Emperor Shizong instituted a restructuring of 200 meng'an units to remove tax abuses and help Jurchens. Communal farming was encouraged. The Jin Empire prospered and had a large surplus of grain in reserve. Although learned in Chinese classics, Emperor Shizong was also known as a promoter of Jurchen language and culture; during his reign, a number of Chinese classics were translated into Jurchen, the Imperial Jurchen Academy was founded, and the imperial examinations started to be offered in the Jurchen language.[20] Emperor Shizong's reign (1161–1189) was remembered by the posterity as the time of comparative peace and prosperity, and the emperor himself was compared to the mythological rulers Yao and Shun.[20]

Emperor Shizong's grandson, Emperor Zhangzong (r. 1189–1208), venerated Jurchen values, but he also immersed himself in Han Chinese culture and married an ethnic Han Chinese woman. The Taihe Code of law was promulgated in 1201 and was based mostly on the Tang Code. In 1207, the Southern Song dynasty attempted an invasion, but the Jin forces effectively repulsed them. In the peace agreement, the Song dynasty had to pay higher annual indemnities and behead Han Tuozhou, the leader of the hawkish faction in the Song imperial court.[21]

Fall of Jin

Jade ornament grapes jin dynasty shanghai museum 2004 07 22
Jade ornament with flower design, Jin dynasty, Shanghai Museum.

Starting from the early 13th century, the Jin dynasty began to feel the pressure of Mongols from the north. Genghis Khan first led the Mongols into Western Xia territory in 1205 and ravaged it four years later. In 1211 about 50,000 Mongol horsemen invaded the Jin Empire and began absorbing Khitan and Jurchen rebels. The Jin had a large army with 150,000 cavalry but abandoned the "western capital" Datong (see also the Battle of Yehuling). The next year the Mongols went north and looted the Jin "eastern capital", and in 1213 they besieged the "central capital", Zhongdu (present-day Beijing). In 1214 the Jin made a humiliating treaty but retained the capital. That summer, Emperor Xuanzong abandoned the central capital and moved the government to the "southern capital" Kaifeng, making it the official seat of the Jin dynasty's power.

In 1216, a hawkish faction in the Jin imperial court persuaded Emperor Xuanzong to attack the Song dynasty, but in 1219 they were defeated at the same place by the Yangtze River where Wanyan Liang had been defeated in 1161. The Jin dynasty now faced a two front war that they could not afford. Furthermore, Emperor Aizong won a succession struggle against his brother and then quickly ended the war and went back to the capital. He made peace with the Tanguts of Western Xia, who had been allied with the Mongols.

Many Han Chinese and Khitans defected to the Mongols to fight against the Jin dynasty. Two Han Chinese leaders, Shi Tianze and Liu Heima (劉黑馬),[22] and the Khitan Xiao Zhala (蕭札剌) defected and commanded the three tumens in the Mongol army.[23] Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Genghis Khan's successor, Ögedei Khan.[24] Liu Heima and Shi Tianxiang led armies against Western Xia for the Mongols.[25] There were four Han tumens and three Khitan tumens, with each tumen consisting of 10,000 troops. The three Khitan generals Shimo Beidi'er (石抹孛迭兒), Tabuyir (塔不已兒), and Xiao Zhongxi (蕭重喜; Xiao Zhala's son) commanded the three Khitan tumens and the four Han generals Zhang Rou (張柔), Yan Shi (嚴實), Shi Tianze and Liu Heima commanded the four Han tumens under Ögedei Khan.[26][27][28][29]

Shi Tianze was a Han Chinese who lived under Jin rule. Inter-ethnic marriage between Han Chinese and Jurchens became common at this time. His father was Shi Bingzhi (史秉直). Shi Bingzhi married a Jurchen woman (surname Nahe) and a Han Chinese woman (surname Zhang); it is unknown which of them was Shi Tianze's mother.[30] Shi Tianze was married to two Jurchen women, a Han Chinese woman, and a Korean woman, and his son Shi Gang was born to one of his Jurchen wives.[31] His Jurchen wives' surnames were Monian and Nahe, his Korean wife's surname was Li, and his Han Chinese wife's surname was Shi.[30] Shi Tianze defected to the Mongol forces upon their invasion of the Jin dynasty. His son, Shi Gang, married a Keraite woman; the Keraites were Mongolified Turkic people and considered as part of the "Mongol nation".[31][32] Shi Tianze, Zhang Rou, Yan Shi and other Han Chinese who served in the Jin dynasty and defected to the Mongols helped build the structure for the administration of the new Mongol state.[33]

The Mongols created a "Han Army" (漢軍) out of defected Jin troops, and another army out of defected Song troops called the "Newly Submitted Army" (新附軍).[34]

Genghis Khan died in 1227 while his armies were attacking Western Xia. His successor, Ögedei Khan, invaded the Jin dynasty again in 1232 with assistance from the Southern Song dynasty. The Jurchens tried to resist; but when the Mongols besieged Kaifeng in 1233, Emperor Aizong fled south to the city of Caizhou. A Song–Mongol allied army looted the capital, and the next year Emperor Aizong committed suicide to avoid being captured when the Mongols besieged Caizhou, ending the Jin dynasty in 1234.[18] The territory of the Jin dynasty was to be divided between the Mongols and the Song dynasty. However, due to lingering territorial disputes, the Song dynasty and the Mongols eventually went to war with one another over these territories.

In Empire of The Steppes, René Grousset reports that the Mongols were always amazed at the valour of the Jurchen warriors, who held out until seven years after the death of Genghis Khan.

Military

Contemporary Chinese writers ascribed Jurchen success in overwhelming the Liao and Northern Song dynasties mainly to their cavalry. Already during Aguda's rebellion against the Liao dynasty, all Jurchen fighters were mounted. It was said that the Jurchen cavalry tactics were a carryover from their hunting skills.[35] Jurchen horsemen were provided with heavy armor; on occasions, they would use a team of horses attached to each other with chains (Guaizi Ma).[35]

Serven Khaalga Jurchen inscription
"Great Golden Central State O-Giao Jeo-Shio" (1196), found in now Mongolia.

As the Liao dynasty fell apart and the Song dynasty retreated beyond the Yangtze, the army of the new Jin dynasty absorbed many soldiers who formerly fought for the Liao or Song dynasties.[35] The new Jin empire adopted many of the Song military's weapons, including various machines for siege warfare and artillery. In fact, the Jin military's use of cannons, grenades, and even rockets to defend besieged Kaifeng against the Mongols in 1233 is considered the first ever battle in human history in which gunpowder was used effectively, even though it failed to prevent the eventual Jin defeat.[35]

On the other hand, the Jin military was not particularly good at naval warfare. Both in 1129–30 and in 1161 Jin forces were defeated by the Southern Song navies when trying to cross the Yangzi River into the core Southern Song territory (see Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi), even though for the latter campaign the Jin had equipped a large navy of their own, using Han Chinese shipbuilders and even Han Chinese captains who had defected from the Southern Song.[35]

In 1130, the Jin army reached Hangzhou and Ningbo in southern China. But heavy Chinese resistance and the geography of the area halted the Jin advance, and they were forced to retreat and withdraw, and they had not been able to escape the Song navy when trying to return until they were directed by a Han Chinese defector who helped them escape in Zhenjiang. Southern China was then cleared of the Jurchen forces.[36][37]

Jin Great Wall

In order to prevent incursion from the Mongols, a large construction program was launched. The records show that two important sections of the Great Wall were completed by the Jurchens.

The Great Wall as constructed by the Jurchens differed from the previous dynasties. Known as the Border Fortress or the Boundary Ditch of the Jin, it was formed by digging ditches within which lengths of wall were built. In some places subsidiary walls and ditches were added for extra strength. The construction was started in about 1123 and completed by about 1198. The two sections attributable to the Jin dynasty are known as the Old Mingchang Walls and New Great Walls, together stretching more than 2,000 kilometres in length.[38]

Government

The government of the Jin dynasty merged Jurchen customs with institutions adopted from the Liao and Song dynasties.[39] The pre-dynastic Jurchen government was based on the quasi-egalitarian tribal council.[40] Jurchen society at the time did not have a strong political hierarchy. The Shuo Fu (說郛) records that the Jurchen tribes were not ruled by central authority and locally elected their chieftains.[39] Tribal customs were retained after Aguda united the Jurchen tribes and formed the Jin dynasty, coexisting alongside more centralised institutions.[41] The Jin dynasty had five capitals, a practice they adopted from the Balhae and the Liao.[42] The Jin had to overcome the difficulties of controlling a multi-cultural empire composed of territories once ruled by the Liao and Northern Song. The solution of the early Jin government was to establish separate government structures for different ethnic groups.[43]

Culture

Jin gold plates
Chinese gold plates and a chalice from the Jin Dynasty's Zhongdu.

Because the Jin had few contacts with its southern neighbor the Song, different cultural developments took place in both states. Within Confucianism, the "Learning of the Way" that developed and became orthodox in Song did not take root in Jin. Jin scholars put more emphasis on the work of northern Song scholar and poet Su Shi (1037–1101) than on Zhu Xi's (1130–1200) scholarship, which constituted the foundation of the Learning of the Way.[44]

A significant branch of Taoism called the Quanzhen School was founded under the Jin by Wang Zhe (1113–1170), a Han Chinese man who founded formal congregations in 1167 and 1168. Wang took the nickname of Wang Chongyang (Wang "Double Yang") and the disciples he took were retrospectively known as the "seven patriarchs of Quanzhen". The flourishing of ci poetry that characterized Jin literature was tightly linked to Quanzhen, as two-thirds of the ci poetry written in Jin times was composed by Quanzhen Taoists.

Kin Dynasty (1115-1234) fresco in Ch'ung-fu Temple, Shuo-chou 1
Jin dynasty fresco of a Bodhisattva from Chongfu Temple (崇福寺), Shuozhou, Shanxi.

The Jin state sponsored an edition of the Taoist Canon that is known as the Precious Canon of the Mysterious Metropolis of the Great Jin (Da Jin Xuandu baozang 大金玄都寶藏). Based on a smaller version of the Canon printed by Emperor Huizong (r. 1100–1125) of the Song dynasty, it was completed in 1192 under the direction and support of Emperor Zhangzong (r. 1190–1208).[45] In 1188, Zhangzong's grandfather and predecessor Shizong (r. 1161–1189) had ordered the woodblocks for the Song Canon transferred from Kaifeng (the former Northern Song capital that had now become the Jin "Southern Capital") to the Central Capital's "Abbey of Celestial Perpetuity" or Tianchang guan 天長觀, on the site of what is now the White Cloud Temple in Beijing.[45] Other Daoist writings were also moved there from another abbey in the Central Capital.[45] Zhangzong instructed the abbey's superintendent Sun Mingdao 孫明道 and two civil officials to prepare a complete Canon for printing.[45] After sending people on a "nationwide search for scriptures" (which yielded 1,074 fascicles of text that was not included in the Huizong edition of the Canon) and securing donations for printing, in 1192 Sun Mingdao proceeded to cut the new woodblocks.[46] The final print consisted of 6,455 fascicles.[47] Though the Jin emperors occasionally offered copies of the Canon as gifts, not a single fragment of it has survived.[47]

A Buddhist Canon or "Tripitaka" was also produced in Shanxi, the same place where an enhanced version of the Jin-sponsored Taoist Canon would be reprinted in 1244.[48] The project was initiated in 1139 by a Buddhist nun named Cui Fazhen, who swore (and allegedly "broke her arm to seal the oath") that she would raise the necessary funds to make a new official edition of the Canon printed by the Northern Song.[49] Completed in 1173, the Jin Tripitaka counted about 7,000 fascicles, "a major achievement in the history of Buddhist private printing."[49] It was further expanded during the Yuan.[49]

Buddhism thrived during the Jin, both in its relation with the imperial court and in society in general.[50] Many sutras were also carved on stone tablets.[51] The donors who funded such inscriptions included members of the Jin imperial family, high officials, common people, and Buddhist priests.[51] Some sutras have only survived from these carvings, which are thus highly valuable to the study of Chinese Buddhism.[51] At the same time, the Jin court sold monk certificates for revenue. This practice was initiated in 1162 by Shizong to fund his wars, and stopped three years later when war was over.[52] His successor Zhanzong used the same method to raise military funds in 1197 and one year later to raise money to fight famine in the Western Capital.[52] The same practice was used again in 1207 (to fight the Song and more famine) as well as under the reigns of emperors Weishao (r. 1209–1213) and Xuanzong (r. 1213–1224) to fight the Mongols.[53]

List of emperors

Sovereigns of the Jin dynasty 1115–1234
Temple name Posthumous name Jurchen name Chinese name Years of reign Era name(s) and Years
Convention: "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name
Taizu (Chinese: 太祖; pinyin: Tàizǔ) Yingqian Xingyun Zhaode Dinggong Renming Zhuangxiao Dasheng Wuyuan Huangdi (Chinese: 應乾興運昭德定功仁明莊孝大聖武元皇帝; pinyin: Yìngqián Xīngyùn Zhāodé Dìnggōng Rénmíng Zhuāngxiào Dàshèng Wǔyuán Huángdì), shortly Wuyuan Huangdi (Chinese: 武元皇帝; pinyin: Wǔyuán Huángdì) or Wuyuan Di (Chinese: 武元帝; pinyin: Wǔyuán Dì) Aguda (Chinese: 阿骨打; pinyin: Āgǔdǎ) Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: Mín) 1115–1123 Shouguo (Chinese: 收國; pinyin: Shōuguó; 1115–1116)
Tianfu (Chinese: 天輔; pinyin: Tiānfǔ; 1117–1123)
Taizong (Chinese: 太宗; pinyin: Tàizōng) Tiyuan Yingyun Shide Zhaogong Zhehui Rensheng Wenlie Huangdi (Chinese: 體元應運世德昭功哲惠仁聖文烈皇帝; pinyin: Tǐyuán Yìngyùn Shìdé Zhāogōng Zhéhùi Rénshèng Wénliè Huángdì), shortly Wenlie Huangdi (Chinese: 文烈皇帝; pinyin: Wénliè Huángdì) or Wenlie Di (Chinese: 文烈帝; pinyin: Wénliè Dì) Wuqimai (Chinese: 吳乞買; pinyin: Wúqǐmǎi) Sheng (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shèng) 1123–1135 Tianhui (Chinese: 天會; pinyin: Tiānhuì; 1123–1135)
Xizong (Chinese: 熙宗; pinyin: Xīzōng) Hongji Zuanwu Zhuangjing Xiaocheng Huangdi (Chinese: 弘基纘武莊靖孝成皇帝; pinyin: Hóngjī Zuǎnwǔ Zhuāngjìng Xiàochéng Huángdì), shortly Xiaocheng Huangdi (Chinese: 孝成皇帝; pinyin: Xiàochéng Huángdì) or Xiaocheng Di (Chinese: 孝成帝; pinyin: Xiàochéng Dì) Hela (Chinese: 合剌; pinyin: Hélà) Dan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Dǎn) 1135–1149 Tianhui (Chinese: 天會; pinyin: Tiānhuì; 1135–1138)
Tianjuan (Chinese: 天眷; pinyin: Tiānjuàn; 1138–1141)
Huangtong (Chinese: 皇統; pinyin: Huángtǒng; 1141–1149)
None None Digunai (Chinese: 迪古乃; pinyin: Dígǔnǎi) Liang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Liàng) 1149–1161 Tiande (Chinese: 天德; pinyin: Tiāndé, 1149–1153)
Zhenyuan (Chinese: 貞元; pinyin: Zhēnyuán; 1153–1156)
Zhenglong (Chinese: 正隆; pinyin: Zhènglóng; 1156–1161)
Shizong (Chinese: 世宗; pinyin: Shìzōng) Guangtian Xingyun Wende Wugong Shengming Renxiao Huangdi (Chinese: 光天興運文德武功聖明仁孝皇帝; pinyin: Guāngtiān Xīngyùn Wéndé Wǔgōng Shèngmíng Rénxiào Huángdì), shortly Renxiao Huangdi (Chinese: 仁孝皇帝; pinyin: Rénxiào Huángdì) or Renxiao Di (Chinese: 仁孝帝; pinyin: Rénxiào Dì) Wulu (Chinese: 烏祿; pinyin: Wūlù) Yong (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yōng) 1161–1189 Dading (Chinese: 大定; pinyin: Dàdìng; 1161–1189)
Zhāngzōng
章宗
(1) Madage (Chinese: 麻達葛; pinyin: Mádágě) Jing (Chinese: ; pinyin: Jǐng) 1189–1208 Míngchāng (明昌, 1190–1196) 
Chéng'ān (承安, 1196–1200) 
Tàihé (泰和, 1200–1208)
None Shao (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shào) Unknown Yongji (Chinese: 永濟; pinyin: Yǒngjì) 1208–1213 Da'an (Chinese: 大安; pinyin: Dà’ān; 1209–1212)
Chongqing (Chinese: 崇慶; pinyin: Chóngqìng; 1212–1213)
Zhining (Chinese: 至寧; pinyin: Zhìníng; 1213)
Xuānzōng
宣宗
(1) Wudubu (Chinese: 吾睹補; pinyin: Wúdúbǔ) Xun (Chinese: ; pinyin: Xún) 1213–1224 Zhēnyòu
貞祐
1213–1217
 
Xīngdìng
興定
1217–1222
 
Yuánguāng
元光
1222–1224
Aizong (Chinese: 哀宗; pinyin: Āizōng, official)
Zhuangzong (Chinese: 莊宗; pinyin: Zhuāngzōng, unofficial)
Minzong (Chinese: 閔宗; pinyin: Mǐnzōng, unofficial)
Yizong (Chinese: 義宗; pinyin: Yìzōng, unofficial but popular)
None Ningjiasu (Chinese: 寧甲速; pinyin: Níngjiǎsù) Shouxu (Chinese: 守緒; pinyin: Shǒuxù) 1224–1234 Zhengda (Chinese: 正大; pinyin: Zhèngdà; 1224–1232)
Kaixing (Chinese: 開興; pinyin: Kāixīng; 1232)
Tianxing (Chinese: 天興; pinyin: Tiānxīng; 1232–1234)
None None Hudun (Chinese: 呼敦; pinyin: Hūdūn) Chenglin (Chinese: 承麟; pinyin: Chénglín) 1234 Shengchang (Chinese: 盛昌; pinyin: Shèngchāng; 1234)(2)
  • (1) Too long. Normally not used when referring to this sovereign.
  • (2) Too short. Easy to be ignored.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of World-systems Research. 12 (2): 219–229. doi:10.5195/JWSR.2006.369. ISSN 1076-156X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
  2. ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 497. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.
  3. ^ "Jin". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  4. ^ Lipschutz, Leonard (1 August 2000). Century-By-Century: A Summary of World History. iUniverse. p. 59. ISBN 9780595125784. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  5. ^ Zhao 2006, p. 7.
  6. ^ Zhao 2006, p. 6.
  7. ^ Zhao 2006, p. 24.
  8. ^ Franke 1994, p. 221.
  9. ^ Twitchett, Franke, & Fairbank (1994), p. 221
  10. ^ Denis C. Twitchett; Herbert Franke; John King Fairbank (25 November 1994). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 907–1368. Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5.
  11. ^ Hoyt Cleveland Tillman; Stephen H. West (1995). China Under Jurchen Rule: Essays on Chin Intellectual and Cultural History. SUNY Press. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2273-1.
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  19. ^ a b Tao (1976), p. 44
  20. ^ a b Tao (1976), Chapter 6. "The Jurchen Movement for Revival", Pages 69–83.
  21. ^ Chinese History – Song dynasty 宋 event history (www.chinaknowledge.de)
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  23. ^ May, Timothy Michael (2004). The Mechanics of Conquest and Governance: The Rise and Expansion of the Mongol Empire, 1185–1265. University of Wisconsin—Madison. p. 50.
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  31. ^ a b J. Ganim; S. Legassie, eds. (2013). Cosmopolitanism and the Middle Ages. Springer. p. 47.
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  34. ^ Hucker, Charles O. (1985). A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 66.
  35. ^ a b c d e Tao (1976), Chapter 2. "The Rise of the Chin dynasty", Pages 21–24.
  36. ^ René Grousset (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia (reprint, illustrated ed.). Rutgers University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1. The emperor Kao-tsung had taken flight to Ningpo (then known as Mingchow) and later to the port of Wenchow, south of Chekiang. From Nanking the Kin general Wu-chu hastened in pursuit and captured Hangchow and Ningpo (end of 1129 and beginning of 1130. However, the Kin army, consisting entirely of cavalry, had ventured too far into this China of the south with its flooded lands, intersecting rivers, paddy fields and canals, and dense population which harassed and encircled it. We-chu, leader of the Kin troops, sought to return north but was halted by the Yangtze, now wide as a sea and patrolled by Chinese flotillas. At last a traitor showed him how he might cross the river near Chenkiang, east of Nanking (1130).
  37. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7. Nanking and Hangchow were taken by assault in 1129 and in 1130 the Jürchen ventured as far as Ning-po, in the north-eastern tip of Chekiang.
  38. ^ "Great Wall of Jin Dynasty (1115 - 1234): History, Structure, Relics".
  39. ^ a b Franke 1994, p. 265.
  40. ^ Franke 1994, pp. 265–266.
  41. ^ Franke 1994, p. 266.
  42. ^ Franke 1994, p. 270.
  43. ^ Franke 1994, p. 267.
  44. ^ Tillman 1995, pp. 71–114.
  45. ^ a b c d Boltz 2008, p. 291.
  46. ^ Boltz 2008, pp. 291–92.
  47. ^ a b Boltz 2008, p. 292.
  48. ^ Yao 1995, p. 174; Goossaert 2008, p. 916 (both Buddhist Canon and Daoist Canon printed in Shanxi).
  49. ^ a b c Yao 1995, p. 174.
  50. ^ Yao 1995, p. 173.
  51. ^ a b c Yao 1995.
  52. ^ a b Yao 1995, p. 161.
  53. ^ Yao 1995, pp. 161–62.

Sources

External links

Preceded by
Liao dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
1115–1234
Succeeded by
Yuan dynasty
Deng Prefecture (Shandong)

Deng Prefecture was a prefecture of imperial China centering on modern Penglai, Shandong, China. It existed intermittently from 596 until 1376.

Di Prefecture

Dizhou or Di Prefecture (棣州) was a zhou (prefecture) in imperial China centering on modern Huimin County, Shandong, China. It existed (intermittently) from 586 to 1373, after which it was renamed to Le'an Prefecture.

Emperor Shizong of Jin

Emperor Shizong of Jin (29 March 1123 – 20 January 1189), personal name Wulu, sinicised name Wanyan Yong (originally Wanyan Xiu), was the fifth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. Ruling from 1161 to 1189 under the regnal name "Dading", Emperor Shizong's reign was the longest and most stable among the Jin dynasty emperors.

Hai Prefecture

Haizhou or Hai Prefecture (海州) was a zhou (prefecture) in imperial China seated in modern Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China. It existed (intermittently) from 549 to 1912.

During the Yuan dynasty it was briefly named Haizhou Route (海州路).

The modern Haizhou District in Lianyungang City retains its name.

Huining Prefecture

Huining Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 会宁府; traditional Chinese: 會寧府; pinyin: Huìníng Fǔ), or Shangjing Huiningfu (上京會寧府; 'Upper Capital, Huining Prefecture'), was a prefecture in the Shangjing region of Northeast China. It served as the first superior capital of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115-1234) from 1122 to 1153 (and was a secondary capital after 1173). Its location was in present-day Acheng District, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province.

Jin dynasty coinage (1115–1234)

The Jurchen Jin dynasty was an empire that ruled over Northern China and what would later become Manchuria from 1115 until 1234. After the Jurchens defeated the Khitans, and the Chinese they would continue to use their coins for day to day usage in the conquered territories. In 1234 they were conquered by the Mongol Empire (further reading: Yuan dynasty coinage).

Lai Prefecture

Laizhou or Lai Prefecture was a zhou (prefecture) in imperial China, centering on modern Laizhou, Shandong, China. It existed (intermittently) from 585 until 1376.

The modern city Laizhou, created in 1988, retains its name.

Ma Yu Ching

Ma Yu Ching's Bucket Chicken House, or Ma Yuxing, (Chinese: 马豫兴桶子鸡; pinyin: Mǎ Yùxīng Tǒngzi Jī), is a historic restaurant in Kaifeng, Henan, China, said to be originally established in 1153, during the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).The Ma family began trading in bucket chicken in Nanjing, in today's Jiangsu Province, after the Song dynasty moved to the south.In 1855, Ma Youren, a descendent of the original Mr Ma moved back to his ancestral home in the village of Laodong, Kaifeng, bringing with him a bucket of the traditional sauce. There, Ma Youren established the "Ma Yuxing Roast Chicken Shop" in 1864, specialising in bucket chicken. In 1954, a branch store was established in Zhengzhou when that city became the capital of Henan province.In February 2007, Ma Yu Ching's bucket chicken was named as an intangible cultural heritage of Henan Province.

Menxia Sheng

The Department of Chancellery, or simply Chancellery, was one of the Three Departments of imperial Chinese governments between the Jìn dynasty (265–420) and the Jīn dynasty (1115–1234).

The Brave Archer

The Brave Archer, also known as Kungfu Warlord, is a 1977 Hong Kong film adapted from Louis Cha's novel The Legend of the Condor Heroes. The film was produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio and directed by Chang Cheh, starring Alexander Fu Sheng and Tanny Tien in the lead roles. The film is the first part of a trilogy and was followed by The Brave Archer 2 (1978) and The Brave Archer 3 (1981). The trilogy has two unofficial sequels, The Brave Archer and His Mate (1982) and Little Dragon Maiden (1983).

The Brave Archer 2

The Brave Archer 2, also known as Kungfu Warlord 2, is a 1978 Hong Kong film adapted from Louis Cha's novel The Legend of the Condor Heroes. The film was produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio and directed by Chang Cheh, starring Alexander Fu Sheng and Niu-niu in the lead roles. The film is the second part of a trilogy and was preceded by The Brave Archer (1977) and followed by The Brave Archer 3 (1981). The trilogy has two unofficial sequels, The Brave Archer and His Mate (1982) and Little Dragon Maiden (1983).

The Brave Archer and His Mate

The Brave Archer and His Mate, also known as The Brave Archer 4 and Mysterious Island, is a 1982 Hong Kong film adapted from Louis Cha's novels The Legend of the Condor Heroes and The Return of the Condor Heroes. Together with Little Dragon Maiden (1983), The Brave Archer and His Mate is regarded as an unofficial sequel to the Brave Archer film trilogy (The Brave Archer, The Brave Archer 2 and The Brave Archer 3).

The Legend of the Condor Heroes (1988 TV series)

The Legend of the Condor Heroes is a two-part Taiwanese television series adapted from Louis Cha's novel of the same title. The series was first broadcast on CTV in Taiwan in 1988.

Wanyan Zonghan

Nianhan (1080–1136), also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Zonghan, was a Jurchen noble and military general who lived in the founding and early years of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115-1234), which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.

Yanqing Temple

Yanqing Temple (simplified Chinese: 延庆寺; traditional Chinese: 延慶寺; pinyin: Yánqìng Sì) is a Buddhist temple located 25 kilometers (16 mi) to the west of Wutai County, Shanxi, China.

Yuan Haowen

Yuan Haowen (Chinese: 元好問; pinyin: Yuán Hàowèn; Wade–Giles: Yüan Hao-wên) also known as Yuan Yishan (遺山/遗山) or “Yuan of Yi Mountain” (1190–1257) was a poet from Xinzhou, in what is now Shanxi province, noted for his poems in the ci and the sanqu forms and for including poems in the sangluan genre of Classical Chinese poetry among his poetic works. Yuan Haowen was the outstanding literary figure of his period, in northern China, excelling at various genres of both prose and poetry: his ci poetry is said to be some of the best of the Jin period writers. Just a few of his sanqu lyrics have survived. Yuan Haowen was born in the territory of the Jurchen Jin dynasty, in what is now northern China, and which was co-existent with the Chinese Southern Song Dynasty.

Zhang Yuansu

Zhang Yuansu 张亓素 (a.k.a. Zhang Jiegu; ca. 1151-1234) was one of the most historically influential Traditional Chinese medicine physicians in the period of transition from China's northern Jin dynasty to the Mongolian Yuan dynasty.Zhang Jiegu integrated medicinal materials into the five element framework (Wuxing) with both the five shen herbs (spirit herbs) framework and qi meridians. He helped to more clearly define the association of the "tastes" of medicinals and their believed effect on the different organ systems. Zhang asserted that herbs entered into and influenced the meridians. The culmination of Zhang's work was a book called Bag of Pearls (Zhenzhu Nang 珍珠囊).

According to Zhang Jiegu:

The method of appropriately using herbs in accordance with the symptom and sign presentation of the patient entails determining substances with the correct qi, taste, yin and yang, and thick and thin properties as well as the pathogenic factor involved and the meridian it has entered.

Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka

The Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka (Chinese: 趙城金藏) is a Chinese copy of the Buddhist canon dating from the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).

The Jin Tripitaka was originally created at the Tianning Temple in Shanxi province around 1149, funded by donations from a woman named Cui Fazhen and her followers. It was presented by Kublai Khan to the Guangsheng Temple in Pingyang, where it was rediscovered in 1933. Since the Guangsheng Temple is located in Zhaocheng, the document was renamed the Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka.With around 7,000 chapters, it is the longest extant printed work of the Jin dynasty. It contains a number of sutras which are missing from subsequent editions of the canon.

Zhongdu

Zhongdu (中都, lit. "Central Capital") was the capital of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in medieval China. It was located in the southwestern part of Beijing's Xicheng District. It had a population of nearly one million by the late 12th century, and was the last and largest pre-modern city built on that location.

The Daning Palace and Taiye Lake were located to the city's northeast.

After a move to Kaifeng was mooted by the Jurchens following a visit by Genghis Khan in 1214, he returned to the city the next year and destroyed it. His grandson Kublai Khan did not rebuild the site but instead built his capital of Khanbaligh to its northeast around the Daning Palace park.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinJīn Cháo
Wade–GilesChin1 Ch'ao2
IPAtɕín tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationGam1 Chiu4
IPA[kɐ́m tsʰȉːu]
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinDà Jīn
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationDaai6 Gam1
IPA[tàːi kɐ́m]
Emperors family tree
Wanyan Hanpu 函普
Shizu 始祖
Wanyan Wulu 乌鲁
Dedi 德皇帝
Wanyan Bahai 完颜跋海
Andi 安皇帝
Wanyan Suike 綏可
Xianzu 獻祖
Wanyan Shilu 完颜石鲁
Zhaozu 昭祖
Wanyan Wugunai 完颜乌骨迺
Jingzu 景祖
~1050–1021–1074
Wanyan Helibo 完颜劾里钵
Shizu 世祖
1039–1074–1092
Wanyan Polashu 完顏頗刺淑
Suzong 肅宗
1042–1092–1094
Wanyan Yingge 完颜盈歌
Muzong 穆宗
1053–1094–1103
Wanyan Hezhe
完顏劾者
d.1121
Wanyan Wuyashu 完顏烏雅束
Kangzong 康宗
1061–1103–1113
Wanyan Aguda 完颜阿骨打
Taizu 太祖
1068-(born 1113)1115–1123
Wanyan Wuqimai 完顏吳乞買
Taizong 太宗
1075–1123–1135
Wanyan Sagai
完顏撒改
Wanyan Zongjun 完颜宗峻 d.1124
Huizong 徽宗
Wanyan Zonggan 完颜宗干 d.1141
Dezong 德宗
Wanyan Zongfu 完顏宗辅 1096–1135
Ruizong 睿宗
Wanyan Nianhan
完颜粘罕
1080–1136
Wanyan Hela 完顏合剌
Xizong 熙宗
1119–1135–1149
Wanyan Liang 完顏亮
Prince of Hailing 海陵王
1122–1149–1161
Wanyan Yong 完顏雍
Shizong 世宗
1123–1161–1189
Wanyan Yungong 完顏允恭
1146–1185

Xianzong 顯宗
Wanyan Yongji 完顏永濟
Prince Shao of Wei 衛紹王
1168–1209–1213
Wanyan Jing 完顏璟
Zhangzong 章宗
1168–1190–1208
Wanyan Xun 完顏珣
Xuanzong 宣宗
1163–1213–1223
Wanyan Shouxu 完顏守緒 1234
Aizong 哀宗
1198–1224–1234
Wanyan Chenglin 完顏承麟
Mo 末帝
r.1234; d.1234
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) topics
History
See also
Ancient
(Colonies)
Post-classical
Modern
Lists

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