Jin (晉; 883 (or 896 or 907)–923), also known as Hedong (河東) in historiography, was an early state of the imperial Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period until 923 when it became the Later Tang dynasty (923–937). Its rulers were the Shatuo warlords Li Keyong and Li Cunxu (Li Keyong's son). Although the Five Dynasties period began only in 907, Li Keyong's territory which centered around modern Shanxi can be referred to as Jin as early as 896, when he was officially created the Prince of Jin by the failing and powerless Tang dynasty court, or even (by extension, anachronistically) as early as 883, when he was created the jiedushi of Hedong Circuit, which controlled more or less the same territory.
|Historical era||Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period|
• Li Keyong created the Prince of Jin
The Jin rulers Li Keyong and Li Keyong's son Li Cunxu, of Shatuo extraction, claimed to be the rightful subjects of the defunct Tang Dynasty (618–907), in a struggle against the usurper state of the Later Liang Dynasty.
At the time of the Tang Dynasty's fall in 907, the Jin state consisted of most, but not all, of modern Shanxi, and eventually expanded to cover all of the territory north of the Yellow River. Eventually, in 923, Li Cunxu, claiming rightful succession to the Tang throne, declared himself emperor, transitioning his state to the Later Tang Dynasty, which shortly after destroyed the Later Liang Dynasty.Ding Hui (general)
Ding Hui (丁會) (died 910/911), courtesy name Daoyin (道隱), was a general who, for most of his career, served under Zhu Quanzhong (formerly known as Zhu Wen) while Zhu was a major warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. In 906, as Zhu was planning on seizing the Tang throne and establishing his own dynasty (which he eventually did, establishing Later Liang as its Emperor Taizu), Ding defected to Zhu's rival Li Keyong the military governor of Hedong Circuit (河東, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi) and thereafter served in Li Keyong's state of Jin until his death.Doulu Ge
Doulu Ge (豆盧革) (d. August 24, 927?) was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms state Later Tang (and, briefly, Later Tang's predecessor state Jin), serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Later Tang's first two emperors Li Cunxu and Li Siyuan. As a chancellor commissioned by Li Cunxu, he did not fit in with the officials trusted by Li Siyuan, and was eventually exiled and forced to commit suicide.Empress Liu (Li Cunxu's wife)
Empress Liu (劉皇后, personal name unknown) (died 926), formally Empress Shenminjing (神閔敬皇后, "the unassuming, suffering, and alert empress"), was the second wife and only empress of Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang (Li Cunxu), the founding emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang. In traditional histories, she was regarded as a hoarder of wealth who, during her husband's reign, became extremely powerful, with her own orders carrying the same weight as his own. It was the killing of the major general Guo Chongtao by at her order in 926 that created a cascade of military rebellions that led to Emperor Zhuangzong's downfall and death; she was subsequently killed by his adoptive brother and successor Li Siyuan (Emperor Mingzong).Li Cunjin
Li Cunjin (李存進) (857 – 24 September 922), originally Sun Chongjin (孫重進), was a military general in imperial China's Tang Dynasty, and later the Jin territory in the ensuing Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period after Tang's collapse. He served the Shatuo leaders Li Keyong — who adopted him as a son — and Li Keyong's biological son and successor Li Cunxu. He died in the battles against Zhang Chujin.Li Cunshen
Li Cunshen (李存審) (862-June 16, 924), né Fu Cun (符存), often referred to in historical sources as Fu Cunshen (符存審), courtesy name Dexiang (德詳), was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period dynasty Later Tang and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin. He was an adoptive son of Jin's first prince Li Keyong and later served in a number of major campaigns under the reign of Li Keyong's son (Li Cunshen's adoptive brother) Li Cunxu, helping Li Cunxu to establish Later Tang as its Emperor Zhuangzong.Li Cunxu
Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang (Chinese: 後唐莊宗), personal name Li Cunxu (Chinese: 李存朂 or 李存勗 or 李存勖; pinyin: Lǐ Cúnxù), nickname Yazi (亞子), was the Prince of Jin (908–923) and later became Emperor of Later Tang (923–926), of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period of Chinese history. He was the son of Li Keyong.
Li Cunxu was considered one of the most militarily capable rulers of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. When he succeeded his father Li Keyong as the Prince of Jin, Jin had been weakened in the late years of Li Keyong's rule and not considered capable of posing a military threat to its archrival to the south, Later Liang, whose founding emperor Zhu Quanzhong had seized the Tang throne. Li Cunxu carefully rebuilt the Jin state, using a series of conquests and alliances to take over most of the territory north of the Yellow River, before starting a lengthy campaign against Later Liang.
Li Cunxu conquered the Later Liang in 923 and proclaimed himself emperor of the Later Tang, which he referred to as the “Restored Tang.” As a part of “restoring Tang,” the capital was moved back to the old Tang eastern capital of Luoyang. As with all of the other dynasties of the Five Dynasties, Later Tang was a short-lived regime lasting only thirteen years. Li Cunxu himself lived only three years after the founding of the dynasty, having been killed during an officer’s rebellion led by Guo Congqian (郭從謙) in 926. He was succeeded by his adoptive brother Li Siyuan.Li Cunzhang
Li Cunzhang (李存璋) (died 922) was a military general in imperial China's Tang dynasty, and later the Jin territory in the ensuing Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period after Tang's collapse. He served the Shatuo leaders Li Keyong — who adopted him as a son — and Li Keyong's biological son and successor Li Cunxu.
He originally joined Li Keyong along with Kang Junli and Xue Zhiqin (薛志勤). After many battles, first against the rebel Huang Chao and later against Zhu Wen, he was eventually named commissioner of the Army of Righteous Sons (義兒軍使). When Li Keyong fell seriously ill, Li Cunzhang supported eunuch Zhang Chengye and others in installing Li Keyong's son Li Cunxu as his successor. The new Prince of Jin named Li Cunzhang commissioner of armed forces (馬步軍使) in Hedong (河東; roughly modern Shanxi) in charge or reorganizing the unregulated troops. Li Cunzhang imposed strict law in all military matters and disciplined the troops. When Li Cunxu fought against Liu Xun in 915, the Later Liang sent an army to attack Jin's capital of Taiyuan, but Li Cunzhang defended the city well. He was promoted defense commissioner (防禦使) and later the military governor of Datong Command (大同軍).Li Kening
Li Kening (李克寧) (died March 25, 908) was a younger brother of the late Chinese Tang Dynasty warlord Li Keyong the Prince of Jin. After Li Keyong's death, Li Kening initially served as a key advisor to Li Keyong's son and successor Li Cunxu, but soon was persuaded by his wife Lady Meng to try to take over from Li Cunxu. His plot was discovered, and Li Cunxu put him to death.Liu Chong
Liu Min (劉旻) (c. 895 – 954), named Liu Chong (劉崇) before 951, also known by his temple name Shizu (世祖), was the founding emperor of imperial China's Northern Han state during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. He was an ethnic Shatuo and the younger brother of Later Han's founder Liu Zhiyuan.
Liu Chong created Northern Han in the Shatuo base in modern Shanxi after his eldest son was killed in 951 by general Guo Wei, who overthrew Later Han to found the Later Zhou. In 954, Liu Chong was defeated by Guo's successor Chai Rong in the Battle of Gaoping and died soon afterwards.Liu Shouguang
Liu Shouguang (劉守光) (died February 12, 914) was a warlord early in the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period who controlled Lulong (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) and Yichang (義昌, headquartered in modern Cangzhou, Hebei) Circuits, after seizing control from his father Liu Rengong and defeating his brother Liu Shouwen. He claimed the title of Emperor of Yan in 911, but was subsequently defeated and executed by Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin, who absorbed Yan into his Jin state.Lu Cheng
Lu Cheng (盧程) was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang (and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin), briefly serving as a chancellor at the time of the founding of Later Tang.Ma Shaohong
Ma Shaohong (Chinese: 馬紹宏) (died May 18, 932), known during the reign of Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang (Li Cunxu) as Li Shaohong (李紹宏), was a powerful eunuch official/general during the early Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, who served Emperor Zhuangzong during his reign as emperor and, previously to that, as the Prince of Jin (Later Tang's predecessor state).Meng Zhixiang
Meng Zhixiang (孟知祥, May 10, 874–September 7, 934, courtesy name Baoyin, 保胤, formally Emperor Gaozu of [later] Shu, [後]蜀高祖) was a general of the Later Tang who went on to found the independent state of Later Shu during the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Meng Zhixiang was an in-law of the Later Tang ruling family, who went by the family name Li. Meng married the eldest sister or perhaps a cousin of the founding emperor, Zhuangzong. Meng served the Later Tang as the military governor (Jiedushi) of Xichuan Circuit (西川, headquartered in modern Chengdu, Sichuan), after the conquest of Former Shu. After Emperor Zhuangzong's death, Meng was more distant to the succeeding emperor. The new emperor was Emperor Zhuangzong's adoptive brother, Emperor Mingzong. Meng, fearing accusations by Emperor Mingzong's chief advisor An Chonghui, rebelled, in alliance with Dong Zhang, military governor of neighboring Dongchuan Circuit (東川, headquartered in modern Mianyang, Sichuan). The Meng-Dong alliance repelled subsequent attempts to suppress or control them, although they continued as nominal subjects of Mingzong. Eventually, Meng overpowered Dong, thus assuming control of both allied domains. Meng continued as titular vassal to Mingzong for the rest of that emperor's reign; but, afterwards, Meng Zhixiang declared himself suzerain of an independent state named Shu, in 934, now called Later Shu to avoid confusion with other political entities sharing the same name.Ren Huan
Ren Huan (Chinese: 任圜; died 927) was a general and official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang (and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin). He served as a chancellor during the reign of Later Tang's second emperor Li Siyuan, but became embroiled in a power struggle with Li Siyuan's powerful chief of staff An Chonghui. He eventually was forced into retirement, but An eventually had Li Siyuan order him to commit suicide.Zhang Chengye
Zhang Chengye (張承業) (846 – November 23, 922), né Kang (康), courtesy name Jiyuan (繼元), was an important eunuch official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Jin (predecessor state to Later Tang). He served in the Tang Dynasty palace late during Tang, and eventually became an important advisor to Jin's princes Li Keyong and Li Cunxu (later Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang).Zhang Chujin
Zhang Chujin (張處瑾) (died 922) was a ruler of Chengde Circuit (成德, headquartered in modern Shijiazhuang, Hebei, also known as Zhao) early in the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His father Zhang Wenli had taken over the circuit after a mutiny that Zhang Wenli encouraged resulted in the death of Zhang Wenli's adoptive father Wang Rong the Prince of Zhao in 921. Zhang Wenli subsequently died during the campaign waged by Wang Rong's ally Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin to avenge Wang Rong. Zhang Chujin took over the leadership of the circuit after Zhang Wenli's death and tried to hold out against Jin forces, but was captured and killed in 922.Zhang Juhan
Zhang Juhan (張居翰) (858-928), courtesy name Deqing (德卿), was a senior eunuch of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang (and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin), serving as a chief of staff for Later Tang's founding emperor Li Cunxu.Zhao Jiliang
Zhao Jiliang (趙季良) (883 - 946), courtesy name Dezhang (德彰), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Jin, Later Tang, and Later Shu, serving as a chancellor during Later Shu.Zhu Shouyin
Zhu Shouyin (朱守殷) (died November 7, 927), nickname Hui'er (會兒), was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang (and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin). He was a close associate of Later Tang's first emperor Li Cunxu, having served as Li Cunxu's attendant ever since both were children. After Li Cunxu's death in a mutiny, Zhu served the succeeding emperor, Li Cunxu's adoptive brother Li Siyuan, but later, fearing that Li Siyuan was ready to act against him, rebelled. His rebellion was quickly defeated, and he killed his family and then had his attendants kill him.
|Ten Kingdoms (States)|
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