Jin (Chinese: 晉, Old Chinese: *tsi[n]-s), originally known as Tang (唐), was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi. Although it grew in power during the Spring and Autumn period, its aristocratic structure saw it break apart when the duke lost power to his nobles. In 453 BC, Jin was split into three successor states: Han, Zhao and Wei. The Partition of Jin marks the end of the Spring and Autumn Period and the beginning of the Warring States period.
|11th century BC–376 BC|
|Common languages||Old Chinese|
|Religion||Taoism, Animism, Ancestor veneration|
|11th century BC|
"Jin" in seal script (top), Traditional (middle), and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Jin was located in the lower Fen River drainage basin on the Shanxi plateau. To the north were the Xirong and Beidi peoples. To the west were the Lüliang Mountains and then the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi. To the southwest the Fen River turns west to join the south-flowing part of the Yellow River which soon leads to the Guanzhong, an area of the Wei River Valley that was the heartland of the Western Zhou and later of the Qin. To the south are the Zhongtiao Mountains and then the east-west valley of the Yellow River which was the main route to the Wei Valley to the west. To the east were the Taihang Mountains and then the North China Plain. This location gave ambitious Jin dukes the opportunity to move north to conquer and absorb the Xirong tribes, move southwest and fight Qin, and move southeast to absorb the many smaller Zhou states.
Jin had multiple capitals. The first capital of Jin was Tang (唐). The capital was later moved to È (鄂), then Jiàng (絳), then Xintian (新田). From 746 to 677, Quwo (曲沃) was the capital of a fragment of Jin.
When the Zhou Dynasty was founded, the conquered lands were given to Zhou relatives and ministers as hereditary fiefs. King Cheng of Zhou, the second Zhou king, gave the land called Tang (唐), west of modern Yicheng County in Shanxi, to his younger brother, Tang Shuyu (唐叔虞) with the rank of a marquis. Tang Shuyu's son and successor, Marquis Xie of Jin (晉侯燮), changed the name of Tang to Jin. There is little information about Jin for this period beyond a list of rulers.
In 771 BC the Quanrong nomads drove the Zhou out of the Wei River valley and killed the king. Marquis Wen of Jin, the eleventh marquis of Jin, supported King Ping of Zhou by killing his rival, King Xie of Zhou, an act that King Ping heavily rewarded him for.
When Marquis Zhao of Jin (745-739 BC) acceded to the throne, he gave the land of Quwo to his uncle Chengshi who became Huan Shu of Quwo. In 739 BC, an official named Panfu (潘父) murdered Marquis Zhao and invited Huan Shu to take the throne. Huan Shu entered Jin but was driven out by the people and retreated to Quwo. All three Quwo rulers, Huan Shu (745-731), Zhuang Bo (731-716) and Duke Wu (716-678) made attempts to take over Jin. In 678 BC, Duke Wu of Quwo conquered Jin and killed Marquis Min of Jin (704-678). One year later, after receiving gifts from Duke Wu, King Xi of Zhou made Duke Wu the legal ruler of Jin, who became known as Duke Wu of Jin (679-677).
With the establishment of the Quwo line, Jin became the most powerful state for three generations and remained powerful for a century or more after that. Duke Wu died soon after gaining control of Jin. He was followed by Duke Xian of Jin (676-651 BC). Xian broke with Zhou feudalism by killing or exiling his cousins and ruling with appointees of various social backgrounds. He annexed 16 or 17 small states in Shanxi, dominated 38 others, and absorbed a number of Rong tribes. Some of the states conquered were Geng (耿), Huo (霍), old Wei (魏), Yu (虞) and Western Guo. His death led to a succession struggle which ended with the enthronement of Duke Hui of Jin (650-637). In 646 BC, Duke Hui was captured by Qin and restored as a vassal.
Another son of Duke Xian was Duke Wen of Jin (636-628), who spent 19 years exile in various courts. He came to the throne in 636 escorted by the troops of his father-in-law, Duke Mu of Qin. Duke Wen quickly established himself as an independent ruler by driving the Di barbarians west of the Yellow River. In 635 BC he supported King Xiang of Zhou against a rival and was rewarded with lands near the royal capital. In 633 BC, he confronted the rising power of the southern state of Chu which was then besieging Song. Instead of directly assisting Song, he attacked two vassals of Chu, Cao and Wei. The following year, he formed a military alliance with Qin, Qi and Song that defeated Chu at the Battle of Chengpu, perhaps the largest battle in the Spring and Autumn period. Shortly after the battle, he held an interstate conference at Jitu (踐土) with King Xiang of Zhou and the rulers of six other states. He affirmed the lords' loyalty and received from the King the title of "ba" or hegemon. At some point there was a war with Qin which ended in peace. Duke Wen erected monuments to the fallen on both sides. The Chinese proverb "The Friendship of Qin and Jin", meaning an unbreakable bond, dates from this period.
Over the next century, a four-way balance of power developed between Qin (west), Jin (west-center), Chu (south) and Qi (east), with a number of smaller states between Jin and Qi. In 627 BC, Jin defeated Qin while it was attacking Zheng. Jin invaded Qin in 625 BC and was driven back the following year. In 598 BC, Chu defeated Jin at the Battle of Mi. In 589 BC, Jin defeated Qi, which had invaded Lu and Wei. About this time Jin began to support the southeastern state of Wu as a means of weakening Chu. Duke Li of Jin (580-573) allied with Qin and Qi to make an east-west front against the threat of Chu from the south. In 579 BC, a minister of the state of Song arranged a four-power conference in which the states agreed to limit their military strength. Four years later, fighting broke out again; Jin and its allies defeated Chu at the battle of Yingling. Duke Dao of Jin (572-558) strengthened the state by internal improvements rather than external wars. He absorbed a number of Rong tribes and was recognized as Hegemon.
In 607 BC, Duke Ling of Jin (620-607) was killed by Zhao Chuan (趙穿) under the orders of his uncle Zhao Dun. Prince Heitun was placed on the throne as Duke Cheng of Jin (606-600). This was the beginning of the slow shift of power from the Jin dukes to the ministerial clans. Duke Li of Jin (580-573), the grandson of Duke Cheng, tried to break the power of the clans by fostering conflicts between them. In 573 BC, he was killed by the Luan (欒氏) and Zhonghang (中行氏) clans. Duke Dao of Jin (572-558) strengthened the ducal power, but could not eliminate the power of the other aristocratic families.
The clans soon began to fight among themselves. During the time of Duke Ding of Jin (511-475), the Fan and Zhonghang clans were eliminated by Xiangzi of Zhi. By about 450 BC, the Zhi were dominant and began demanding territory from the other clans. When Zhao resisted, Zhi attacked Zhao and brought along Han and Wei as allies. After a long siege at Taiyuan, Han and Wei switched sides and the three weaker clans annihilated the Zhi. They then divided the Zhi lands, as well as most of the rest of Jin, among themselves. When Duke You of Jin (433-416) came to the throne, the three clans had taken over much of the remaining Jin lands, leaving the dukes only the area around Jiang and Quwo. From then on, the three clans were known as the "Three Jins" (三晉).
In 403 BC, during the reign of Duke Lie of Jin (415-389), King Weilie of Zhou recognized Marquis Jing of Han, Marquis Wen of Wei and Marquess Lie of Zhao, as marquises of Han in the south, Wei in the center and Zhao in the north, completing the partition of Jin. The state of Jin still nominally existed for several decades afterwards. The Bamboo Annals mentions that in the 20th year of Duke Huan's reign (369 BC), Marquess Cheng of Zhao and Marquess Gong of Han moved Duke Huan to Tunliu, and after that there were no more records of Duke Huan or any other Jin ruler. Modern historians such as Yang Kuan, Ch'ien Mu, and Han Zhaoqi generally consider 369 BC the final year of Jin's existence.
Jin was a state that implemented the unity of civil and military authorities. Traditionally, Jin had three armies. The upper army, the central army and the lower army. Three more armies were later added. Each army contains 12500 soldiers.
According to the convention of Zhou dynasty, a large fiefdom is allowed to have as much as three armies. Since Jin was a large fiefdom, it was permitted by the Zhou king to own the three armies. However, Jin originally had only one army. The limitation was imposed by the Zhou dynasty king in order to observe the rite of Zhou. In 679 BCE, Duke Wu of Quwo assassinated Marquis Xiaozi of Jin and became the ruler of Jin. Quwo was a cadet branch of Jin's ruling house; Ji clan descended from Shu Yu of Tang. The Zhou court which regards the lineal legitimacy as an extremely important matter could not agree with such usurpation. As a consequence, the king removed Jin's permition to have three armies.
In 661 BCE, Duke Xian of Jin lifeted this prohibition by establishing the upper army; led by himself and the lower army; commanded by his son Shengshen. Jin's central army was established in the year of 633 BCE by Duke Wen of Jin. In 634 BCE, Duke Wen additionally formed three "ranks" (三行) with the purpose of defending Beidi's invasion. The three ranks were later redeployed into the "New armies"(新軍). The new armies were largely dependent on the actual military interests of Jin instead of a stable bureaucracy. Due to their flexibility, the new armies are sometimes omitted.
According to Tang dynasty scholar Kong Yingda, The central army was the most prestigious army among Jin's three armies. Its commander "Zhongjunjiang"(中軍將) also governs the state of Jin as Zhengqing(正卿)----Jin's prime minister. Commander of the upper army(Shangjunjiang, 上軍將) and commander of the lower army(Xiajunjiang, 下軍將) did not have the access of political influence in Jin's court and were merely military staffs. Every commander(Junjiang) of an Jin army was accompanied by a Junzuo(軍佐) who was the assistant of Junjiang(軍將). Other posts in Jin' army were: Junsima(軍司馬) and Junwei(軍尉). The two were subordinated under Junjiang and Junzuo.
The original branch:
|Shu Yu of Tang 唐叔虞||Yú 虞||1042 BC–?|
|Xie, Marquis of Jin 晉侯燮||Xiè 燮|
|Marquis Wu of Jin 晉武侯||Níngzú 寧族|
|Marquis Cheng of Jin 晉成侯||Fúrén 服人|
|Marquis Li of Jin 晉厲侯||Fú 福||?–859 BC|
|Marquis Jing of Jin 晉靖侯||Yíjìu 宜臼||858–841 BC|
|Marquis Xi of Jin 晉釐侯||Sītú 司徒||840–823 BC|
|Marquis Xian of Jin 晉獻侯||Jí 籍||822–812 BC|
|Marquis Mu of Jin 晉穆侯||Fèiwáng 費王||811–785 BC|
|Shang Shu 殤叔||unknown||784–781 BC|
|Marquis Wen of Jin 晉文侯||Chóu 仇||780–746 BC|
|Marquis Zhao of Jin 晉昭侯||Bó 伯||745–740 BC|
|Marquis Xiao of Jin 晉孝侯||Píng 平||739–724 BC|
|Marquis E of Jin 晉鄂侯||Xì 郤||723–718 BC|
|Marquis Ai of Jin 晉哀侯||Guāng 光||717–709 BC|
|Marquis Xiaozi of Jin 晉小子侯||unknown||708–705 BC|
|Min, Marquis of Jin 晉侯緡||Mín 緡||704–678 BC|
The Quwo branch, replacing the original branch in 678 BC:
|Huan Shu of Quwo 曲沃桓叔||Chéngshī 成師||745–732 BC|
|Zhuang Bo of Quwo 曲沃莊伯||Shàn 鱓||731–716 BC|
|Duke Wu of Quwo and Jin 曲沃(晉)武公||Chēng 稱||715–679 BC as Duke of Quwo|
678–677 BC as Duke of Jin
|Duke Xian of Jin 晉獻公||Guǐzhū 詭諸||676–651 BC|
|none||Xīqí 奚齊||651 BC|
|Zhuozi 卓子||Zhuō 卓||651 BC|
|Duke Hui of Jin 晉恵公||Yíwú 夷吾||650–637 BC|
|Duke Huai of Jin 晉懷公||Yǔ 圉||637 BC|
|Duke Wen of Jin 晉文公||Chóng'ěr 重耳||636–628 BC|
|Duke Xiang of Jin 晉襄公||Huān 驩||627–621 BC|
|Duke Ling of Jin 晉靈公||Yígāo 夷皋||620–607 BC|
|Duke Cheng of Jin 晉成公||Hēitún 黑臀||606–600 BC|
|Duke Jing of Jin 晉景公||Jù 據||599–581 BC|
|Duke Li of Jin 晉厲公||Shòumàn 壽曼||580–573 BC|
|Duke Dao of Jin 晉悼公||Zhōu 周||573–558 BC|
|Duke Ping of Jin 晉平公||Biāo 彪||557–532 BC|
|Duke Zhao of Jin 晉昭公||Yí 夷||531–526 BC|
|Duke Qing of Jin 晉頃公||Qùjí 去疾||525–512 BC|
|Duke Ding of Jin 晉定公||Wǔ 午||511–475 BC|
|Duke Chu of Jin 晉出公||Záo 鑿||474–452 BC|
|Duke Jing (or Ai or Yi) 晉敬公/哀公/懿公||Jiāo 驕||451–434 BC|
|Duke You of Jin 晉幽公||Liǔ 柳||433–416 BC|
|Duke Lie of Jin 晉烈公||Zhǐ 止||415–389 BC|
|Duke Huan (or Xiao) 晉桓公/孝公||Qí 頎||388–369 BC|
The Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji) also has another Duke Jing after Duke Xiao. However, Shiji's account of the last rulers of Jin is often self-contradictory, and is further contradicted by the Bamboo Annals, which does not mention any Jin ruler after Duke Huan of Jin. Historians such as Yang Kuan, Ch'ien Mu, and Han Zhaoqi generally regard the Bamboo Annals as more reliable, as it was unearthed from the tomb of King Xiang (died 296 BC) of the State of Wei, one of the three successor states of Jin. Duke Huan is therefore generally considered the final ruler of Jin.
The Sui dynasty Emperors were from the northwest military aristocracy, and emphasized that their patrilineal ancestry was ethnic Han, claiming descent from the Han official Yang Zhen. and the New Book of Tang traced his patrilineal ancestry to the Zhou dynasty kings via Ji Boqiao 姬伯僑, who was the son of Duke Wu of Jin. Ji Boqiao's family became known as the "sheep tongue family" 羊舌氏.
The Yang of Hongnong 弘農楊氏 were asserted as ancestors by the Sui Emperors like the Longxi Li's were asserted as ancestors of the Tang Emperors. The Li of Zhaojun and the Lu of Fanyang hailed from Shandong and were related to the Liu clan which was also linked to the Yang of Hongnong and other clans of Guanlong. Duke Wu of Jin was claimed as the ancestors of the Hongnong Yang.
The Yang of Hongnong, Jia of Hedong, Xiang of Henei, and Wang of Taiyuan from the Tang dynasty were claimed as ancestors by Song dynasty lineages.
Jin is represented by the star 36 Capricorni (b Capricorni) in the asterism Twelve States, Girl mansion. Jin is also represented by the star Kappa Herculis in asterism Right Wall, Heavenly Market enclosure (see Chinese constellation).
Han (Chinese: 韓, Old Chinese: *[g]ˤar) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period of ancient China. It is conventionally romanized by scholars as Hann to distinguish it from the later Han Dynasty (漢).It was located in central China (modern-day Shanxi and Henan) in a region south and east of Luoyang, the capital of the Eastern Zhou. It was ruled by a royal family who were former ministers in the state of Jin that had slowly gained power from the Jin royal family until they were able to divide Jin into the three new states of Han, Wei and Zhao with the assistance of two other ministerial families.The state of Han was small and located in a mountainous and unprofitable region. Its territory directly blocked the passage of the state of Qin into the North China Plain.. Although Han had attempted to reform its governance (notably under Chancellor and "Legalist" Shen Buhai who improved state administration and strengthened its military ability) these reforms were not enough to defend itself and it was the first of the seven warring states to be conquered by Qin in 230 BC.Qin invasion of Han's Shangdang Commandery in 260 BC was the bloodiest battle of the Warring States period with the supposed death of 400 000 soldiers (at Changping).Huan Shu of Quwo
Huan Shu of Quwo (Chinese: 曲沃桓叔; pinyin: Qūwò Huán Shū, 802–731 BC), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Chengshi (成師), was the first ruler of the state of Quwo during the Spring and Autumn period. He was the son of Marquis Mu of Jin and uncle of Marquis Zhao of Jin.
In 745 BC, the first year of the reign of Marquis Zhao of Jin, Marquis Zhao enfeoffed Chengshi at Quwo (around modern Quwo County, Shanxi). He was then known as Huan Shu of Quwo. He was then 58 years old. He was said to be a benevolent ruler beloved by the people of Quwo.
In 739 BC, the seventh year of his reign, a Jin official named Panfu (潘父) murdered Marquis Zhao and invited Huan Shu to ascend the throne of Jin. He accepted Panfu's welcome and attempted to enter Jin, but he was defeated by the Jin troops and retreated to Quwo. Then, the Jin people asked the son of Marquis Zhao of Jin, Ping, to ascend the throne and he became the next marquis: Marquis Xiao of Jin.
In 731 BC, Huan Shu died and his son, Shan, ascended the throne as the next ruler of Quwo: Zhuang Bo of Quwo. Another son of Huan Shu, Han Wan, became the progenitor of the State of Han.Marquis Ai of Jin
Marquis Ai of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋哀侯; traditional Chinese: 晉哀侯; pinyin: Jìn Āi Hóu), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Guang (光), was the fifteenth ruler of the state of Jin. He was also the fifth ruler of Jin in the Spring and Autumn period. He reigned for nine years.
In 710 BC, the eighth year of his reign, Marquis Ai of Jin attacked a small state south of Jin called Xingting (陘廷). The next year, Xingting, allied with Duke Wu of Quwo, sacked Yi (翼), the capital of Jin. After getting his half-uncle, Han Wan, to kill an escaping Marquis Ai of Jin, The Zhou king ensured that Ai's son, Marquis Xiaozi of Jin, became the next ruler of Jin.Marquis Cheng of Jin
Marquis Cheng of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋成侯; traditional Chinese: 晉成侯; pinyin: Jìn Chéng Hóu, Ancestral name is Ji (姬), given name is Furen (服人), was the fourth ruler of the state of Jin during the Western Zhou Dynasty. He succeeded his father, Marquis Wu of Jin, and was succeeded by his son Marquis Li of Jin.Marquis Li of Jin
Marquis Li of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋厉侯; traditional Chinese: 晉厲侯; pinyin: Jìn Lì Hóu), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Fu (福), was the fifth ruler of the state of Jin during the Western Zhou Dynasty. After his father, Marquis Cheng of Jin, died, he ascended the throne of Jin. After he died in 859 BC, his son, Yijiu, ascended the throne as the next ruler of Jin: Marquis Jing of Jin.
In 1992, an ancient tomb dating back to the Zhou Dynasty was discovered in Quwo County, Shanxi. One of the tombs was marked as the tomb of Marquis Li of Jin. Quwo County is known to be the site of the ancient capital of the state of Jin.Marquis Mu of Jin
Marquis Mu of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋穆侯; traditional Chinese: 晉穆侯; pinyin: Jìn Mù Hóu), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Feiwang (費王) or Fusheng (弗生), was the ninth ruler of the state of Jin during the Western Zhou Dynasty. After his father, Marquis Xian of Jin died in 812 BC, he ascended the throne of Jin.
In 808 BC, the fourth year of his reign, he married a woman from the royal family of Qi to be one of his concubines. In 805 BC, the seventh year of his reign, he battled with a tribe called Tiao (條). During this time, his eldest son, Chou, was born.
In 802 BC, after being victorious in the battle with a tribe called Qianmu (千畝), his other son, Chengshi, was born.
Marquis Mu reigned for 27 years. When he died in 785 BC his younger brother Shang Shu usurped the throne. Chou was forced to leave Jin.Marquis Wen of Jin
Marquis Wen of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋文侯; traditional Chinese: 晉文侯; pinyin: Jìn Wén Hóu, 805–746 BC), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Chou (仇), was the eleventh ruler of the state of Jin. He was also the first ruler of Jin in the Spring and Autumn period.
In 805 BC, Marquis Mu of Jin was battling with a tribe called Tiao (條). During this time, his eldest son, Chou, was born. In 776 BC, Marquis Mu of Jin died and Chou's uncle, Shang Shu, took control and ascended the throne of Jin. Chou left Jin for fear of his uncle since he believed himself the rightful heir to the throne.
In 781 BC, after four years away from Jin, he brought troops to remove his uncle from the throne. He succeeded and became the next ruler of Jin.
In 771 BC, the tenth year of his reign, King You of Zhou was killed by Quanrong nomads and two Zhou family members were subsequently and separately declared king: King Ping of Zhou and King Xie of Zhou. Therefore, both kings were claiming to be the next king of Zhou.
In 760 BC, the 21st year of his reign, Marquis Wen of Jin killed King Xie of Zhou, and the Zhou government became one again. Since this action helped King Ping of Zhou in establishing the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, Marquis Wen of Jin was heavily rewarded. The King also granted him lands to add to his territory. Also, with the permission of the King, he expanded the territory of Jin, especially areas around the Jin River.
In 746 BC, the 35th year of his reign, he died and his son, Bo, ascended the throne as the next ruler of Jin: Marquis Zhao of Jin.Marquis Wu of Jin
Marquis Wu of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋武侯; traditional Chinese: 晉武侯; pinyin: Jìn Wǔ Hóu), Ancestral name is Ji (姬), given name is Ningzu (寧族), was the third ruler of the state of Jin during the Western Zhou Dynasty. After his father, Xie, Marquis of Jin died, he ascended the throne of Jin. After he died, his son, Furen, ascended the throne as the next ruler of Jin: Marquis Cheng of Jin.Marquis Xi of Jin
Marquis Xi of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋僖侯; traditional Chinese: 晉釐侯 or 晉僖侯; pinyin: Jìn Xī Hóu), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Situ (司徒), was the seventh ruler of the state of Jin during the Western Zhou Dynasty. After his father Marquis Jing of Jin died, he ascended the throne of Jin.
In 823 BC, the 18th year of his reign, he died and his son Ji, ascended the throne as the next ruler of Jin: Marquis Xian of Jin.Marquis Xian of Jin
Marquis Xian of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋献侯; traditional Chinese: 晉獻侯; pinyin: Jìn Xiàn Hóu), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Su (蘇), was the eighth ruler of the state of Jin during the Western Zhou Dynasty. After his father, Marquis Xi of Jin died in 823 BC, he ascended the throne of Jin.
In 812 BC, the 11th year of his reign, he died and his son Feiwang, ascended the throne as the next ruler of Jin: Marquis Mu of Jin.Marquis Xiao of Jin
Marquis Xiao of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋孝侯; traditional Chinese: 晉孝侯; pinyin: Jìn Xiào Hóu), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Ping (平), was the thirteenth ruler of the state of Jin. He was also the third ruler of Jin in the Spring and Autumn period. He ruled for sixteen years.
In 739 BC, the 7th year of the reign of Marquis Zhao of Jin, a Jin official named Panfu (潘父) murdered Marquis Zhao of Jin and welcomed Uncle Huan of Quwo to ascend the throne of Jin. He accepted Panfu's welcome and entered Jin. When he entered, the Jin people brought troops to stop him from entering. He lost and receded back to Quwo. Then, the Jin people asked the son of Marquis Zhao of Jin, Ping, to ascend the throne and he became the next ruler of Jin: Marquis Xiao of Jin. After he ascended the throne, he killed Panfu in revenge for his father.
In 724 BC, the 15th year of his reign, the son of Uncle Huan of Quwo, Count Zhuang of Quwo, murdered Marquis Xiao of Jin while in the capital of Jin, Yi (翼). Then, Jin troops attacked Count Zhuang of Quwo so he retreated back to Quwo. The Jin people asked the son of Marquis Xiao of Jin, Xi, to become the next ruler of Jin and he became Marquis E of Jin.Marquis Xiaozi of Jin
Marquis Xiaozi of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋小子侯; traditional Chinese: 晉小子侯; pinyin: Jìn Xiǎozǐ Hóu), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name unknown, was the sixteenth ruler of the state of Jin. He was also the sixth ruler of Jin in the Spring and Autumn period. He reigned for four years.
In 705 BC, the fourth year of the reign of Marquis Xiaozi of Jin, Duke Wu of Quwo killed Marquis Xiaozi. King Huan of Zhou sent Guo Zhong (虢仲) to attack Duke Wu, and Duke Wu retreated to Quwo. King Huan of Zhou then installed Min, the uncle of Marquis Xiaozi, on the throne of Jin.Marquis Zhao of Jin
Marquis Zhao of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋昭侯; traditional Chinese: 晉昭侯; pinyin: Jìn Zhāo Hóu), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Bo (伯), was the twelfth ruler of the state of Jin. He was also the second ruler of Jin in the Spring and Autumn period.
In 745 BC, the first year of his reign, he gave the land called Quwo, modern Quwo County in Shanxi, to his uncle, Chengshi. This is considered as when Jin split into two, the two being Jin and Quwo. Chengshi was later known as Huan Shu of Quwo.
In 739 BC, the 7th year of his reign, a Jin official named Panfu (潘父) murdered Marquis Zhao of Jin and welcomed Huan Shu of Quwo to ascended the throne of Jin. He accepted Panfu's welcome and entered Jin. When he entered, the Jin people brought troops to stop him from entering. He lost and retreated back to Quwo. Then, the Jin people asked the son of Marquis Zhao of Jin, Ping, to ascend the throne and he became the next marquis: Marquis Xiao of Jin.Min, Marquis of Jin
Min, Marquis of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋侯缗; traditional Chinese: 晉侯緡; pinyin: Jìn Hóu Mín) was the last ruler of the state of Jin from the original branch of the ruling House of Ji. His ancestral name was Ji (姬), given name Min (緡). When Duke Wu of Quwo killed Marquis Xiaozi of Jin, King Huan of Zhou installed Min on the throne as Marquis of Jin. He reigned for 27 years.
In 678 BC, Duke Wu of Quwo attacked and conquered Jin. Duke Wu of Quwo offered gifts to King Xi of Zhou, who in turn made Duke Wu of Quwo the next ruler of Jin and gave him the title of Duke Wu of Jin (晉武公). Quwo finally annexed Jin and changed its name to Jin.Shang Shu (Jin)
Shang Shu (simplified Chinese: 殇叔; traditional Chinese: 殤叔; pinyin: Shāng Shū), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name unknown, was the tenth ruler of the state of Jin during the Western Zhou Dynasty. After his elder brother, Marquis Mu of Jin died in 785 BC, he gained the throne of Jin which traditionally should be passed to the eldest son, namely Chou (仇). After Shang Shu ascended the throne, Chou was forced to leave Jin in fear of his uncle.
In 781 BC, Chou brought troops to Jin to overthrow Shang Shu, and he ascended as the next ruler of Jin, Marquis Wen of Jin.Wei (state)
Wei (; Chinese: 魏; pinyin: Wèi; Old Chinese: *N-qʰuj-s) was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Han and Zhao. Its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern-day Henan, Hebei, Shanxi, and Shandong. After its capital was moved from Anyi to Daliang (present-day Kaifeng) during the reign of King Hui, Wei was also called Liang (Chinese: 梁; pinyin: Liáng).Xiefu
Xiefu or Xie was the original Marquis of Jin (Chinese: 晉侯燮; pinyin: Jìn Hóu Xiè), and the second ruler of the State of Jin during the early Zhou Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ji (姬), and given name Xie (燮) or Xiefu (燮父).
Marquis Xie succeeded his father, Shu Yu of Tang, as the ruler of the state of Tang. During his reign, he moved the capital from Tang (唐) to Jin (晉) and renamed the state Jin.
After he died, his son Ningzu succeeded him as Marquis Wu of Jin.Zhao (state)
Zhao (Chinese: 趙) was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Han and Wei, in the 5th century BC. Zhao gained significant strength from the military reforms initiated during King Wuling's reign, but suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Qin at the Battle of Changping. Its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces. It bordered the Xiongnu, the states of Qin, Wei and Yan. Its capital was Handan, in modern Hebei Province.
Zhao was home to administrative philosopher Shen Dao, sophist Gongsun Long and the Confucian Xun Kuang.Zhuang Bo of Quwo
Zhuang Bo of Quwo (simplified Chinese: 曲沃庄伯; traditional Chinese: 曲沃莊伯; pinyin: Qūwò Zhuāng Bó, died 716 BC), ancestral name Ji (姬), given name Shan (鱓), was the second ruler of the state of Quwo during the Spring and Autumn period. He was the son of Huan Shu of Quwo and half-brother of Wuzi of Han.
In 724 BC, Zhuang Bo of Quwo killed Marquis Xiao of Jin in the capital of Jin, Yi (翼). Then, Jin troops attacked Zhuang Bo of Quwo so he retreated back to Quwo. The son of Marquis Xiao of Jin ascended the throne and became Marquis E of Jin.
According to the Records of the Grand Historian, in 718 BC, when Zhuang Bo of Quwo heard the news of the death of Marquis E of Jin, he brought troops to attack Jin. King Ping of Zhou ordered the Duke of Guo (虢公) to attack Zhuang Bo of Quwo, so Zhuang Bo of Quwo retreated back to Quwo. The Jin people asked the son of Marquis E of Jin, to ascend the throne and he became the next ruler of Jin: Marquis Ai of Jin.
The Zuo Zhuan has a different record of the event. It says that Zhuang Bo of Quwo had an alliance with the state of Zheng and the state of Xing (邢) and they attacked Yi (翼), the capital of Jin. King Huan of Zhou sent troops to help Quwo so Marquis E of Jin fled. Soon afterward Zhuang Bo of Quwo betrayed King Huan of Zhou and attacked him. King Huan of Zhou then sent the Duke of Guo (虢公) during the autumn of that year to attack Quwo and to put the son Gongzi Guang of Marquis E of Jin, on the throne of Jin and Gongzi Guang became Marquis Ai of Jin.
In 716 BC, Zhuang Bo died and his son Cheng ascended the throne of Quwo and became Duke Wu of Quwo.
Zhou dynasty states
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