Jim Jeffords

James Merrill Jeffords (May 11, 1934 – August 18, 2014) was an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from Vermont. Sworn into the Senate in 1989, he served as a Republican until 2001, when he left the party to become an independent and began caucusing with the Democrats. Jeffords retired from the Senate in 2007. Prior to serving in the Senate, he served as the U.S. Representative for Vermont's at-large congressional district from 1975 to 1989.

The son of Olin M. Jeffords, who served as Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court, James Jeffords was born in Rutland, Vermont. He graduated from Yale University, served for three years in the United States Navy, and then attended Harvard Law School, from which he received his degree in 1962. Jeffords practiced law in southern Vermont and became a resident of Shrewsbury, where he was active in local politics and government as a Republican, including serving as chairman of the town's Republican committee. He served one term in the Vermont Senate (1967-1969), and two as Attorney General of Vermont (1969-1973). He lost the 1972 Republican primary for Governor of Vermont, but won the election for Vermont's lone seat in the United States House of Representatives in 1974. He served in the House from 1975 to 1989; in 1988 he was the successful Republican nominee for the United States Senate seat held by the retiring Robert Stafford.

Jeffords served in the Senate from 1989 until 2007, winning reelection in 1994 and 2000. In 2001, he made national headlines when he left the Republican Party to become an independent, and began to caucus with the Senate's Democrats. His switch changed control of the Senate from Republican to Democratic, the first time a switch had ever changed party control. During his Senate career, Jeffords served as chairman of the Public Works and Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committees.

In 2005, Jeffords announced that he would not run for reelection in 2006, and would retire at the end of his term. He was succeeded by Bernie Sanders. Jeffords retired to Shrewsbury in 2007. After the death of his wife, he moved to the Washington, DC area to live closer to his children. He died in 2014 from complications associated with Alzheimer's disease, and was buried in Shrewsbury.

Jim Jeffords
United States Senator
from Vermont
In office
January 3, 1989 – January 3, 2007
Preceded byRobert Stafford
Succeeded byBernie Sanders
Chair of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee
In office
June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003
Preceded byBob Smith
Succeeded byJim Inhofe
Chair of the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
In office
January 20, 2001 – June 6, 2001
Preceded byTed Kennedy
Succeeded byTed Kennedy
In office
January 3, 1997 – January 3, 2001
Preceded byNancy Kassebaum
Succeeded byTed Kennedy
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's at-large district
In office
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1989
Preceded byRichard W. Mallary
Succeeded byPeter Plympton Smith
Attorney General of Vermont
In office
Preceded byJames L. Oakes
Succeeded byKimberly B. Cheney
Member of the Vermont State Senate
In office
Personal details
James Merrill Jeffords

May 11, 1934
Rutland, Vermont, U.S.
DiedAugust 18, 2014 (aged 80)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Cause of deathAlzheimer's disease
Resting placeNortham Cemetery, Shrewsbury, Vermont, U.S.
Political partyRepublican (before 2001)
Independent (after 2001)
Liz Daley
(m. 1961; div. 1978)

(m. 1986; died 2007)
Alma materYale University
Harvard Law School
Jim Jeffords's signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Navy
Years of service1956–1959
RankUS-O6 insignia.svg Captain
UnitNavy Reserves (1959–1990)


Jeffords was born in Rutland, Vermont, the son of Marion (née Hausman) and Olin Merrill Jeffords, who served as Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court.[1] According to Jeffords, his mother was a relative of French architect Georges-Eugène Haussmann.[2] Jeffords graduated from Yale University in 1956 and Harvard Law School in 1962.[3] After three years of active duty in the United States Navy (1956–1959), Jeffords served in the Naval Reserves until retiring as a Captain in 1990. During 1962 and 1963 he was a law clerk for Ernest W. Gibson Jr., Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Vermont, afterwards practicing law in Rutland.

A longtime resident of Shrewsbury, Jeffords became active in politics and government in the 1960s as Shrewsbury's Grand Juror, Town Agent and Zoning Administrator, in addition to serving as chairman of the town's Republican committee. He also served as Rutland County's chairman of the Board of Property Tax Appeals.[4]

Jeffords married Elizabeth "Liz" Daley twice, first in 1961, which ended with a June 1978 divorce. On August 26, 1986, they married again. Liz Jeffords died on the morning of April 13, 2007, after a long struggle with ovarian cancer. Jeffords and his wife had two children, Leonard and Laura, both of whom live and work in the Washington, D.C., area. After his wife's death, Jeffords resided in Washington, D.C., a move he made in order to live near his son and daughter.[5]

Jeffords at 7

Jeffords at age seven


Jeffords serving in the Navy

Jeffords Wedding

Jeffords first married his wife Elizabeth in 1961

Political career

Early career

Jeffords won a seat in the Vermont State Senate in 1966. He followed that success in 1968 with a victory in the race for Attorney General of Vermont. He was a Presidential Elector for Vermont in 1972, and voted for reelection of the Nixon-Agnew ticket.[6]

Jeffords sought the Republican Party nomination for governor in 1972, but was defeated in the primary by Luther "Fred" Hackett.


In 1974, after winning the Republican nomination with a plurality in a three-way race, he won Vermont's sole seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served for 14 years. Jeffords was a member of the Agriculture and Education and Labor Committees, and rose through seniority to become the ranking Republican on Education and Labor. Jeffords was the only Republican to vote against the Ronald Reagan tax cuts of 1981, and was a supporter of both abortion rights and expanded protections for the rights of gays and lesbians. In addition, he was recognized as a moderate-to-liberal Republican because of his pro-environment positions and his support for the National Endowment for the Arts.

U.S. Senator

In 1988, Jeffords was elected to the U.S. Senate, and was reelected in 1994 and 2000.[7]

Jeffords long favored expanded access to health care, and supported the plan offered by Bill Clinton in the early 1990s. In February 1998, after David Satcher was confirmed by the Senate for U.S. Surgeon General,[8] President Clinton issued a statement thanking Jeffords and several other senators "for their strong support for this extremely qualified nominee."[9]

He was one of only five Republican senators who voted to acquit Clinton after Clinton was impeached by the U.S. House in 1999. In October 1999, Jeffords was one of four Republicans to vote in favor of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The treaty was designed to ban underground nuclear testing and was the first major international security pact to be defeated in the Senate since the Treaty of Versailles.[10][11]

Jeffords' work in Congress focused on legislation involving education, job training and individuals with disabilities. In his later years in the Senate, his emphasis shifted somewhat, as he pushed through Congress several important pieces of environmental legislations. He was, together with Paul Simon, credited by Canadian Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire, Force Commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) from 1993 to 1994, for actively lobbying the US administration into mounting a humanitarian mission to Rwanda during the Rwandan Genocide. According to Dallaire's book, Shake Hands with the Devil, he "owe(s) a great debt of gratitude" to both senators.

Jeffords was one of the founders of the Congressional Solar Coalition and the Congressional Arts Caucus. Jeffords was frequently recognized for his performance as a legislator, receiving Parenting magazine's "Legislator of the Year" award in 1999, and the Sierra Club's highest commendation in 2002.

During part of his tenure in the Senate, Jeffords sat at the Candy Desk.

State Senator Jeffords

Jeffords during his tenure as a state senator


Jeffords in 1975, as a freshman congressman

Christopher Dodd and Jim Jeffords speaking at the Pentagon, May 2000

Jeffords (right) with fellow US senator Chris Dodd at the Pentagon, speaking on defense issues, May 2000.

Departure from the GOP

On May 24, 2001, Jeffords left the Republican Party, with which he had always been affiliated, and announced his new status as an independent. Jeffords discussed this decision during his announcement that he was leaving the Republican Party. "I will make this change and will caucus with the Democrats for organizational purposes once the conference report on the tax bill is sent to the president. I gave my word to the president that I would not intercept or try to intervene in the signing of that bill." Jeffords' opposition to the policies of the George W. Bush administration, including concerns over the size of the Bush tax cuts, motivated his party switch.[12] Jeffords' switch was also motivated by the refusal of Senate Republicans to fully fund the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.[13] In his announcement speech he stated, "Increasingly, I find myself in disagreement with my party... I understand that many people are more conservative than I am and they form the Republican Party. Given the changing nature of the national party, it has become a struggle for our leaders to deal with me and for me to deal with them."[14]

The 2000 Senate elections had left the Senate with a 50–50 split in partisan control, forcing Democrats and Republicans to negotiate an unusual power-sharing arrangement (although Republican Vice President Dick Cheney could break tie votes). Following the election, Democrats sought out a Republican to defect from the Republican caucus, which would give Democrats control of the chamber. Democratic whip Harry Reid courted Jeffords, Lincoln Chafee, and John McCain as potential party-switchers. After being promised the chairmanship of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee to offset his loss of a committee chairmanship under Republican control, Jeffords decided to change parties, and gave up the chairmanship of the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee, which he had held since 1997. Jeffords' switch gave Democrats control of a chamber of Congress for the first time since the 1994 elections, and Jeffords is the only senator in history to tip the balance of power in the Senate by switching parties.[12] However, the effects were not long-lasting: 18 months later, after Republican Jim Talent won a special election to the Senate from Missouri, the Senate switched back to GOP hands.

Jeffords agreed to vote with the Democrats on all procedural matters except with permission of the whip, in exchange for the committee seats that would have been available to Jeffords had he been a Democrat during his entire Senate tenure. He was free to vote as he pleased on policy matters, but more often than not voted with the Democrats.

Jeffords's party switch made him only the second Senator from Vermont to caucus with the Democrats. The seat that Jeffords occupied had been held by a Republican from 1857, when Solomon Foot joined the new party, until Jeffords became an Independent in 2001.

Senate record

Even before switching parties, Jeffords's voting record was moderate-to-liberal, which was typical of Republicans affiliated with Vermont's Aiken-Gibson wing. (The Aiken-Gibson wing of the Vermont Republican Party were those party activists and office holders identified with progressive policies. The party's conservatives comprised a pro-business wing, which was led by the Proctor, Fairbanks, and Smith families. In addition to Aiken and Gibson, other members of their wing of the party in the 1950s and 1960s included Jeffords and Robert Stafford. Members of the party's conservative wing included Harold J. Arthur, Lee E. Emerson, and Winston L. Prouty.)

By the time of his switch, no Republican Senator had a lower lifetime score from the American Conservative Union. In 1981, Jeffords was the only Republican member of the House to vote against a bill reducing the top tax rate from 70 per cent to 50 per cent — a hallmark of President Ronald Reagan's legacy. During his time in the Senate, he voted for the Brady Bill, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, an end to the ban on gays serving in the military, and against permanent normal trade relations with China and barring affirmative action at the federal level. Jeffords was also vocal in his opposition to the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court of the United States by President George H. W. Bush. He was one of only two Republicans to vote against confirming Clarence Thomas. In 1993, he was the only prominent Republican to support President Clinton's unsuccessful attempt to establish a national healthcare plan. Jeffords's voting record and positions on environmental issues put further distance between himself and his Republican Party colleagues.

Jeffords consistently voted against the ban on partial-birth abortion, and also against a harsher line on Cuba. In 1995, Jeffords was one of two Republican Senators, the other being Bill Frist of Tennessee, to vote in favor of confirming Dr. Henry Foster as Surgeon General;[15] the vote failed, and Foster's confirmation was ultimately denied. In 1995 he was one of only 16 Senators to vote against the Communications Decency Act. The Supreme Court later struck it down as unconstitutional. Jeffords highly advocated LGBT rights in the workplace. He sponsored The Employee Non Discrimination Act of 1995 (104th Congress), 1997 (105th Congress), and 1999 (106th Congress). Jeffords' non-discrimination bills did not include "gender identity." He was in the minority of Republicans to oppose the Flag Desecration Amendment. On guns his record was mixed, despite voting for the Brady Bill and the Federal Assault Weapons Ban, he voted with gun control opponents against background checks at gun shows in 1999 and he voted with the majority of Congress for the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act. He took a more moderate line on the death penalty. On many economic issues Jeffords was roughly in line with the majority of the Republican Party, before and after his switch: he mostly supported free-trade agreements, voted for making enforcement of consumer protection laws more difficult by moving many class-action lawsuits into federal courts, tighter bankruptcy rules and a balanced budget amendment. Even after becoming an independent, he did vote with Republicans on many major pieces of legislation. For example, Jeffords did vote against the Bipartisan Patient Protection Act, a bill supported strongly by Republican John McCain and many moderate Republicans like Olympia Snowe, Arlen Specter and Mike DeWine. Two years later he voted for the prescription drug bill, derided by many Democrats as a give away to drug companies and opposed by many conservative Republicans who opposed further federal spending, but ultimately strongly supported by President George W. Bush, and the vast majority of the Republican Party.

On October 11, 2002, Jeffords was one of 23 senators to vote against authorizing the use of military force in Iraq. Shortly after that, he was one of only nine senators to vote against the bill establishing the United States Department of Homeland Security. On November 11, 2003 Jeffords was one of only four senators to vote against the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act, a bill that received strong support from politicians from across the aisle.

Retirement and death

In April 2005, Jeffords announced his decision not to run for re-election in 2006. Jeffords said his wife's cancer and his own growing health concerns caused him to decide it was time to retire. On September 27, 2006, Jeffords delivered his farewell speech on the Senate floor. Floor speeches by and in tribute to retiring senators are a Senate tradition, but only one Republican senator, Chuck Grassley of Iowa, spoke on the floor in praise of Jeffords. The 70-year-old incumbent decided to retire despite consensus within the political community that he had good opportunity to win re-election in 2006. Governor Jim Douglas opted not to run, and Richard Tarrant won the Republican nomination. Bernie Sanders, then the only independent in the U.S. House, ran as an independent. Sanders also won the Democratic nomination by write-in, but declined it. In the general election, Sanders defeated Tarrant and four minor candidates, receiving 65 percent of the vote.

Jeffords died of Alzheimer's disease on August 18, 2014, at Knollwood, a military retirement facility in Washington, D.C., where he had lived for eight years. He was 80 years old.[16] He was buried at Northam Cemetery in North Shrewsbury.[17]

See also


  1. ^ Vermont Secretary of State, Vermont Legislative Directory and State Manual, 1985, page 446
  2. ^ James M. Jeffords, An Independent Man: Adventures of a Public Servant, 2003, page 12
  3. ^ "Jim Jeffords". NNDB. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  4. ^ Marquis Who's Who, Who's Who in Government, Volume 3, 1977, page 300
  5. ^ James M. Jeffords, An Independent Man: Adventures of a Public Servant, 2003, page 291
  6. ^ "Jeffords, James Merrill (b. 1934)". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  7. ^ "JEFFORDS, James Merrill, (1934 – )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  8. ^ "Satcher Confirmed As Surgeon General". CNN. February 10, 1998.
  9. ^ Clinton, Bill (February 10, 1998). "Statement on Senate Confirmation of David Satcher as Surgeon General and Assistant Secretary for Health". U.S. Government Publishing Office.
  11. ^ Dewar, Helen (October 14, 1999). "Senate Rejects Test Ban Treaty". Washington Post.
  12. ^ a b Kane, Paul (August 18, 2014). "How Jim Jeffords single-handedly bent the arc of politics". Washington Post. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  13. ^ 'Did the Democrats Sucker Jim Jeffords?', by Timothy Noah, Slate.
  14. ^ "Jeffords Leaves Republican Party". Washington Post. May 24, 2001. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  15. ^ Cimons, Marlene (May 4, 1995). "GOP Senator Pledges Support for Foster: James Jeffords' decision assures surgeon general nominee at least a tie vote on panel. Two other Republicans may also give their backing". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA.
  16. ^ Associated Press (August 18, 2014). "Former US Senator Jim Jeffords dead at 80". wptz.com. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  17. ^ Rutland Herald, Obituary, James Merrill "Jim" Jeffords, August 20, 2014
  18. ^ Akers, Mary Ann (2007-12-20). "With Lott Gone, Larry Craig Is Last Singing Senator". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-03-26.

Further reading

  • James M. Jeffords, My Declaration of Independence (Simon & Schuster, 2001). ISBN 0-7432-2842-1
  • James M. Jeffords, An Independent Man (Simon & Schuster, 2003). ISBN 0-7432-2843-X

External links

Legal offices
Preceded by
James L. Oakes
Attorney General of Vermont
Succeeded by
Kimberly B. Cheney
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Richard W. Mallary
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's At-large congressional district

Succeeded by
Peter Plympton Smith
Party political offices
Preceded by
Robert Stafford
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Vermont
(Class 1)

1988, 1994, 2000
Succeeded by
Richard Tarrant
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Robert Stafford
United States Senator (Class 1) from Vermont
Served alongside: Patrick Leahy
Succeeded by
Bernie Sanders
Preceded by
Nancy Kassebaum
Chairman of the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
Succeeded by
Ted Kennedy
Preceded by
Ted Kennedy
Chairman of the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
Preceded by
Bob Smith
Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee
Succeeded by
Jim Inhofe
107th United States Congress

The One Hundred Seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 2001 to January 3, 2003, during the final weeks of the Clinton presidency and the first two years of the George W. Bush presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-first Census of the United States in 1990. The House of Representatives had a Republican majority, and the Senate switched majorities from Democratic to Republican and back to Democratic. By the end of term, Republicans had regained the majority in the Senate, but since the body was out of session reorganization was delayed till the next Congress.

1958 SCCA National Sports Car Championship

The 1958 SCCA National Sports Car Championship season was the eighth season of the Sports Car Club of America's National Sports Car Championship. It began January 12, 1958, and ended October 5, 1958, after sixteen races.

1959 SCCA National Sports Car Championship

The 1959 SCCA National Sports Car Championship season was the ninth season of the Sports Car Club of America's National Sports Car Championship. It began April 5, 1959, and ended November 15, 1959, after fourteen races.

1988 United States Senate election in Vermont

The 1988 United States Senate election in Vermont took place on November 8, 1988. Incumbent Republican Robert Stafford did not run for re-election to another term in the United States Senate. Republican candidate Jim Jeffords defeated Democratic candidate Bill Gray to succeed him.

1994 United States Senate election in Vermont

The 1994 U.S. Senate election in Vermont was held, where incumbent centrist Republican senator Jim Jeffords easily won re-election to a second term against state senator Jan Backus and independent Gavin Mills. He won every county in the state.

1994 United States elections

The 1994 United States elections were held on November 8, 1994. The election occurred in the middle of Democratic President Bill Clinton's first term in office, and elected the members of 104th United States Congress. This was the year known as the Republican Revolution, in which members of the Republican Party captured majorities in the House of Representatives, Senate and governors mansions. Republicans were able to gain eight Senate seats, fifty-four House seats, and ten governorships. In addition, many state legislative chambers switched from Democratic to Republican control. This became the first time since 1954 that control of both Congressional chambers switched at the same time, and the results ended 40 years of uninterrupted Democratic control of the House.Republicans were able to nationalize the election by campaigning on a "Contract with America," and the new Republican majorities passed conservative legislation such as the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, and the Defense of Marriage Act. The election was a major defeat for Clinton's health care plan, but Clinton's subsequent move to the center may have helped him win re-election in 1996. George W. Bush's election as Governor of Texas laid the groundwork for his successful campaign for president in 2000.The Republican Party would retain control of the House until the 2006 elections, while they would retain control of the Senate until Vermont Senator Jim Jeffords left the Republican Party in 2001.

2000 United States Senate election in Vermont

The 2000 United States Senate election in Vermont took place on November 7, 2000. Incumbent Republican U.S. Senator Jim Jeffords won re-election to a third term in office. Jeffords switched from being a Republican to an independent, who would caucus with the Democratic Party, thus breaking the 50-50 lock. As of 2019, this is the most recent congressional election in Vermont won by a Republican.

2000 United States Senate elections

The 2000 United States Senate elections, was held on November 7, 2000. The elections coincided with other federal and state elections, including the presidential election which was won by Republican George W. Bush. It featured a number of fiercely contested elections that resulted in a victory for the Democratic Party, which gained a net total of four seats from the Republican Party. This election marked the first election year since 1988 where Democrats made net gains in the Senate.

This election took place six years after Republicans had won a net gain of eight seats in Senate Class 1 during the elections of 1994. Democrats defeated Republican senators William Roth (Delaware), Spencer Abraham (Michigan), Rod Grams (Minnesota), John Ashcroft (Missouri), and Slade Gorton (Washington), and won the open seat in Florida. In Missouri, the winner was elected posthumously. The Republicans did defeat one Democratic incumbent, Chuck Robb (Virginia), and won an open seat in Nevada.

The election resulted in an equal 50–50 split between Republicans and Democrats, meaning the Vice President would cast the tie-breaking votes in organizing the Senate. This resulted in the Democrats winning control of the Senate for only 17 days, since Al Gore was still Vice President and President of the Senate at the beginning of the new term, on January 3, 2001. But the Republicans regained control of the chamber when the new Vice President Dick Cheney was inaugurated January 20. The Republican majority would last until June 6, 2001, when Republican Senator Jim Jeffords of Vermont became an independent and caucused with the Democrats.

This was the last time until 2016 in which Democrats lost the presidency but gained seats in the Senate. Coincidentally, Democrats won the popular vote in both elections. This was also the last time in which the Senate changed hands during a presidential year.

This is the last election with only Republicans and Democrats in the Senate. Starting with Jeffords's party switch, there would always be at least one third-party senator.

2000 United States elections

The 2000 United States elections were held on November 7, 2000.

2006 United States Senate election in Vermont

The 2006 United States Senate election in Vermont was held November 7, 2006. Incumbent independent Senator Jim Jeffords decided to retire rather than seek re-election to a fourth term in office and Bernie Sanders was elected to succeed him.

Sanders represented Vermont's at-large House district as an independent, won the Democratic primary and then dropped out to run as an independent. Many Democratic politicians across the country endorsed Sanders, and no Democrat was on the ballot. The state committee of the Vermont Democratic Party voted unanimously to endorse Sanders.Sanders won the open seat with 65% of the vote. Sanders' win marked the first Republican loss for this seat in 144 years, ending the longest single party Senate winning streak in history.

Jan Backus

Jan Backus (born July 30, 1947) served as a Vermont state senator representing Windham County from 1989 to 1994 and Chittenden County from 1997 to 2000. A community activist, Backus served as a member of the Vermont Southeast Supervisory Union board for many years before making a run for the Vermont state Senate and winning a seat. She served as chairwoman of the Senate Health & Welfare Committee and a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee.

A moderate-to-liberal Democrat, Backus ran for the U.S. Senate in 1994 and beat Douglas M. Costle, Environmental Protection Agency administrator under President Jimmy Carter, for her party's nomination and came within 9 points of ousting incumbent U.S. Senator Jim Jeffords (R-VT). In 2000, she ran again and lost the Democratic U.S. Senate primary to Ed Flanagan, then Vermont's Auditor of Accounts. In 2004 Backus ran for the Democratic nomination for lieutenant governor.Backus lives in Winooski, Vermont, with her husband Steve Blodgett (a former state senator). She currently serves as a member of Winooski's Downtown Revitalization Project to eliminate sprawl and attract jobs. She has three daughters, one of whom served as a high-ranking member of John Kerry's presidential campaign in 2004.

Backus competes annually in the National Crossword Championship. Her highest finish was 46th.


Jeffords is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Jim Jeffords, former U.S. Senator from Vermont

Jim Jeffords (boxer), see List of bare-knuckle boxers

Harrison Jeffords, hero of the American Civil War

Tom Jeffords, prominent resident of the Arizona Territory

Elza Jeffords, prominent resident of Mississippi following the Civil WarSee also


Jim Jeffords State Forest

Jim Jeffords State Forest covers 1,349 acres (5.46 km2) in Mendon and Shrewsbury, Vermont.

The forest connects Aitken State Forest, to the east, and Calvin Coolidge State Forest, to the west, contributing to the conservation of an important wildlife corridor.Public access to Jim Jeffords State Forest is from Moonshine Lane and North Branch Roads off the Upper Cold River Road in Shrewsbury.

The forest was created in 2016 and named after Shrewsbury resident state senator Jim Jeffords, who was noted for his legacy of environmental stewardship and land conservation. It is managed for recreation, wildlife habitat protection, sustainable timber harvesting, and water quality protection.

Activities in the forest include hiking along woods roads, hunting, fishing and trapping, snowmobiling, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing. No roads are plowed in winter within the state forest.

List of United States Senators from Vermont

Vermont was admitted to the Union on March 4, 1791. From the 1850s until well into the 20th century, Vermont was always represented by members of the Republican Party. Its current United States Senators are Democrat Patrick Leahy and Independent Bernie Sanders. Leahy is the only Democrat ever elected to the Senate from Vermont, though Independents Jim Jeffords and Sanders both caucused with the Senate Democrats. Having been in office since 1975, Leahy is currently the most senior incumbent Senator, and is the last one to have served during the presidency of Gerald Ford.

Olin M. Jeffords

Olin M. Jeffords (June 8, 1890 – October 10, 1964) was a Vermont attorney and judge who served as Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court. He was the father of Senator Jim Jeffords.

Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act

The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (PSQIA): Pub.L. 109–41, 42 U.S.C. ch. 6A subch. VII part C, established a system of patient safety organizations and a national patient safety database. To encourage reporting and broad discussion of adverse events, near misses, and dangerous conditions, it also established privilege and confidentiality protections for Patient Safety Work Product (as defined in the act). The PSQIA was introduced by Sen. Jim Jeffords [I-VT]. It passed in the Senate July 21, 2005 by unanimous consent, and passed the House of Representatives on July 27, 2005 with 428 Ayes, 3 Nays, and 2 Present/Not Voting.Lexology, in cooperation with the Association of Corporate Counsel, predicts that this law will be one of the top 10 health care law issues in 2010. This reference should be actualized by stakeholders.

Peter Diamondstone

Peter Isaac Diamondstone (December 19, 1934 – August 30, 2017) was an American lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Vermont, best known as a perennial candidate and co-founder of the Liberty Union Party. He ran for various Vermont political offices, all unsuccessfully, in every election cycle from 1970 until 2016.

Rutland station

Rutland is a train station in Rutland, Vermont served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system. It is served daily by Amtrak's Ethan Allen Express.

The station, which is located near the former Rutland Railroad yard on the western edge of downtown, opened in 1999. Designed by local firm NBF Architects, the station has walls of red brick that rise from a base of textured gray concrete block. To celebrate Rutland native Jim Jeffords, who represented Vermont in Congress, city leaders renamed the station the “James M. Jeffords Rail Passenger Welcome Center.”

Shrewsbury, Vermont

Shrewsbury is a town in Rutland County, Vermont, United States. The town was named for the Earl of Shrewsbury. The population was 1,056 at the 2010 census.Shrewsbury was the home of the late U.S. Senator Jim Jeffords. In 1986/87, the town received worldwide attention from the media, when a moose spent 76 days unsuccessfully courting a local farmer's cow. A book, A Moose for Jessica was written about the story.

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