Jim Gilmore

James Stuart Gilmore III (born October 6, 1949) is an American politician and former attorney who was the 68th Governor of Virginia from 1998 to 2002 and Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 2001.

A native Virginian, Gilmore graduated as a Bachelor of Arts and a Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia, and then served in the U.S. Army as a counterintelligence agent. He was later elected to public office as a county prosecutor, as the Attorney General of Virginia, and as Governor of Virginia.

Gilmore was a candidate for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 2008 and 2016 elections.[1][2]

In November 2018, Gilmore was nominated by President Donald Trump to serve as the U.S. Representative to United States Mission to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, a position which carries the rank of ambassador.[3] His nomination is pending U.S. Senate confirmation.

Jim Gilmore
Jim Gilmore 2015
United States Ambassador to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Assuming office
PresidentDonald Trump
SucceedingHarry R. Kamian (Chargé d'Affaires)
68th Governor of Virginia
In office
January 17, 1998 – January 12, 2002
LieutenantJohn Hager
Preceded byGeorge Allen
Succeeded byMark Warner
Chair of the Republican National Committee
In office
January 18, 2001 – December 5, 2001
Preceded byJim Nicholson
Succeeded byMarc Racicot
38th Attorney General of Virginia
In office
January 15, 1994 – June 11, 1997
GovernorGeorge Allen
Preceded byStephen Rosenthal
Succeeded byRichard Cullen
Personal details
James Stuart Gilmore III

October 6, 1949 (age 69)
Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Roxane Gatling (m. 1977)
EducationUniversity of Virginia (BA, JD)
Jim Gilmore's signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1971–1974
Unit650th Group, Military Intelligence Corps
AwardsJoint Service Commendation Medal ribbon.svg Joint Service Commendation Medal

Early life and education

Gilmore was born in Richmond, Virginia, the son of Margaret Evelyn (née Kandle), a church secretary, and James Stuart Gilmore Jr., a grocery store meat cutter.[4] He graduated from John Randolph Tucker High School and received an undergraduate degree from the University of Virginia in 1971.

Military service

In 1971, Gilmore volunteered to serve in the United States Army after attending college, receiving training and preparation for service in the Military Intelligence Corps at the newly created United States Army Intelligence Center at Fort Huachuca in Arizona. Gilmore also received rigorous foreign language education at the United States Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California. Gilmore then worked for three years in the early 1970s, in the 650th Military Intelligence Group. Serving in West Germany during the Vietnam War and fluent in German, he served as a U.S. Army Counterintelligence Agent.[5]

Legal career

Gilmore received his J.D. degree from University of Virginia Law School in 1977, A decade later, he was elected Commonwealth's Attorney in Henrico County and was re-elected in 1991. In 1993, he was elected Virginia's attorney general, defeating Democrat Bill Dolan by more than 10 percentage points (958,982 to 749,565 votes).[6] Gilmore resigned in 1997 to run for governor.

Governor of Virginia

In 1997, Gilmore faced then-Lieutenant Governor Don Beyer and Reform Party candidate Sue Harris Debauche in a bid to succeed George Allen as governor. Gilmore campaigned heavily on the twin promises of hiring 4,000 new teachers in public schools and phasing out Virginia's personal property tax on automobiles.[7] Gilmore was elected, winning 56% of the vote to Beyer's 43%.[8]

In his first year as governor, Gilmore pushed for car tax reduction legislation that was eventually passed by the Democratic-controlled General Assembly. The legislation reduced car taxes on all cars valued less than $1,000, and phased out the tax on auto values over $1,000 as follows: 12.5% reduction in 1998; 25% reduction in 1999; 47.5% reduction in 2000; 70% reduction in 2001; 100% reduction in 2002. Beginning in 2001, Virginia's economy slowed and tax revenues flattened. In addition to a downturn in the national economy in 2001, Northern Virginia's economy was severely impacted after terrorists flew a hijacked airplane into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, on September 11, 2001, resulting in the closure of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport for 23 days. Despite the economic downturn, Gilmore insisted on advancing the car tax phase out from a 47.5% reduction of each taxpayer's bill in 2000 to the scheduled 70% reduction in 2001. Gilmore signed an executive order, which was passed by Congress, reducing state spending by all agencies, except for education, to keep the state's budget balanced during the economic downturn. Democrats criticized the spending reductions and car tax cut. According to the Washington Post, "Virginia's politicians struggled to balance car-tax relief against demands for public services."[9] When Gilmore left office in January 2002, the state's "rainy day fund," or revenue stabilization fund, had fallen to $900 million.[10]

In April 1998, Gilmore's first trip abroad as governor was to Germany with his Secretary of Commerce, Barry Duval. They sought to expand jobs and investment with German companies who at the time had invested more than $2 billion and 10,000 jobs in the Commonwealth. During his tenure, Gov. Gilmore was focused on creating jobs by leading several trade missions to: South America in 1999 (Argentina, Brazil, Chile); Asia in 2000 (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan); Europe again in 2001 (Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland). Mr. Gilmore, since leaving office, has also traveled to Pakistan, Australia, and Peru. He also traveled to Israel when he was Attorney General of Virginia in the early 1990s.

The Gilmore Administration implemented new Standards of Learning reforms in Virginia's public schools. The Standards of Learning prescribed a uniform curriculum in mathematics, science, English and social studies and instituted new tests at the end of the third, fifth and eighth grades, as well as end-of-course tests in high school, to measure student achievement. During Gilmore's term, Virginia's public school students' scores increased on these state tests as well as nationally normed tests.[11]

In 1999, Gilmore proposed and signed into law legislation that reduced tuitions at public colleges and universities by 20%. Gilmore also commissioned a Blue Ribbon Commission on Higher Education that studied accountability and governance of public colleges and universities. Gilmore's Commission authored the first blueprint for decentralized regulatory and administrative authority to some universities in return for agreements to meet agreed upon performance objectives.

Gilmore also proposed and signed into law Virginia's first stand-alone Martin Luther King Holiday. Prior to this proposal, Virginia had observed a combined Lee-Jackson-King Day that recognized Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and Martin Luther King on the same day each year. Gilmore and his wife hosted a historic reception in the Governor's Mansion for Coretta Scott King and announced a technology partnership between Virginia and the King Center for Nonviolence. Gilmore also proposed and funded a new African-American History Trail in Virginia and called upon the State Board of Education to include a more diverse range of historical figures in Virginia's Social Studies curriculum. Test scores during Gilmore's term showed a narrowing of the "achievement gap" between minority and white students. Gilmore significantly increased funding for two of Virginia's historically black universities, Norfolk State University and Virginia State University.

Gilmore created the nation's first state Secretary of Technology, a position first held by Donald Upson. Together they established a statewide technology commission, and signed into law the nation's first comprehensive state Internet policy.[12]

During his term, 37 people were executed in Virginia. Gilmore granted executive clemency to one death row inmate on the basis of mental illness. In another well publicized case, he pardoned Earl Washington, a former death row inmate, after DNA tests, ordered by Gilmore, implicated another person. Gilmore also ordered DNA tests in the case of Derek Rocco Barnabei; the tests confirmed Barnabei's guilt and he was executed.

As governor, Gilmore signed into law legislation establishing a 24-hour waiting period and informed consent for women seeking an abortion, as well as a ban against partial birth abortion. Gilmore increased funding for adoption services. He also signed into law a bill that banned human cloning. In 1998, Gilmore went to court to try to prevent the removal of a feeding tube of coma victim Hugh Finn. Gilmore argued that removal of a feeding tube was not removal of artificial life support because it amounted to starvation of an infirm person who could not feed himself. As Attorney General of Virginia, Gilmore had defended a legal challenge to Virginia's first parental notification law for minors seeking abortions.

The Virginia Constitution forbids any governor from serving consecutive terms, so Gilmore could not run for a second term in 2001. He was succeeded by Democrat Mark Warner, who took office in early 2002.

Subsequent runs for office

2008 presidential candidacy

A "Draft Gilmore for President" group was formed in August 2006 encouraging Gilmore to run for President of the United States.[13] On December 19, 2006, Gilmore announced he would form an exploratory committee to "fill the conservative void" in the race. On January 9, 2007, Gilmore officially filed papers with the Federal Election Commission to form the Jim Gilmore for President Exploratory Committee.[14]

Gilmore said he represented "the Republican wing of the Republican Party" in the race for the 2008 Presidential nomination; the comment mirrored the slogan used by Howard Dean when seeking the Democratic nomination in the 2004 election, who lifted the slogan from Senator Paul Wellstone. Gilmore officially announced his candidacy on April 26, 2007.[15]

In the first quarter of 2007 Gilmore raised $174,790, the second lowest of any of the major-party candidates.[16] Gilmore hosted only one fundraiser in the first quarter due to a late exploratory announcement.

On July 14, 2007, Gilmore announced that he was ending his campaign. Gilmore said that it would be "impractical" to run, citing the difficulty of raising enough money to be competitive in early-voting states Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina.[17]

2008 Senate campaign

In an interview with Politico, Gilmore said that he had been approached to run for the Senate seat of John Warner, who had announced that he would retire at the end of his term in 2009. By the end of the summer, many media outlets, most notably the Washington Post, thought it would be a foregone conclusion that Gilmore would jump into the Senate race. Gilmore's successor as governor, Mark Warner, had already announced in September, and 11th District Congressman Tom Davis had informally announced his candidacy a few days after Mark Warner's announcement.

Gilmore lobbied strongly for choosing the party's nominee at a statewide convention rather than a primary, claiming that a convention would cost only $1 million versus the $4 million required to run a primary campaign. This was no small consideration, as the race for the Democratic nomination essentially ended with Mark Warner's entry into the race. It was understood that Warner would use his considerable wealth to self-finance his campaign. It was thought that a convention would favor Gilmore, since most of the delegates would come from the party's activist base, which is tilted strongly to the right. A primary was thought to favor Davis due to his popularity in voter-rich Northern Virginia; Davis is a moderate Republican, and most Republicans in Northern Virginia tend to be more moderate than their counterparts elsewhere in the state. On October 13, 2007 the state party's central committee voted 47–37 to hold a convention rather than a primary. With this decision, Gilmore said he was seriously considering a run for the Senate.

Gilmore formally announced his candidacy via a YouTube video on November 19, 2007.[18] He said that he was running to give Virginia "a strong and steady hand" in the Senate. The domain name jimgilmoreforsenate.com had been registered on July 10 – four months before Gilmore's formal entry[19] – and the username that uploaded the video to YouTube had been registered on October 16.

Gilmore faced a challenge from his right in State Delegate Bob Marshall of Prince William County. Marshall charged Gilmore with being too soft on abortion. However, at the convention Gilmore won the nomination by only 65 votes out of 3,000 cast.

In the November election, Gilmore was heavily defeated, winning only 34 percent of the vote to Warner's 65 percent. Gilmore only carried four counties in the state – Rockingham, Augusta, Powhatan and Hanover. In many cases, he lost in many areas of the state that are normally reliably Republican.[20] This was the worst showing for a Republican Senate candidate in Virginia since Chuck Robb defeated Maurice Dawkins with 71 percent of the vote in 1988.

2016 presidential candidacy

On July 7, 2015, Gilmore told the Associated Press that he planned to announce his candidacy for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination in the first week of August 2015. On July 29, Gilmore filed his candidacy for President of the United States with the Federal Election Commission.[21][22][23] He announced his candidacy via an internet video clip the next day.[1]

According to his campaign website, Gilmore's main issues that he would address if elected President include preserving the 2nd Amendment right to bear arms, immigration and border re-enforcement, healthcare reform, and restoring America's economy.[24] Gilmore struggled to gain any traction in the 2016 presidential race, and has been little known among voters, being excluded from most of the debates.

In the 2016 Iowa Republican caucuses, Gilmore received 12 votes, not earning him any delegates. He then received 133 votes in the New Hampshire primary. On February 12, Gilmore suspended his campaign.[2]

Appointments and other positions

Jim Gilmore 2004 NSTAC
Gilmore taking questions during a 2004 National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee meeting.

During his term as governor, Gilmore chaired the Congressional Advisory Commission on Electronic Commerce.[25] The Commission was charged with the task of making recommendations to the United States Congress on Internet taxation. The Commission's Report to Congress opposed taxation of the Internet.[26]

Gilmore served on the board of Windmill International, a government contractor previously accused of trying to secure fraudulent contracts in Iraq. His service on the board was not mentioned in his campaign filings, as required. Gilmore was never accused of wrongdoing regarding fraud committed in Windmill International's name.[27]

From 1999 to 2003, Gilmore chaired the Congressional Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction, nicknamed the Gilmore Commission.[28] It presented five reports to Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, and to Congress each December 15 from 1999 through 2003.

From January 2001 to January 2002, Gilmore was the Chairman of the Republican National Committee.[29]

Gilmore is the President & CEO of the Free Congress Foundation,[30] a conservative think tank which was founded by Paul Weyrich. Gilmore has re-branded the Free Congress Foundation into the American Opportunity Foundation.

Gilmore has also served as Chairman of the National Council on Readiness & Preparedness, a homeland security program focused on community involvement and public/private partnerships.[31] He is also President of USA Secure, a non-profit homeland security think tank based in Washington, D.C.[32]

From 2005 to 2017 he served on the Board of Directors of the National Rifle Association.

Ambassador nomination

Gilmore was considered for the position of United States Ambassador to Germany by the Trump Administration,[33] but ultimately not chosen. In November 2018, Gilmore was nominated as the next U.S. Representative to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with the rank of ambassador.[3]

See also


  1. ^ a b Allen, Cooper (July 30, 2015). "Jim Gilmore formally joins GOP presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Jim Gilmore ends 2016 presidential bid". Washington Post. February 12, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
  3. ^ a b "President Donald J. Trump Announces Intent to Nominate Individuals to Key Administration Posts". The White House. November 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  4. ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams. "The Ancestors of Jim Gilmore". Wargs.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  5. ^ "Member Profile: Mr. Jim Gilmore". Republican National Lawyers Association. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  6. ^ "Official election results".
  7. ^ Bierbauer, Charles (October 31, 1997). "Car Tax Opposition Propels Gilmore's Candidacy – Oct. 31, 1997". CNN. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  8. ^ Nov97 Gen Election Results for Governor by Congressional District and Locality Archived September 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Va. GOP Delegates Rev Up Car-Tax Relief Campaign, The Washington Post
  10. ^ "Mark Warner's rising stock". The Roanoke Times. January 1, 2006. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2007.
  11. ^ [1] Archived February 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Bios" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  13. ^ "Virginia Patriot". Draftgilmore.org. Archived from the original on February 19, 2013. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  14. ^ Lewis, Bob (December 19, 2006). "Former Va. governor opens exploratory GOP White House campaign". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on November 21, 2005. Retrieved 2007-02-08.
  15. ^ Sweet, Phoebe (April 26, 2007). "Editorial: Bragging rights trump need". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  16. ^ "First Quarter 2007 FEC Filings | Campaign 2008: Campaign Finance". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  17. ^ Mike Allen, "Gilmore drops out of the race", The Politico, July 14, 2007
  18. ^ "Jim Gilmore Announces His Candidacy For The U.S. Senate". YouTube. 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  19. ^ "Whois on Gilmore's Senate campaign site". Samspade.in. Archived from the original on July 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  20. ^ "Results by county for 2008 Senate election". Voterinfo.sbe.virginia.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  21. ^ Gass, Nick (July 8, 2015). "Jim Gilmore adds to ever-expanding 2016 GOP field". Politico. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  22. ^ Suderman, Alan (July 7, 2015). "Former Virginia Gov. Jim Gilmore plans to announce presidential run in early August". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  23. ^ Richinick, Michele (July 30, 2015). "Jim Gilmore Is GOP's 17th Presidential Candidate". Newsweek. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  24. ^ "Political Options - Jim Gilmore for America". Gilmoreforamerica.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
  25. ^ NCTL: National Center for Technology and Law Archived December 7, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Advisory Commission on Electronic Commerce – Report to Congress Archived November 9, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Craig, Tim (2008-07-24). "Gilmore Filed False Information On Campaign Disclosure Forms". ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  28. ^ "National Security Research Division | Gilmore Commission". RAND. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  29. ^ Stuart Rothenberg, "White House takes Gilmore's scalp" Archived 2007-10-17 at the Wayback Machine, CNN.com, December 3, 2001
  30. ^ "Free Congress Foundation".
  31. ^ "Public/Private Partnerships for Community Preparedness and Response". NCORP. 2001-09-11. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  32. ^ "Who We Are". USA Secure. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  33. ^ Gearan, Anne. "Former Virginia governor Jim Gilmore on shortlist for ambassador to Germany". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-07-07.

External links

Official sites

Topic pages and databases

Archival Records

Legal offices
Preceded by
Stephen Rosenthal
Attorney General of Virginia
Succeeded by
Richard Cullen
Party political offices
Preceded by
George Allen
Republican nominee for Governor of Virginia
Succeeded by
Mark Earley
Preceded by
Ed Schafer
Chair of the Republican Governors Association
Succeeded by
Tom Ridge
Preceded by
Jim Nicholson
Chair of the Republican National Committee
Succeeded by
Marc Racicot
Preceded by
John Warner
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Virginia
(Class 2)

Succeeded by
Ed Gillespie
Political offices
Preceded by
George Allen
Governor of Virginia
Succeeded by
Mark Warner
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Katie Byrnes
United States Ambassador to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

1997 Virginia gubernatorial election

The 1997 Virginia gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1997. The incumbent Governor, George Allen, was barred from seeking a second term due to Virginia's unique term limits law. The Republican candidate was Jim Gilmore, the Attorney General of Virginia. The Democratic nominee was Don Beyer, the incumbent Lieutenant Governor.

2001 Virginia gubernatorial election

The 2001 Virginia gubernatorial election was held on November 6, 2001. Incumbent Republican Governor Jim Gilmore was barred from seeking a second term; Democratic nominee Mark Warner, the 1996 Democratic nominee for the U.S. Senate, defeated Republican nominee Mark Earley, the Attorney General of Virginia.

2008 United States Senate election in Virginia

The 2008 United States Senate election in Virginia was held on November 4, 2008. Incumbent Republican U.S. Senator John Warner decided to retire instead of seeking a sixth term. Democrat Mark Warner (no relation) won the open seat by the most lopsided margin for a contested Senate race in Virginia in 20 years. Warner became the first Democrat to win this seat since 1972 when the Republicans first won it. This was also the first time since 1964 that the state voted simultaneously for a Democratic presidential candidate and a Democratic Senate candidate.

2016 Nevada Republican caucuses

The 2016 Nevada Republican caucuses took place on February 23 in the U.S. state of Nevada, marking the Republican Party's fourth nominating contest in their series of presidential primaries ahead of the 2016 presidential election.

With the Democratic Party having already held its Nevada caucuses three days earlier on February 20, the Republican caucus in Nevada was the only presidential primary on that day.

During the 2015 legislative session, lawmakers attempted to change the caucus into a regular primary and at a much earlier date, however the bill failed to get to a vote.Nine candidates were eligible:

Jeb Bush (dropped out)

Ben Carson

Chris Christie (dropped out)

Ted Cruz

Carly Fiorina (dropped out)

Jim Gilmore (dropped out)

John Kasich

Marco Rubio

Donald Trump

2016 New Hampshire Republican primary

The 2016 New Hampshire Republican presidential primary, which took place on February 9, was the second major vote of the cycle. Donald Trump was declared the winner with 35.3% of the popular vote and picked up 11 delegates, while John Kasich emerged from a pack of candidates between 10-20% to capture second place with 15.8% of the vote and picked up four delegates.It occurred on the same day as the Democratic primary.

Barry E. DuVal

Barry Eugene DuVal (born August 7, 1959) is an American politician from Virginia. He was first elected to the City Council of Newport News, Virginia in 1988, and in 1990 was elected mayor, serving in that role until 1996. He has also served as the President and CEO of the Hampton Roads Partnership, a group that brings together the cities and counties of the Hampton Roads area with local universities and businesses in order to promote the region's economic interests. His service in this field led then-Governor Jim Gilmore to appoint DuVal to be his Secretary of Commerce and Trade, a position he held from 1998 until 2001. After long being considered a Republican frontrunner to succeed Herbert H. Bateman, DuVal surprised many in 2000 when he decided to drop out of the race for Congress in Virginia's 1st congressional district. Jo Ann Davis went on to win the seat. In April 2010, DuVal was named President & CEO of the Virginia Chamber of Commerce.

David W. Marsden

David W. "Dave" Marsden (born April 5, 1948, in Alexandria, Virginia) is an American politician of the Democratic Party. He currently represents the 37th district in the Senate of Virginia which is a portion of Fairfax County. Since 2006 and prior to serving in the State Senate, he served in the Virginia House of Delegates representing the 41st district. Prior to his career in politics he spent 17 years as head of the Fairfax County Juvenile Detention Center until 1999. In 2000 Governor Jim Gilmore appointed him Chief Deputy and then Acting Director of the 2,700-person Virginia Department of Juvenile Justice. He then served for 6 months in the administration of Governor Mark Warner.

On January 12, 2010, Marsden defeated Steve Hunt in a special Senate election to replace Republican Ken Cuccinelli who was elected Attorney General the previous fall. On January 13, 2010, Marsden was sworn in. An additional special election was held March 2, 2010 to replace Marsden in the Virginia House of Delegates. It was won by Democrat Eileen Filler-Corn.

David W. Marsden graduated from W.T. Woodson High School in 1966 and Randolph-Macon College in 1970.

Don Beyer

Donald Sternoff Beyer Jr. (; born June 20, 1950), is a Triestine-born American businessman, diplomat and politician who has served as the United States Representative for Virginia's 8th congressional district since 2015. The district is located in the heart of Northern Virginia and includes Alexandria, Falls Church and Arlington.

Beyer owns automobile dealerships in Virginia and has a long record of involvement in community, political and philanthropic work. From 1990 to 1998 he served as the 36th Lieutenant Governor of Virginia during the gubernatorial administrations of Democrat Doug Wilder (1990–1994) and Republican George Allen (1994–98). His party's nominee for governor in 1997, he lost to Republican Jim Gilmore, who was then the Attorney General of Virginia. From 2009 to 2013, he served as United States Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein.In 2014, Beyer announced his candidacy for the U.S. House of Representatives seat for Virginia's 8th congressional district held by the retiring Jim Moran. Beyer won the June 2014 Democratic primary with 45% of the vote and defeated Republican Micah Edmond 63% to 33% on November 4, 2014.

Endorsements in the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries

This is a list of notable political endorsements for declared candidates for the Republican primaries for the 2016 United States presidential election. Endorsements are part of the "invisible primary" process, which occurs not only long before the general election in November 2016, but also largely occurs before even the caucuses and primaries have begun in February 2016.

Early endorsements were correlated with the success candidates achieved in caucuses and primaries, for elections from 1980 through 2004.

(See the UCLA School of Political Parties.)

Historically, there has been a correlation ("76% of the eventual vote percentage") between the percentage of political endorsements from sitting and former elected officials earned by a Republican candidate in the first half of the year prior to a presidential election (for the purposes of this article, January–June, 2015), with the percentage of votes cast for that candidate in Republican primaries during the first half of the election year (i.e., January–June, 2016).

The value of political endorsements varies, depending on whom they are from, when they are given, and other factors. Endorsements from politicians who live in states with early primaries are highly sought after. So are endorsements from governors, federal senators, and federal representatives. Endorsements from people from the candidate's home state are less valuable, unless multiple candidates from that state are running.

The impact of celebrity endorsements of political candidates is less clear, but can increase general election turnout,

or increase fundraising totals and media exposure.

Jim Gilmore (baseball)

James Gilmore (May 1, 1853 – November 18, 1928) was an American professional baseball player who played three games for the Washington Nationals during the 1875 season.

He was born in Baltimore, Maryland and died there at the age of 75.

Jim Gilmore 2008 presidential campaign

The 2008 presidential campaign of Jim Gilmore, 68th Governor of Virginia and Chairman of the Republican National Committee began after being drafted to run by his peers in January 2007. He officially began the campaign in April after filing papers with the Federal Elections Commission. Gilmore was committed to conservative principles throughout his run, which ultimately ended in July 2007 due to a lack of sufficient funding. The campaign led to Gilmore's decision to run in the 2008 Virginia Senatorial race, which he lost to Democrat Mark Warner.

Jim Gilmore 2016 presidential campaign

The 2016 presidential campaign of Jim Gilmore, the 68th Governor of Virginia, was officially launched on July 30, 2015, when Gilmore filed with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and announced his candidacy through a variety of news outlets. Gilmore suspended his campaign on February 12, 2016, after failing to qualify for inclusion in the Republican primary debates.

Mark Warner

Mark Robert Warner (born December 15, 1954) is an American businessman and politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Virginia, a seat he was first elected to in 2008. He is a member of the Democratic Party and currently a Vice Chair of the Senate Democratic Caucus and the Vice Chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee.

Prior to his congressional career, Warner was the 69th Governor of Virginia holding the office from 2002 to 2006, and is the honorary chairman of the Forward Together PAC. Warner delivered the keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Apart from politics, Warner is also known for his involvement in telecommunications-related venture capital during the 1980s; he founded the firm Columbia Capital.

In 2006, he was widely expected to pursue the Democratic nomination in the 2008 U.S. presidential election; however, he announced in October 2006 that he would not run, citing a desire not to disrupt his family life. Warner was considered to be a potential vice presidential candidate, until he took himself out of consideration after winning the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate.Running against his gubernatorial predecessor, Jim Gilmore, Warner won his first election to the Senate in 2008 with 65% of the vote. Warner won reelection in 2014, narrowly defeating Ed Gillespie.

Nationwide opinion polling for the 2008 Republican Party presidential primaries

This article is a collection of nationwide public opinion polls that were conducted relating to the 2008 Republican presidential candidates, typically using standard statistical methodology. The public is generally sampled by land-line telephone only, and sometimes asked only about their opinion of certain candidates.

Results of the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries

This article contains the results of the 2016 Republican presidential primaries and caucuses, the processes by which the Republican Party selected delegates to attend the 2016 Republican National Convention from July 18–21. The series of primaries, caucuses, and state conventions culminated in the national convention, where the delegates cast their votes to formally select a candidate. A simple majority (1,237) of the total delegate votes (2,472) was required to become the party's nominee and was achieved by the nominee, businessman Donald Trump of New York.

The process began on March 23, 2015, when Texas Senator Ted Cruz became the first presidential candidate to announce his intentions to seek the office of United States President. That summer, 17 major candidates were recognized by national and state polls, making it the largest presidential candidate field for any single political party in American history. The large field made possible the fact that the 2016 primaries were the first since 1968 (and the first in which every state held a contest) in which more than three candidates won at least one state.

When voting began in the 2016 Iowa caucuses, twelve major candidates were actively campaigning; these were (ordered by date of withdrawal from the race) former Governor Mike Huckabee of Arkansas, former Senator Rick Santorum of Pennsylvania, Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky, Governor Chris Christie of New Jersey, businesswoman and former Hewlett-Packard Chief Executive Officer Carly Fiorina, former Governor Jim Gilmore of Virginia, Governor Jeb Bush of Florida, former neurosurgeon and Johns Hopkins University Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery Ben Carson, Senator Marco Rubio of Florida, Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, Governor John Kasich of Ohio, and the eventual nominee, businessman and Trump Organization CEO Donald Trump.

Following poor results from the first-in-the-nation caucus, Huckabee was the first candidate to drop out. Santorum also ended his campaign after a poor performance in Iowa. Paul withdrew from the race after placing fifth in Iowa, and subsequently polling poorly leading into the New Hampshire primary. Christie, who put nearly all of his campaign's resources into the critical state of New Hampshire, withdrew on February 10, 2016, after finishing sixth in the state. Following Christie's announcement, Fiorina suspended her campaign, which was unable to gain traction. Gilmore, who severely lacked funding, campaign infrastructure, and support, surprised many political pundits by staying in the race as far as he did; he dropped out shortly after the New Hampshire primary. Bush withdrew from actively campaigning after finishing fourth in the South Carolina primary. After Super Tuesday, Carson announced that there would be "no path forward" for his bid for the Presidency, effectively suspending his campaign. On March 15, 2016, Rubio dropped out after losing his home state, leaving three active candidates (Cruz, Kasich, and Trump). Trump's resounding victory in the Indiana primary on May 3, 2016, prompted Cruz's exit from the race. The following day, Trump became the presumptive Republican nominee after Kasich dropped out. Trump was formally nominated by the delegates of the 2016 Republican National Convention on July 19, 2016, and proceeded to defeat Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton in the general election on November 8, 2016, to become the 45th President of the United States.

Ric Brown

Richard Daryl "Ric" Brown (born June 1, 1946) is an American economist who served from 2008-2018 as the Virginia Secretary of Finance. He joined the Virginia Department of Planning and Budget in 1971 and was appointed as its director by Governor Jim Gilmore in 2001. He was reappointed in 2002 and 2006 and, in 2008, was made Secretary of Finance following Jody Wagner's departure to run for Lieutenant Governor of Virginia.Born in Arlington, Virginia, Brown graduated in 1968 from the College of William & Mary, earning a B.A. in economics and received a Master of Commerce degree from the University of Richmond.

Statewide opinion polling for the 2008 Republican Party presidential primaries

This article is a collection of statewide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the Republican presidential primaries, 2008, typically using standard statistical methodology.

Statewide opinion polling for the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries

This article contains opinion polling by U.S. state for the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries. The shading for each poll indicates the candidate(s) which are within one margin of error of the poll's leader.

For the significance of the earliest state votes, the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary, see United States presidential primary – Iowa and New Hampshire. For when any given state votes, see Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016 – Schedule of primaries and caucuses.

Thomasina Jordan

Thomasina Elizabeth Jordan (Red Hawk Woman) (? – 1999) was an American Indian activist who became the first American Indian to serve in the United States Electoral College in 1988.

Jordan received bachelor's and master's degrees in fine arts at Bishop Lee College in Boston. She studied at Harvard University, received an educational doctorate from The Catholic University of America, and attended the American Academy of Fine Arts in New York City. She later resided in Alexandria, Virginia, where she was a member of the Alexandria Republican City Committee.

Jordan was appointed Chairperson of the Virginia Council on Indians by Governors George Allen and Jim Gilmore.

She also founded the American Indian Cultural Exchange, served on the Board of Directors of Save the Children and the National Rehabilitation Hospital, was president of Chapter I of the Capital Speakers Club, and was a recipient of the Medal of Honor of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

According to a resolution passed by the Virginia General Assembly honoring her life, "Thomasina Jordan was instrumental throughout the years in bringing Indian issues to the forefront in the General Assembly, including legislation to correct birth certificates to identify Native Americans as such, allow animal parts and feathers to be used in religious regalia, and memorialize the United States Congress to grant historic federal recognition to Virginia’s state-recognized tribes."Congress first considered a recognition bill, as championed by Jordan and others, in 2000. Six Virginia tribes eventually gained federal recognition in 2018 under an act bearing her name, the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2017.

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