Its name means "the Mountains", being the plural of jabal ("mountain, hill"), highlighting the region's mountainous nature in the Zagros. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, the name Jibal was progressively abandoned, and it came to be mistakenly referred to as ʿIrāq ʿAjamī ("Persian Iraq") to distinguish it from "Arab Iraq" in Mesopotamia. The region never had any precisely defined boundaries, but was held to be bounded by the Maranjab Desert in the east, by Fars and Khuzistan in the south, by Iraq in the south-west and west, by Adharbayjan in the north-west and by the Alborz Mountains in the north, making it roughly coterminous with the ancient country of Media.
Under the Abbasid Caliphate, Jibal formed a separate province, with its capital usually at Rayy, until the Abbasids lost control in the early 10th century. For most of the 9th century, however, the area was ruled by an autonomous local dynasty, the Dulafids. In the late 10th and early 11th century, the larger portion of Jibal became one of the Buyid emirates, while the south passed to the Kakuyids.
Ash-Sharāt or Ash-Sharāh (Arabic: ٱلشَّرَاة, also known as Bilād ash-Sharāt (Arabic: بِلَاد ٱلشَّرَاة) or Jibāl ash-Sharāt (Arabic: جِبَال ٱلشَّرَاة), is a highland region in modern-day southern Jordan and northwestern Saudi Arabia. It was formerly a sub-district in Bilad al-Sham during the 7th–11th centuries CE.Al Hajar Mountains
Al-Hajar Mountains (Arabic: جِـبَـال ٱلْـحَـجَـر, translit. Jibāl al-Ḥajar, The Rocky Mountains or The Stone Mountains) in northeastern Oman and also the eastern United Arab Emirates are the highest mountain range in the eastern Arabian peninsula. Also known as "Oman Mountains", they separate the low coastal plain of Oman from the high desert plateau, and lie 50–100 km (31–62 mi) inland from the Gulf of Oman.
"Al" (Arabic: اَلْ) means "The", and "Ḥajar" (Arabic: حَجَر) means "Stone" or "Rock". So "Al-Hajar" (Arabic: اَلْحَجَر) would be defined as "The Stone" or "The Rock".Aurès Mountains
The Aures Mountains (Berber languages: ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⴰⵡⵔⴰⵙ, Latin: Aurasium, Arabic: جِـبَـال الْأَوْرَاس, translit. Jibāl al-Awrās) are an eastern prolongation of the Atlas Mountain System that lies to the east of the Saharan Atlas in northeastern Algeria, North Africa. The mountain range gives its name to the mountainous natural and historical region of the Aures.Buyid dynasty
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (Persian: آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was a Shia Iranian dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire.The Buyid dynasty was founded by 'Ali ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz his capital. His younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal in the late 930s, and by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital. In 945, the youngest brother, Ahmad ibn Buya, conquered Iraq and made Baghdad his capital. He received the laqab or honorific title of Mu'izz al-Dawla ("Fortifier of the State"). The eldest, 'Ali, was given the title of 'Imad al-Dawla ("Support of the State"), and Hasan was given the title of Rukn al-Dawla ("Pillar of the State").
As Daylamite Iranians, the Buyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Iran's Sasanian Empire. Beginning with 'Adud al-Dawla, they used the ancient Sasanian title Shahanshah (شاهنشاه), literally "king of kings".At its greatest extent, the Buyid dynasty encompassed territory of most of today's Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and Syria, along with parts of Oman, the UAE, Turkey, Afghanistan and Pakistan. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East. Under king 'Adud al-Dawla, it became briefly the most powerful dynasty in the Middle East.Dhofar Mountains
The Dhofar Mountains (Arabic: جِبَال ظُفَار, translit. Jibāl Ẓufār) are a mountain range in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. In a broad sense, they extend from Dhofar Governorate in Oman to Hadhramaut Governorate in Yemen, and are located between the Hajar in the northern part of Oman, and the Sarawat in the western part of Yemen. Otherwise, the range in the eastern part of Yemen, particularly near Mukalla, is referred to as the "Hadhramaut".Dulafid dynasty
The Dulafid or Dolafid dynasty was an Arab dynasty that served as governors of Jibal for the Abbasid caliphs in the 9th century. During the weakening of the authority of the caliphs after 861, their rule in Jibal became increasingly independent of the central government in Samarra. In the last decade of the 9th century, however, they were defeated by the Abbasids who proceeded to reincorporate Jibal into their empire.Husayn ibn Hamdan
Husayn ibn Hamdan ibn Hamdun ibn al-Harith al-Taghlibi was an early member of the Hamdanid family, who distinguished himself as a general for the Abbasid Caliphate and played a major role in the Hamdanids' rise to power among the Arab tribes in the Jazira.
Husayn entered caliphal service in 895, and through his co-operation with the caliphal government, he established himself and his family as the leader of the Arabs and Kurds of the Jazira, leading his troops to successful campaigns against the Qarmatians, Dulafids and Tulunids over the next few years. As one of the most distinguished generals of the Abbasid Caliphate, he rose in power and influence until 908, when he was one of the leading conspirators in the abortive coup against Caliph al-Muqtadir. Although the coup failed and Husayn was forced to flee the capital, he soon secured a pardon and served as governor in Jibal, where he again distinguished himself in military operations in south-central Iran. In ca. 911, he was appointed governor in Mosul, where he remained until rising in revolt in 914/5, for reasons that are unclear. Defeated and captured in 916, he was imprisoned in Baghdad, where he was executed in 918. Through his influence, the family rose to high offices, beginning a long period during which Mosul and the entire Jazira were ruled by the Hamdanids. His nephews, Nasir al-Dawla and Sayf al-Dawla, went on to establish autonomous emirates in Mosul and Aleppo respectively.Judaean Mountains
The Judaean Mountains, or Judaean Hills (Hebrew: הרי יהודה Harei Yehuda, Arabic: جبال الخليل Jibal Al Khalil), is a mountain range in Israel and the West Bank where Jerusalem and several other biblical cities are located. The mountains reach a height of 1,026 metres (3,366 ft). The Judean Mountains can be separated to a number of sub-regions, including the Mount Hebron ridge, the Jerusalem ridge and the Judean slopes. These mountains formed the heartland of the Kingdom of Judah, where the earliest Jewish settlements emerged.Kakuyids
The Kakuyids (also called Kakwayhids, Kakuwayhids or Kakuyah) (Persian: آل کاکویه) were a Daylamite dynasty that held power in western Persia, Jibal and Persian Iraq (c. 1008–c. 1051). They later became atabegs (governors) of Yazd, Isfahan and Abarkuh from c. 1051 to 1141. They were related to the Buyids.Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia is a historical region of Iraq. Also known as the Sawad and al-'Irāq al-'Arabi ("Arabian Irāq") in the Middle Ages, as opposed to "Persian Irāq", the Jibal. Lower Mesopotamia was home to ancient Sumerian and Babylonian civilisations.Mardavij
Mardavij (Gilaki/Persian: مرداویج: meaning "man assailant"), was a Gilaki prince, who established the Ziyarid dynasty, ruling from 930 to 935.
Born to a Zoroastrian family native to Gilan, Mardavij was an anti-Muslim, who sought to revive the Sasanian Empire which was conquered in the 7th century by the Muslims. He first started his career by joining the army of his kinsman Asfar ibn Shiruya. Mardavij, however, later betrayed and killed him, conquering much of Jibal. He then set out to conquer Hamadan, Dinavar and Isfahan from the Abbasid Caliphate, and thereafter declared himself king of Iran, making Isfahan his capital.
He then defeated the Daylamite military leader Makan ibn Kaki, and conquered Tabaristan in 932. By 934, his authority was acknowledged as far as Shiraz and Ahvaz. However, his goal of recreating the Persian Empire was ruined when he was murdered by his own Turkish slaves in 935.Midian Mountains
The Midian Mountains (Arabic: جِبَال مَدْيَن, translit. Jibāl Madyan) are a mountain range in northwestern Saudi Arabia. They are considered to be either contiguous with the Hijaz Mountains to the south, or a part of them. The Hijaz are themselves treated as part of the Sarawat range, sensu lato.Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
Abu Mansur Buya (Persian: ابو منصور بویه; died 983), better known his honorific title of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla (Persian: مویدالدوله; "Helper of the Empire") was the Buyid amir of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983). He was the third son of Rukn al-Dawla.Musa ibn Bugha al-Kabir
Musa ibn Bugha al-Kabir (died 877) was an Abbasid military leader of Turkic origin. Musa was the son of Bugha al-Kabir, one of the leading Turkish generals under Caliph al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842). He may have participated in or at least organized the assassination of Caliph al-Mutawakkil in 861. Upon Bugha's death in 862, Musa succeeded his father in his offices and played an important role in the troubles of the "Anarchy at Samarra". Finally, he emerged victorious, and through his close association with the vizier and regent Abu Ahmad al-Muwaffaq, he became the most powerful general of the Abbasid Caliphate from 870 until his own death in 877. His sons Ahmad, Muhammad and al-Fadl likewise became senior military figures of the Caliphate, especially against the Zanj Rebellion.Musandam Peninsula
The Musandam Peninsula (Arabic: جَزِيْرَة مُسَنْدَم, translit. Jazīrat Musandam) is a peninsula that forms the northeastern point of the Arabian Peninsula. Located to the south of the Strait of Hormuz between the Persian and Omani Gulfs, it is governed by Oman–as Musandam Governorate–a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council.Persian Iraq
Persian Iraq, also uncommonly spelled Persian Irak (Persian: عراقِ عجم Erāq-e Ajam(i); Arabic: عراق العجم 'Irāq al-'Ajam or عراق عجمي 'Irāq 'Ajami), is a historical region of the western parts of Iran.
The region, originally known as Media in pre-Islamic times, became known as Jibal ("mountain, hill") by the early Islamic geographers, due its mountainous layout. The name was progressively abandoned during the Seljuk era in the 11th-12th centuries, and was incorrectly called ʿIrāq(-i) ʿAjamī ("Persian Iraq") to distinguish it from ʿIrāq(-i) Arab ("Arab Iraq") in Mesopotamia.According to the medieval historian and geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi, this course started taking place when the Seljuk sultans ruled both Iraq proper and Jibal, thus being addressed "sultan al-Iraq". However, the city of Hamadan in Jibal eventually became their capital, thus resulting in the region becoming known as Iraq, with the word Ajami ("Persian") being added. Following the Mongol invasion of Iran in the 13th-century, the name Jibal had become completely outdated. In the following century, the geographer Hamdallah Mustawfi was unaware of name Jibal, and only knew it as 'Iraq-i Ajami'. It was regarded by him as "sardsīr" (cold zone).Later, until the beginning of the 20th century, the term Iraq in Iran was used to refer to a much smaller region south of Saveh and west of Qom. This region was centered on Soltanabad, which was renamed later as Arak.Salma Mountains
The Salma Mountains (Arabic: جِبَال سَلْمَى, translit. Jibāl Salmā) is a mountain range in Ha'il Province, Saudi Arabia. Like the Ajā, this range is part of the Shammar range.Samaria
Samaria (; Hebrew: שומרון, Standard Šoməron, Tiberian Šōmərôn; Arabic: السامرة, as-Sāmirah – also known as Jibāl Nāblus, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the ancient Land of Israel, also was known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set the Mediterranean Sea as its limit to the west, and the Jordan River as its limit to the east. Its territory largely corresponds to the biblical allotments of the tribe of Ephraim and the western half of Manasseh; after the death of Solomon and the splitting-up of his empire into the southern Kingdom of Judah and the northern Kingdom of Israel, this territory constituted the southern part of the Kingdom of Israel. The border between Samaria and Judea is set at the latitude of Ramallah.The name "Samaria" is derived from the ancient city of Samaria, the second capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel. The name likely began being used for the entire kingdom not long after the town of Samaria had become Israel's capital, but it is first documented after its conquest by Sargon II of Assyria, who turned the kingdom into the province of Samerina.Samaria was revived as an administrative term in 1967, when the West Bank was defined by Israeli officials as the Judea and Samaria Area, of which the entire area north of the Jerusalem District is termed as Samaria.
Jordan ceded its claim to the area to the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in August 1988. In 1994, control of Areas 'A' (full civil and security control by the Palestinian Authority) and 'B' (Palestinian civil control and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control) were transferred by Israel to the Palestinian Authority. The Palestinian Authority and the international community do not recognize the term "Samaria"; in modern times, the territory is generally known as part of the West Bank.Shammar Mountains
The Shammar Mountains (Arabic: جِبَال شَمَّر, translit. Jibāl Shammar) is a mountain range in the northwestern Saudi Arabian province of Ha'il. It includes the Ajā (Arabic: أَجَا) and Salma subranges.