Jianzi (Chinese: 毽子), tī jianzi (踢毽子), tī jian (踢毽) or jianqiú (毽球), also known by other names, is a traditional Chinese national sport in which players aim to keep a heavily weighted shuttlecock in the air by using their bodies, apart from the hands, unlike in similar games peteca and indiaca. The primary source of jianzi is a Chinese ancient game called cuju of the Han dynasty 2000 years ago. Jianzi's competitive sport types are played on a badminton court using inner or outer lines in different types of jianzi's competitive sports, respectively. It can also be played artistically, among a circle of players in a street or park, with the objective to keep the shuttle 'up' and show off skills. In Vietnam, it is known as đá cầu and is the national sport. In the Philippines, it is known as sipa and was also the national sport until it was replaced by arnis in December 2009. In recent years, the game has gained a formal following in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere.
In English, both the sport and the object with which it is played are referred to as "shuttlecock" or "featherball".
The shuttlecock (called a jianzi in the Chinese game and also known in English as a 'Chinese hacky sack' or 'kinja') typically has four feathers fixed into a rubber sole or plastic discs. Some handmade jianzis make use of a washer or a coin with a hole in the center.
During play, various parts of the body (except for the hands) are used to keep the shuttlecock from touching the ground. It is primarily balanced and propelled upwards using parts of the leg, especially the feet. Skilled players may employ a powerful overhead kick. In China, the sport usually has two playing forms:
The circle kick uses upward kicks only for keeping the shuttlecock from touching the ground. Duel kick has become popular among younger Chinese players, using "flat kick" techniques like goal shooting techniques in soccer sports. Therefore, the "powerful flat kick" techniques are applied in Chinese JJJ games as a major attacking skill.
Competitively, the government-run game is called "Hackey-Sack (jianqiu 毽球)" played on a rectangular court 6.10 by 11.88 meters, divided by a net (much like badminton) at a height of 1.60 metres (1.50 metres for women).
A brand new game of Ti Jian Zi called "Chinese JJJ" has been invented by Mr. John Du in 2009 by video published on website www.100helps.cn, which uses low middle net of 90 cm and inner or outside lines of the standard Badminton Court for different types of JJJ. "JJJ" means "Competitive Jianzi-kicking" by Chinese spelling. 3 Chinese characters"竞技毽" all with "J" as first letter by Chinese spelling. The most interesting & important feature of Chinese JJJ is to applying soccer's shooting goal techniques for exciting attacking each other over a low middle net, which was unrealized dreams of Czechs & Americans for almost a century since 1920. The book "Chinese JJJ Rules & Judgement" in Chinese has been published by China Society Pressing House in May 2010, the English version of the book is translating now & will be published before the end of 2018 by author's plan. In first 2 years from 2009 to 2011, as indicated in book "Chinese JJJ Rules & judgement", 5 formal events included in Chinese JJJ just similar as in Tennis games: Men's & Women's Single, Men's & Women's Double, Mixed Double.Then in Oct. of 2011, as a major formal game type currently, Team Game Rules was published on official website www.100helps.cn by Chinese JJJ Association(CJA), having 3 players on each side, and longer court as Badminton Court's Outside Bottom Line & Inner side lines for wideth.
Nine major events were played between 2009 and 2015, including 4 "CJA Chinese JJJ Beijing Invitational Tournaments", 3 CJA Grand Prixs(2012–14). The first Invitational Tournament(2011) participated by 14 teams & "German JJJ King" Martin, a former professional Soccer player from city Potsdam & student of Beijing Language & Culture University(BLCU). The 2nd one participated by 28 teams & Mr. Gabriel Patin, Vice Secretary General of American JJJ Association(AJA), a Soccer fans, either. In Dec. 2012, "The 3rd Beijing Invitational Tournament" was played & participated by Swedish JJJ Team "North Pole Panda", organized by Swedish Soccer fans & bought Jianzi & Net kit from CJA by mail. on June 4, 2016 CJA will hold CJA 5th Beijing Invitational Tournament, amybe "CJA's 1st Simgapore Invitational Tournament" instead due to Shuttlecock Association(Singapore)'s big efforts to spread JJJ in Singapore since oral agreement reached by its leader & JJJ's inventor in 2011. As an average player's tournament, "Chinese JJJ Beijing Invitational Tournament" is widely opened to all JJJ fans of china & the World, limited by capacity of Gymnasium only. The first 8 winner-teams have rights to register to next Chinese JJJ Grand Prix with cash awards. Referring to General Administration of Sport of China's official website, on May 13, 2012, in city JinZhong of Province ShanXi, named by General Sports Administration as "National Shuttlecock Model City", successfully held "The First JinZhong JJJ Invitational Tournament" , as the first JJJ tournament hosted by local government & sponsored by a big local enterprise.
In 2015, CJA held "CJA 2015 Inter-city Duel Tournament" played by Beijing, Tianjin & Province Hebei's Langfang. On Oct.2, CJA held "CJA 2015 First Women Tournament in Beijing Bird Nest Club" by strong calls of female fans of Chinese JJJ. There will be 2 CJA big events in June & Oct. 2016. A Invitationa Tournament & a Grand Prix.
There are several variations of the game, such as trying to keep the feathercock in the air until an agreed target of kicks (e.g. 100) is reached, either alone or in a pair. In circle play, the aim may be simply to keep play going. In all but the most competitive formats, a skillful display is a key component of play. There are 2 informal games in Chinese JJJ games using the same middle net: "Team game" having 3 players on each side & "Half court game" using just a half court for double player game only.
Freestyle discipline is very similar to freestyle footbag, where players perform various kicks, delays and other dexterities without touching the shuttlecock with their hands. Many footbag tricks were initially inspired by Jianzi, but later it turned the other way around and Jianzi freestylers seek inspiration in meanwhile more developed sport of footbag.
The first known version of jianzi was in the 2nd century BC in China's Han dynasty, called cuju, which was called as "Primary Source of contemporary Soccer Sport" by FIFA's former President Blater at a press-conference of his visit to China in 2004. The game is believed to have evolved from cuju, a game similar to football that was used as military training. Over the next 1000 years, this shuttlecock game spread throughout Asia, acquiring a variety of names along the way.
Jianzi has been played since the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), and was popular during the Six Dynasties period and the Sui and Tang dynasties. Thus the game has a history of two thousand years. Several ancient books attest to its being played.
Jianzi came to Europe in 1936, when a Chinese athlete from the province of Jiangsu performed a demonstration at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. In Germany and other countries people began to learn and play the sport, now called "shuttlecock".
In June 1961, a film about the sport called The Flying Feather was made by the Chinese central news movie company, winning a gold medal at an international movie festival. In 1963, jianzi was taught by teachers in elementary school so that it became even more popular.
Well known in Asia, the game has been gaining popularity in Europe. The International Shuttlecock Federation (ISF) was founded in 1999. The first world championship was organized by Hungary in Újszász in 2000. Until then, various countries took turns organizing championships.
The sport continues to receive greater recognition, and was included as a sport in the 2003 Southeast Asian Games and in the Chinese National Peasants' Games. Among the members of ISF are China, Taiwan, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Hungary, Laos, Vietnam, Greece, France, Romania, and Serbia. Vietnam and China are generally considered best, while in Europe, Hungary and Germany are strongest. On August 11, 2003, delegates from Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Romania, and Serbia founded the Shuttlecock Federation of Europe (S.F.E.) in Ujszasz (Hungary).
After being invented in 2009, Chinese JJJ got much faster spreading all over China due to its techniques similar to soccer sport, its simple skills friendly to beginners and its fun for skilled players.
In June 2010, Chinese JJJ's "The First Beijing Invitational Tournament" held successfully, having participation by foreign players such as "German Shuttlecock King" Martin, who was a former professional soccer player before studying in Beijing. In 2 years till May 2011, there were foreign players of more than 10 countries played the game, proving firmly the game's attractiveness to soccer players. In 2011, the first formal Chinese JJJ Championship will hold in province ShanDong, and a couple of other provinces are planned to follow.
In August 2011, an American company released a toy called Kikbo based on jianzi.
In 2013, a Hong Kong company released KickShuttle. It is a form of shuttlecock not made of feather with similar weight.
In 2018, reports emerged of jianzi gaining a cult following in certain academic institutions in the UK.
Playing shuttlecock is a vigorous aerobic exercise, and provides the health benefits of any active sport. It also helps to build hand-eye coordination.
The official featherball used in the sport of shuttlecock consists of four equal-length goose or duck feathers conjoint at a rubber or plastic base. It weighs approximately 15-25 grams. The total length is 15 to 21 cm. The feathers vary in color, usually dyed red, yellow, blue and/or green. However, in competitions a white featherball is preferred. The Official Jianzi for Competitions The shuttlecock used in Chinese JJJ games weighs 24-25 grams. The height from the bottom of rubber base to top of the shuttlecock is 14–15 cm, the width between tops of two opposite feathers is 14–15 cm.
Indiaca or featherball is played with the same shuttlecock as jianzi but on a court, similar to a badminton court, and played over the net using the hands.
Kemari was played in Japan (Heian Period). It means "strike the ball with the foot".
Systems of musical notation have been in use in China for over two thousand years. Different systems have been used to record music for bells and for the Guqin stringed instrument. More recently a system of numbered notes (Jiannpu) has been used, with resemblances to Western notations.Dai (Spring and Autumn period)
Dai was a state which existed in northern Hebei during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. Its eponymous capital was located north of the Zhou Kingdom in what is now Yu County, northeast of present-day Yuzhou. It was apparently established by the people known to the ancient Chinese as the Baidi or "White Barbarians". They traded livestock and other goods between Central Asia and the Zhou states prior to their conquest by the Zhao clan of Jin.Footbag net
Footbag net is a sport in which players kick a footbag over a five-foot-high net. Players may use only the feet. Any contact knee or above is a foul. The game is played individually and as doubles.
Footbag net combines elements of tennis, badminton, and volleyball. Specifically, the court dimensions and layout are similar to those of doubles badminton; the scoring is sideout scoring (you must be serving to score); and serves must be diagonal, as in tennis. Footbag net games can be played to eleven or fifteen points, although the winners must win by at least two points.
Footbag net is governed by the International Footbag Players Association (IFPA). Competitions take place all over the world, but primarily in North America and Europe. The World Footbag Championships is an annual, week-long event held in a different city each year. The 2013 IFPA Championships will be held in Montréal, Québec, Canada. Recent championships were held in Warsaw (2012), Helsinki (2011), Oakland, California, USA (2010), Berlin (2009), and Prague(2008).Four-Corner Method
The Four-Corner Method (simplified Chinese: 四角号码检字法; traditional Chinese: 四角號碼檢字法; pinyin: sì jiǎo hàomǎ jiǎnzì fǎ; literally: 'four corner code lookup-character method') is a character-input method used for encoding Chinese characters into either a computer or a manual typewriter, using four or five numerical digits per character. The Four-Corner Method is also known as the Four-Corner System.
The four digits encode the shapes found in the four corners of the symbol, top-left to bottom-right. Although this does not uniquely identify a Chinese character, it leaves only a very short list of possibilities. A fifth digit can be added to describe an extra part above the bottom-right if necessary.Ganzi Village
Ganzi Village (Chinese: 干子村; pinyin: Gànzǐ Cūn or Chinese: 鉴子村; pinyin: Jiànzǐ Cūn) is village of Hanpu Subdistrict in Yuelu District, Changsha, China. The village is an enclave of Yuelu District located between Yuhu District of Xiangtan and Ningxiang. It covers an area of 8.2 km2 (3.2 sq mi) with about 730 households and a population of 2,590 (as of 2017). The village has 25 groups, its villagers' committee is at Yangliutang (Chinese: 杨柳塘).Hacky sack
A footbag is the term for a small, round bag filled with dry grain (e.g. rice) or sand, which is kicked into the air as part of a competitive game or as a display of dexterity. "Hacky Sack" is the name of a brand of footbag popular in the 1970s (currently owned by Wham-O), which has since become a generic trademark.Footbag games are similar to earlier Asian shuttlecock sports such as jianzi. The most common game of footbag consists of two or more players standing in a circle and trying to keep the sack off the ground for as long as possible.Han (state)
Han (Chinese: 韓, Old Chinese: *[g]ˤar) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period of ancient China. It is conventionally romanized by scholars as Hann to distinguish it from the later Han Dynasty (漢).It was located in central China (modern-day Shanxi and Henan) in a region south and east of Luoyang, the capital of the Eastern Zhou. It was ruled by a royal family who were former ministers in the state of Jin that had slowly gained power from the Jin royal family until they were able to divide Jin into the three new states of Han, Wei and Zhao with the assistance of two other ministerial families.The state of Han was small and located in a mountainous and unprofitable region. Its territory directly blocked the passage of the state of Qin into the North China Plain.. Although Han had attempted to reform its governance (notably under Chancellor and "Legalist" Shen Buhai who improved state administration and strengthened its military ability) these reforms were not enough to defend itself and it was the first of the seven warring states to be conquered by Qin in 230 BC.Qin invasion of Han's Shangdang Commandery in 260 BC was the bloodiest battle of the Warring States period with the supposed death of 400 000 soldiers (at Changping).Hanpu Subdistrict
Hanpu Subdistrict (Chinese: 含浦街道; pinyin: Hánpǔ Jiēdào) is a subdistrict of Yuelu District in Changsha, Hunan, China. It is historically the territory of Jiujiang Township (Chinese: 九江乡) , Wangcheng County in 1994. The subdistrict has an area of 51.17 square kilometres (19.76 sq mi) with a registered population of 24,900 (as of 2017). The subdistrict has 4 villages and a community under its jurisdiction. its seat is Hantai Community (Chinese: 含泰社区).Indiaca
Indiaca is a form of the Brazilian game peteca popular in Europe. It is played on court across a net with similar rules to volleyball but instead of a ball, a large shuttlecock, sometimes also called an indiaca, or featherball is used; this consists of four goose feathers attached to a heavier base, and it is controlled using the hands. In this way, indiaca differs from jiànzi (or featherball), a very similar game originating in Vietnam and China, where the shuttlecock is controlled with the feet. Indiaca can be played by two individual players facing each other, or by small teams.Kī-o-rahi
Kī-o-rahi is a ball sport played in New Zealand with a small round ball called a 'kī'. It is a fast-paced game incorporating skills similar to rugby union, netball and touch. Two teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target. The game is played with varying rules (e.g. number of people, size of field, tag ripping rules etc.) depending on the geographic area it is played in. A process called Tatu, before the game, determines which rules the two teams will use.
In 2005 kī-o-rahi was chosen to represent New Zealand by global fast-food chain McDonald's as part of its 'Passport to Play' programme to teach physical play activities in 31,000 American schools.
The programme will give instruction in 15 ethnic games to seven million primary school children.The New Zealand kī-o-rahi representative organisation, Kī-o-Rahi Akotanga Iho, formed with men's and women's national teams, completed a 14 match tour of Europe in September and October 2010. The men's team included 22-test All Black veteran Wayne Shelford who led the team to a 57–10 test win against Kī-o-Rahi Dieppe Organisation, the French Kī-o-Rahi federation.
Shelford's kī-o-rahi test jersey made him the first kī-o-rahi/rugby double international for NZ. The women's team coached by Andrea Cameron (Head of PE at Tikipunga High School) also won by 33–0. These were the first historic test matches between NZ and France.List of skill toys
A skill toy is an object or theatrical prop used for dexterity play or an object manipulation performance. A skill toy can be any static or inanimate object with which a person dances, manipulates, spins, tosses, or simply plays. Most skill toys are played alone, although some can be played with multiple people (such as footbag, juggling, and jump rope).Marquess Jing of Han
Marquess Jing of Han (Chinese: 韩景侯; pinyin: Hán Jǐnghóu) (died 400 BC), ancestral name Jì (姬), clan name Hán (韩), personal name Qían (虔), was the ruler of the State of Han between 408 BC until his death in 400 BC. Marquess Jing was the son of Wuzi of Han. It was during his rule that the State of Han became a recognized state. In the first year of his reign, he attacked the State of Zheng and took over Yongqiu in today's Qi County, Henan. The next year, his army lost to Zheng at Fushu in today's Dengfeng, Henan. In 403 BC, Marquess Jing, along with Marquess Wen of Wei and Marquess Lie of Zhao partitioned the powerful Jin state into the Han, Wei, and Zhao states marking the beginning of the Warring States Period and Han as an independent polity. King Weilie of Zhou was forced to elevate Jing's title from viscount to marquess. Marquess Jing then moved the capital of Han from Pingyang to Yangzhai. In 400 BC, the capital Yangzhai was subject to a siege by the Zheng army. Marquess Jing died later that year and was succeeded by his son Marquess Lie of Han.National Peasants' Games
The National Peasants' Games (Chinese: 中华人民共和国农民运动会) are a quadrennial multi-sport event in China in which competitors from among the country's 750 million rural residents take part in sports, both conventional - including basketball, athletics, table tennis, shooting, xiangqi (Chinese chess) and t'ai chi, and traditional rural and Chinese activities, such as wushu, dragon boat racing, lion dancing, tyre pushing, food-carrying, rice planting, kite flying, jianzi (kick shuttlecock) and tug of war. All of China's 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, as well as Taiwan, are represented. Hong Kong and Macau usually send observer delegations.
The games emphasise recreation more than results, according to the official Xinhua news agency, and the event is claimed to be the world's only regular sports meeting for peasants. For the government, the games "showcase the achievements made by the Chinese people in the 30 years of the reform and opening up to the outside world," in the words of Chinese Agricultural Minister Sun Zhengcai, at the opening of the sixth event.Ode to Gallantry (2002 TV series)
Ode to Gallantry is a Chinese television series adapted from Louis Cha's novel of the same title. The series was first broadcast on NMTV in China in 2002.Partition of Jin
The Partition of Jin (simplified Chinese: 三家分晋; traditional Chinese: 三家分晉; pinyin: Sān Jiā Fēn Jìn; literally: 'Three Families Partitioning Jin'), the watershed between the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, refers to the division of the State of Jin between rival families into the three states of Han, Zhao and Wei. As a result, the three states were often referred to as the "Three Jins" (simplified Chinese: 三晋; traditional Chinese: 三晉; pinyin: Sān Jìn)).
Because the process took several decades, there is some debate between scholars as to the year which best marks the true partition of Jin. Kiser & Cai (2003) state the most common dates picked by historians are 481, 475, 468, and 403 BCE. The last date, according to Sima Guang marks the conferring of Marquessates by King Weilie of Zhou on Wei Si, ruler of the State of Wei; Zhao Ji, ruler of the State of Zhao, and Han Qian, ruler of the State of Han.In 386 BCE, the states of Han, Wei and Zhao deposed Duke Jing of Jin and divided the last remaining Jin territory between themselves, which marked the end of the Jin state.People's Park (Haikou)
People's Park (Chinese: 人民公园; pinyin: Rénmín Gōngyuán) is a public park in Haikou, capital of Hainan Province, China. It is located in the centre of the city. It is bordered by Haixiu Road on the south. On northern boundary is Datong Road and East Lake.
Established in 1954, the park covers a total area of over 300 acres. During the late 2000s, it was renovated, with new pathways installed. It is one of four major parks in Haikou, and can be compared to Golden Bull Mountain Ridge Park, due to its high percentage of tree cover. The other two, Baishamen Park and Evergreen Park, consist mostly of open grass fields.
The park comprises a single, large hill, with a plateau at the summit. This landscape feature is unusual in Haikou, as the city is almost entirely flat. Hundreds of winding, narrow pathways are present among a wide variety of flora. Most of the park is covered with a canopy of trees providing mostly shady areas. Compared to other Haikou parks, such as Baishamen Park and Evergreen Park, People's Park is considerably more lush, and contains far more diverse and concentrated flora.
The park, being adjacent to numerous old neighbourhoods, is popular with local Hainan residents, in particular, senior citizens. Each morning, beginning at dawn, thousands of people arrive to partake in exercises. Ad hoc groups form to participate in such activities as badminton, ping pong, tai chi, square dancing, kung fu, jianzi, and aerobics. Tai chi and fitness dancing congregations dominate, with dozens of separate groups present throughout the park. The circular path around the summit plateau is occupied by hundreds of people walking for exercise. No bicycles are allowed in the park, and there is no admission fee.
The park contains many features and amenities, including:
Ping pong area with several tables
Gateball areaSepak takraw
Sepak takraw or kick volleyball, is a sport native to Southeast Asia. Sepak takraw differs from the similar sport of footvolley in its use of a rattan ball and only allowing players to use their feet, knee, chest and head to touch the ball.
In Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, it is called sepak takraw. In Malaysia, it can be known as sepak raga as well. In Thailand, it is called as takraw only. In Laos, it is kataw (Lao: "twine" and "kick"). In the Philippines, besides the borrowed term "takraw", it is also called sepak takraw and also has a similar sport called “sipa” or “kick”. In Myanmar, it is known as chin lone, and is considered more of an art as there is often no opposing team, and the point is to keep the ball aloft gracefully and interestingly.
Similar games include footbag net, footvolley, football tennis, bossaball, jianzi, jokgu and sipa.Shuttlecock
A shuttlecock (also called a bird or birdie) is a high-drag projectile used in the sport of badminton. It has an open conical shape formed by feathers (or a synthetic alternative) embedded into a rounded cork (or rubber) base. The shuttlecock's shape makes it extremely aerodynamically stable. Regardless of initial orientation, it will turn to fly cork first, and remain in the cork-first orientation.Sipa
Sipa (lit. kick or to kick) is the Philippines' traditional native sport which predates Spanish rule. The game is related to Sepak Takraw. Similar games include Footbag net, Footvolley, Bossaball and Jianzi.
The game is both played by two teams, indoors or outdoors, on a court that is about the size of a tennis court. The teams consist of one, two or four players in each side. The aim of the game is to kick a soft ball made out of rattan fragments, back and forth over a net in the middle of the court. The sport requires speed, agility and ball control.
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