Jianzhen

Jianzhen (Chinese: 鑒真; Wade–Giles: Chien-chen; 688–763), or Ganjin in Japanese, was a Chinese monk who helped to propagate Buddhism in Japan. In the eleven years from 743 to 754, Jianzhen attempted to visit Japan some six times. Ganjin finally came to Japan in the year 754 and founded Tōshōdai-ji in Nara. When he finally succeeded on his sixth attempt he had lost his eyesight as a result of his hardship.

Jianzhen
鑒真
Jianzhen (Tōshōdai-ji, 2)
This Nara period wooden statue vividly represent both Ganjin's gentle personality and his indomitable willpower.
Personal
Born
Chunyu

688
Died763 (aged 74–75)
Tōshōdai-ji, Nara Prefecture, Japan
ReligionBuddhism
NationalityChinese
SchoolRisshū
Lineage3rd generation
Dharma namesJianzhen
TempleDaming Temple
Tōshōdai-ji
Senior posting
TeacherZhiman (智滿)
Dao'an (道岸)

Life

Jianzhen memorial hall
Jianzhen Monk Memorial Hall, Daming Temple in Yangzhou, PRC
Travels of Jianzhen
Map showing travels of the Monk Jianzhen to reach Japan

Jianzhen was born in Jiangyin county in Guangling (present day Yangzhou, Jiangsu) China, with the surname of Chunyu (淳于). At the age of fourteen, he became a disciple of Dayun Temple (大云寺). At twenty he travelled to Chang'an for study and returned six years later, eventually becoming abbot of Daming Temple. Besides his learning in the Tripiṭaka, Jianzhen is also said to have been expert in medicine. He opened the Buddhist church as a place of healing, creating the Beitian Court (悲田院)—a hospital within Daming Temple.

In autumn 742, an emissary from Japan invited Jianzhen to lecture in Japan. Despite protests from his disciples, Jianzhen made preparations and in spring 743 was ready for the long voyage across the East China Sea to Japan. The crossing failed and in the following years, Jianzhen made three more attempts but was thwarted by unfavourable conditions or government intervention.

In summer 748, Jianzhen made his fifth attempt to reach Japan. Leaving from Yangzhou, he made it to the Zhoushan Archipelago off the coast of modern Zhejiang. But the ship was blown off course and ended up in the Yande (延德) commandery on Hainan Island. Jianzhen was then forced to make his way back to Yangzhou by land, lecturing at a number of monasteries on the way. Jianzhen travelled along the Gan River to Jiujiang, and then down the Yangtze River. The entire failed enterprise took him close to three years. By the time Jianzhen returned to Yangzhou, he was blind from an infection.

In the autumn of 753, the blind Jianzhen decided to join a Japanese emissary ship returning to its home country. After an eventful sea journey of several months, the group finally landed at Kagoshima, Kyūshū, on December 20. They reached Nara in the spring of the next year and were welcomed by the Emperor. At Nara, Jianzhen presided over Tōdai-ji. The Chinese monks who travelled with him introduced Chinese religious sculpture to the Japanese. In 755, the first ordination platform in Japan was constructed at Tōdai-ji, on the place where including former Emperor Shōmu and Empress Kōmyō received ordination by Jianzhen a year earlier. In 759 he retired to a piece of land granted to him by the imperial court in the western part of Nara. There he founded a school and also set up a private temple, Tōshōdai-ji. In the ten years until his death in Japan, Jianzhen not only propagated the Buddhist faith among the aristocracy, but also served as an important conductor of Chinese culture.

Jianzhen died on the 6th day of the 5th month of 763. A dry-lacquer statue of him made shortly after his death can still be seen at Tōshōdai-ji.[1] Recognised as one of the greatest of its type, it has been postulated by statue restoration experts that the statue incorporates linen clothing originally worn by Ganjin.[2] The statue was temporarily brought to Jianzhen's original temple in Yangzhou in 1980 as part of a friendship exchange between Japan and China.

Jianzhen is credited with the introduction of the Ritsu school of Buddhism to Japan, which focused on the vinaya, or Buddhist monastic rules.

In May 2010, the Taiwanese Buddhist organization Tzu Chi organized and produced an animated drama on Jianzhen's life and journey to Japan.

Notes and references

  1. ^ The statue is made public only during a limited number of days around the anniversary of Jianzhen's death (see it on the right). (Planned June 2nd - 10th for year 2007.)
  2. ^ NHK World, Mysteries of Ganjin's Statue, 11/2/13.

Bibliography

  • Bingenheimer, Marcus (2003). "A translation of the Tōdaiwajō tōseiden 唐大和上東征傳.” (Part 1)," The Indian International Journal of Buddhist Studies 4, 168-189
  • Bingenheimer, Marcus (2004). "A translation of the Tōdaiwajō tōseiden 唐大和上東征傳. (Part 2)", The Indian International Journal of Buddhist Studies 5, 142-181
  • Buswell, Robert Jr; Lopez, Donald S. Jr., eds. (2013). "Ganjin", in Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691157863.
  • Genkai, Aomi-no Mabito; Takakusu J., trans. (1928). Le voyage de Kanshin en Orient (742-754), Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 28 (1), 1-41
  • Genkai, Aomi-no Mabito; Takakusu J., trans. (1929). Le voyage de Kanshin en Orient (742-754), Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 29 (1), 47-62
  • Zhou, Yuzhi (2016). Ganjin: From Vinaya Master to Ritsu School Founder, Journal of Asian Humanities at kyushu University 1, 47-52

External links

754

Year 754 (DCCLIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 754 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

763

Year 763 (DCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 763 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Chi Zhongrui

Chi Zhongrui or Chi Chongrui (simplified Chinese: 迟重瑞; traditional Chinese: 遲重瑞; pinyin: Chí Zhòngruì; born 23 December 1952) is a Chinese actor best known for his role as Tang Sanzang in the 1986 television series Journey to the West.

Daming Temple

Daming Temple (Chinese: 大明寺; pinyin: Dàmíng Sì) is a temple located at the middle peak of Shugang Mountain, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. This temple is known for a famous monk, Jianzhen, who studied the sutras and initiated people into monkhood here in 742 AD before he left for Japan.

Donglin Temple (Jiangxi)

Donglin Temple (simplified Chinese: 东林寺; traditional Chinese: 東林寺; pinyin: Dōnglínsì; literally: 'Eastern Forest Temple') is a Buddhist monastery approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, China. Built in 386 CE at the foot of Lushan by Huiyuan, founder of the Pure Land Sect of Buddhism, it is well known for how long it has stood without collapsing.In the Tang dynasty, Jianzhen made several trips to Japan for the mission of preaching Buddhism. As a result, Huiyuan and the doctrine of Donglin Temple began to spread in Japan. Donglin Temple made contributions to improve cultural exchanges and friendly visits between China and Nepal, India, Japan.The monastery reached its peak of influence during the Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE), but was severely damaged during the Taiping Rebellion and was almost destroyed during the Republican period (1912–1949) of Chinese history.

Junichi Kajioka

Junichi Kajioka (梶岡潤一, Junichi Kajioka) is a Japanese actor and producer based in London, UK. He has received two award nominations in film festivals (UK and India).

Kurama-dera

Kurama-dera (鞍馬寺) is a temple in the far north of Kyoto, Japan which houses some National Treasures of Japan. It was a member of the Tendai sect and subordinate to Shōren-in from the 12th century until 1949 when it founded its own religious body. The object of worship is esoteric and unique to the temple. It is said to have been founded by a disciple of Jianzhen.

Situated in secluded wilderness at the base of Mount Kurama, it is accessible by its own cable car line, the Kurama-dera Cable.

Mosinet Geremew

Mosinet Geremew (born 12 February 1992) is an Ethiopian middle-distance and long-distance runner.Geremews career started in cross country running. He ran in the junior category at the 2010 IAAF World Cross Country Championships and placed 16th overall – he was not a point-scoring runner for the Ethiopian team. He returned to the same venue (Bydgoszcz) as a senior competitor at the 2013 IAAF World Cross Country Championships, though his 24th-place finish again left him out of the team point scoring.In 2012 he won the 10k Paderborner Osterlauf in Germany in 27:53 min.

He became the first person to win twice at the Yangzhou Jianzhen International Half Marathon, taking back-to-back wins in 2015 to 2016, which included a course record of 59:52 minutes – the fastest achieved in a Chinese race.

He won this race again in 2017 and 2018.

In 2015 he was the winner of the Ras Al Khaimah Half Marathon.

He achieved bigger popularity in 2018 by winning the Dubai Marathon as well as a second place in the Chicago Marathon.

At the 2019 London Marathon, he finished in second place behind Eliud Kipchoge with a time of 2:02:55, the third-fastest time in history.

Nanto Rokushū

The Six Schools of Nara Buddhism, also known as the Rokushū 六宗 (also Rokushuu/Rokushu), were academic Buddhist sects. These schools came to Japan from Korea and China during the late 6th and early 7th centuries. All of these schools were controlled by the newly formed Japanese government of Nara. These schools were installed to mimic and expand upon already existing mainland Asian Buddhist thought.The schools were installed during the reign of Prince Shōtoku, most likely to increase the power of the expanding government through Buddhist and Confucian doctrine. Because of the government involvement in religious expansion, government funds were used to construct grand temples, statues, and paintings, most notably the Seven Great Southern Temples of Nara. Most of these sects wanted to be the main Buddhist school of the Imperial House of Japan and high officials. Because of this, many of them tried to be appealing to nobility. Many of the themes of these schools delved on advanced level, complicated, almost cryptic, Indian philosophies on the mind and existence. Some of the schools, though, were ideas on the formation and operations of a vihara. Due to the location of the temples constructed for these schools they were also called, The Six Southern Schools of Nara Buddhism. Eventually the increasing power of these schools of Buddhism and their influence in politics started to overwhelm the city of Nara. This forced Emperor Kanmu to relocate the capital, moving it to Heian-kyō (Kyoto). It also directly encouraged the creation of the Tendai school, founded by Saichō, and Shingon Buddhism, founded by Kūkai.All six schools shared Gautama Buddha's original teachings of human suffering and his ideas on cause, remedy, and extinction. The six schools differed on expanding on the sub ideas of inter-dependency of phenomena, ultimate enlightenment (nirvana), the non-self (anātman), and the Middle Way. These schools laid the groundwork for the development of Pure Land Buddhism and the emergence of the worship of a distinctly Japanese form of Amitābha, Amida.

Nguse Tesfaldet

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Peres Jepchirchir

Peres Jepchirchir (born 27 September 1993) is a Kenyan female long-distance runner who competes mainly in road running competitions. She was the gold medallist at the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships in 2016. Her best time for the half marathon of 1:05:06, set on 10 February 2017 in UAE, is a former half marathon world record.

Risshū (Buddhism)

Risshū (律宗), also Ritsu school, is one of the six schools of Nara Buddhism in Japan, noted for its use of the Vinaya textual framework of the Dharmaguptaka, one of the early schools of Buddhism. The Ritsu school was founded in Japan by the blind Chinese priest Jianzhen, better known by his Japanese name Ganjin. Ganjin traveled to Japan at the request of Japanese priests, and established the Tōshōdai-ji in Nara. During the Kamakura period, the Ritsu sect was divided into schools at Tōshōdai-ji, Kaidan-in, Saidai-ji, and Sennyū-ji. However, during the Meiji period, the Ritsu sect was incorporated within the Shingon sect by decree of the Japanese government. Today only Tōshōdai-ji, which resisted the government measures, retains its identity as a Ritsu temple.

Silas Kipruto

Silas Kipruto (born 26 September 1984) is a Kenyan long-distance runner who specializes in the half marathon and 10K run events, with personal bests of 59:39 minutes and 27:28 minutes respectively.

He finished seventh at the 2008 World Athletics Final and eighth at the 2009 World Athletics Final, and also fifth in the 3000 metres at the 2009 World Athletics Final.His personal best times are 7:32.25 minutes in the 3000 metres, achieved in September 2009 in Rieti; 13:02.86 minutes in the 5000 metres, achieved in June 2008 in Berlin; and 27:26.31 minutes in the 10,000 metres, achieved in May 2008 in Hengelo.Kipruto took second place at the 2010 Stramilano Half Marathon, running a sub-60 minute time of 59:39 to finish just behind Moses Mosop. He again broke the 60-minute mark later that year, finishing third at the Lille Half Marathon in 59:52. He was fourth at the Delhi Half Marathon in November, although he was some way off Geoffrey Mutai who won the race. At the start of 2011 he was fifth at the Giro Media Blenio. Kipruto was second at that year's Nice Half Marathon with a season's best run of 1:01:11 hours. He began 2012 with a runner-up performance behind Ayele Abshero at the Yangzhou Jianzhen International Half Marathon. He was third at that year's Delhi Half Marathon and placed fifth at both the Falmouth Road Race and the BOClassic.Kipruto was runner-up at the Berlin Half Marathon, but came fourth in Yangzhou. Over 10K that year, he won in Tripoli and Jakarta, then came in second place on behind Micah Kogo in the Beach to Beacon 10K race in Cape Elizabeth, Maine with a season's best of 28:09 minutes. He was also runner-up over 10 miles at the Bix 7 Road Race. He entered as one of the favourites for the Marseille-Cassis Classique Internationale, but dropped out during the race's difficult uphill section.

Tarsonemidae

Tarsonemidae is a family of mites, also called thread-footed mites or white mites.

Only a limited number of tarsonemid genera (Steneotarsonemus, Polyphagotarsonemus, Phytonemus, Floridotarsonemus and Tarsonemus) are known to feed on higher plants while most species in this family feed on the thin-walled mycelia of fungi or possibly algal bodies. Even among the plant-feeding tarsonemid mites, most are confined to areas of new growth where cell walls are thin and therefore easily pierced. However two species (the "broad mite" Polyphagotarsonemus latus and the "cyclamen mite" Steneotarsonemus pallidus) are able to feed on older leaves because of their ability to inject toxins during feeding (presumably of salivary gland origin) causing an increase of thin walled cells surrounding feeding sites. This proliferation of new growth often results in leaves that appear stunted, puckered and twisted.

Trombidiformes

The Trombidiformes are a large, diverse order of mites.

Tōshōdai-ji

Tōshōdai-ji (唐招提寺) is a Buddhist temple of the Risshū sect in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan. The Classic Golden Hall, also known as the kondō, has a single story, hipped tiled roof with a seven bay wide facade. It is considered the archetype of "classical style."

It was founded in 759 by the Tang dynasty Chinese monk Jianzhen during the Nara period. Jianzhen was hired by the newly empowered clans to travel in search of funding from private aristocrats as well.

Tōshōdai-ji is one of the places in Nara that UNESCO has designated as World Heritage Site "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara".

A reflection written by Yan Wenjing on the hope for friendly Sino-Japanese relations describing the author's discovery of Lotus flowers imported from China which had been planted around the portrait of Jianzhen in the Tōshōdai-ji is included as one of the oral assessment passages on the Putonghua Proficiency Test.

Yangzhou Jianzhen International Half Marathon

The Yangzhou Jianzhen International Half Marathon (Chinese: 扬州鉴真国际半程马拉松赛) is an annual road running competition over the half marathon distance 21.0975 kilometres (13.1094 mi) which takes place in April in Yangzhou, People's Republic of China.

The event is named in honour of Jianzhen, a Chinese monk from the city who propagated Buddhism in Japan in the 8th century. The event was first held in 2006 and grew exponentially in its first six years: it gained IAAF Silver Label Road Race status in 2010 and began to attract elite and amateur runners alike. Almost 3000 runners finished the half marathon in 2011, while the introduction of a 10K fun run that year saw 25,000 runners take part in the day's event. The race is predominantly Chinese, although 230 foreign athletes were present in 2011. East African athletes typically occupy the higher places in the elite races.The very flat, point-to-point course is certified by the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races. The city-centre course begins and ends at the Stadium of Yangzhou Sport Center and passes many of the city's landmarks, including the Wenchang Pavilion, Daming Temple and the Yangzhou Museum.The men's course record of 59:52 minutes (set in 2015 by Mosinet Geremew) is the fastest ever recorded in China. The women's record holder is Peres Jepchirchir, with her winning time of 1:07:21 from 2016.

Zhang Jianhui

Zhang Jianhui (張簡會) was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who briefly controlled Lulong Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) in 872 after the death of his father Zhang Yunshen, who had ruled it as its military governor (Jiedushi) in de facto independence from the imperial government.

It is not known when Zhang Jianhui was born. It is known that he was one of Zhang Yunshen's 14 sons, of whom only the names of two others, Zhang Jianzhen (張簡真), who predeceased Zhang Yunshen, and Zhang Jianshou (張簡壽), were known in history.In 872, Zhang Yunshen suffered a stroke, and requested to transfer authorities to Zhang Jianhui so that he could be attended to. Then-reigning Emperor Yizong agreed, and commissioned Zhang Jianhui as the acting military governor. Zhang Yunshen soon died. After Zhang Yunshen's death, one of Zhang Yunshen's subordinates, Zhang Gongsu the prefect of Ping Prefecture (平州, in modern Qinhuangdao, Hebei), brought his forces from Ping Prefecture to attend Zhang Yunshen's funeral. As the soldiers of Lulong's capital prefecture You Prefecture (幽州) respected Zhang Gongsu, Zhang Jianhui was fearful of the situation. He thus fled to the capital Chang'an, where he was made a general of the imperial guards. Most of his brothers became military officers under various regional governors. Nothing else is known about the rest of his career, and it is not known when he died.

Zhou Chunxiu

Zhou Chunxiu (Chinese: 周春秀; pinyin: Zhōu Chūnxiù; born November 15, 1978 in Sheqi County, Henan) is a Chinese marathon runner.

She competed at the 2008 Olympic Games, finishing the marathon in 33rd place. She placed fourth in the marathon at the 2005 World Championships in Helsinki. She won the marathon gold medal at the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, Qatar. She won the silver medal in the marathon at the 2007 World Championships in Osaka, and won the bronze medal in the marathon at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, one second behind the silver medalist. She finished fourth at the 2009 World Championships in Berlin.

On April 22, 2007 she won the women's race at the London Marathon for the first time in a time of 2:20:38. In 2010, Zhou took second place at the Seoul International Marathon, finishing behind Amane Gobena with a time of 2:25:01.Her personal best for the marathon is 2:19:51 hours, a time which she achieved in March 2006 with her win at the Seoul International Marathon. The performance made her the seventh woman in history to surpass the barrier of two hours and twenty minutes in the marathon.She set a half marathon best of 1:08:59 hours at the 2008 Yangzhou Jianzhen International Half Marathon, winning the race in course record and China all-comers record time.

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