Jiangxi (江西; formerly romanised as Kiangsi)[4] is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.[5]

The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (西; 'Circuit of Western Jiangnan'; Gan: Kongnomsitau).[6] The abbreviation for Jiangxi is "" (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".

Jiangxi Province

Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese江西省 (Jiāngxī Shěng)
 • GanKongsi
 • Hakka PinyimGong1 Si1 Sen3
Map showing the location of Jiangxi Province
Map showing the location of Jiangxi Province
Coordinates: 27°18′N 116°00′E / 27.3°N 116.0°ECoordinates: 27°18′N 116°00′E / 27.3°N 116.0°E
(and largest city)
Divisions11 prefectures, 99 counties, 1549 townships
 • SecretaryLiu Qi
 • GovernorYi Lianhong
 • Total166,919 km2 (64,448 sq mi)
Area rank18th
Highest elevation
2,158 m (7,080 ft)
 • Total45,200,000
 • Rank13th
 • Density270/km2 (700/sq mi)
 • Density rank16th
 • Ethnic compositionHan – 99.7%
She – 0.2%
 • Languages and dialectsGan, Hakka, Huizhou, Wu, Jianghuai Mandarin
ISO 3166 codeCN-JX
GDP (2017 [2])CNY 2.08 trillion
USD 308.34 billion (16th)
 • per capitaCNY 45,187
USD 6,693 (20th)
HDI (2014)0.726[3] (high) (24th)
(in Chinese)
Jiangxi (Chinese characters)
"Jiangxi" in Chinese characters
GanKong si
Literal meaningan abbreviation of "Jiang(nan)xi (Circuit)"


Jiangxi is centered on the Gan River valley, which historically provided the main north-south transport route of south China. The corridor along the Gan River is one of the few easily traveled routes through the otherwise mountainous and rugged terrain of the south-eastern mountains. This open corridor was the primary route for trade and communication between the North China Plain and the Yangtze River valley in the north and the territory of modern Guangdong province in the south. As a result, Jiangxi has been strategically important throughout much of China's history.

Jiangxi was outside the sphere of influence of early Chinese civilization during the Shang dynasty (16th to 11th centuries BC). It is likely that peoples collectively known as the Baiyue inhabited the region. During the Spring and Autumn period, the northern part of modern Jiangxi formed the western frontier of the state of Wu. After Wu was conquered by the state of Yue (a power based in modern northern Zhejiang) in 473 BC, the state of Chu (based in modern Hubei) took over northern Jiangxi and there may have been some Yue influence in the south. Chu subjugated Yue in 333 BC. In 223 BC, when Qin conquered Chu, a majority of the Jiangxi area was recorded to be put under Jiujiang Commandary situated in Shouchun (壽春).[7] However the commandary was ineffective and ended shortly when Qin falls.

Yuzhang Commandery (豫章, Gan: Ì-zong) was established in Jiangxi at the beginning of the Han dynasty, possibly before the death of Xiang Yu in 202 BC, and it's also the very first commandery set up by Chinese dynasty in Jiangxi. It was named after the Yuzhang River (豫章江, Gan: Ì-zong Kong), the original name of Gan River. "Gan" has become the abbreviation of the province. In 201, eight counties were added to the original seven of Qin, and three more were established in later years. Throughout most of the Han dynasty the commandery's eighteen counties covered most of the modern province of Jiangxi. The county seats of Nanchang, Gan, Yudu, Luling among others were located at the sites of modern major cities. Other counties, however, have been moved or abolished in later centuries.

Under the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty, Yuzhang Commandery was assigned to Yangzhou Province, as part of a trend to establish provinces (zhou) all across China. In 291 AD, during the Western Jin dynasty, Jiangxi became its own Zhou called Jiangzhou (江州, Gan: Kong-chiu). During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Jiangxi was under the control of the southern dynasties, and the number of zhou slowly grew.

During the Sui dynasty, there were seven commanderies and twenty-four counties in Jiangxi. During the Tang dynasty, another commandery and fourteen counties were added. Commanderies were then abolished, becoming zhou (henceforth translated as "prefectures" rather than "provinces").

Circuits were established during the Tang dynasty as a new top-level administrative division. At first Jiangxi was part of the Jiangnan Circuit (lit. "Circuit south of the Yangtze"). In 733, this circuit was divided into western and eastern halves. Jiangxi was found in the western half, which was called Jiangnanxi Circuit (lit. "Western circuits south of the Yangtze"). This is the source of the modern name "Jiangxi".

The Tang dynasty collapsed in 907, heralding the division of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Jiangxi first belonged to Wu (, Gan: Ng), then to Southern Tang (南唐, Gan: Nām-thóng). Both states were based in modern-day Nanjing, further down the Yangtze River.

During the Song dynasty, Jiangnanxi Circuit was reestablished with nine prefectures and four army districts (with sixty-eight districts).

During the Yuan dynasty, the circuit was divided into thirteen different circuits, and Jiangxi Province was established for the first time. This province also included the majority of modern Guangdong. Jiangxi acquired (more or less) its modern borders during the Ming dynasty after Guangdong was separated out. There has been little change to the borders of Jiangxi since.

After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people's revolution. The Nanchang Uprising took place in Jiangxi on August 1, 1927, during the Chinese Civil War. Later the Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomintang's attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic's government was established in Ruijin, which is sometimes called the "Former Red Capital" (红色故都, Gan: Fūng-set Kū-tu), or just the "Red Capital". In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March to Yan'an.


Jiangxi in 1936
Nanchang Bayi Guangchang 20120723-14
Nanchang City
Xinyu City
Pingxiang City

Mountains surround Jiangxi on three sides, with the Mufu Mountains, Jiuling Mountains, and Luoxiao Mountains on the west; Huaiyu Mountains and Wuyi Mountains on the east; and the Jiulian Mountains (九连山) and Dayu Mountains in the south. The southern half of the province is hilly with ranges and valleys interspersed; while the northern half is flatter and lower in altitude. The highest point in Jiangxi is Mount Huanggang (黄岗山) in the Wuyi Mountains, on the border with Fujian. It has an altitude of 2,157 metres (7,077 ft).

The Gan River dominates the province, flowing through the entire length of the province from south to north. It enters Lake Poyang in the north, the largest freshwater lake of China; that lake in turn empties into the Yangtze River, which forms part of the northern border of Jiangxi. Important reservoirs include the Xiushui Tuolin Reservoir in the northwest of the province on the Xiushui River, and the Wan'an Reservoir(zh) in the upper section of the Gan.

Jiangxi has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa under the Köppen climate classification), with short, cool, damp winters, and very hot, humid summers. Average temperatures are about 3 to 9 °C (37 to 48 °F) in January and 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F) in July. Annual precipitation is 1,200 to 1,900 millimetres (47 to 75 in), much of it falling in the heavy rains occurring in late spring and summer.

Nanchang, the provincial capital and the most densely populated city, is one of the largest Chinese metropolises. Nanchang is the hub of Jiangxi civilization throughout its history, which plays a leading role in the commercial, intellectual and industrial and political fields.[8] While Ganzhou is the largest subdivision of Jiangxi.

Major cities:

Administrative divisions

Jiangxi is divided into eleven prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Jiangxi
Jiangxi prfc map

     Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities

Division code[9] Division Area in km2[10] Population 2010[11] Seat Divisions[12]
Districts Counties CL cities
  360000 Jiangxi Province 166900.00 44,567,475 Nanchang city 25 64 11
1 360100 Nanchang city 7432.18 5,042,565 Donghu District 6 3
5 360200 Jingdezhen city 5256.23 1,587,477 Changjiang District 2 1 1
7 360300 Pingxiang city 3823.99 1,854,510 Anyuan District 2 3
6 360400 Jiujiang city 18796.79 4,728,763 Xunyang District 3 7 3
9 360500 Xinyu city 3177.68 1,138,873 Yushui District 1 1
11 360600 Yingtan city 3556.74 1,124,906 Yuehu District 2 1
3 360700 Ganzhou city 39317.14 8,368,440 Zhanggong District 3 14 1
4 360800 Ji'an city 25283.80 4,810,340 Jizhou District 2 10 1
10 360900 Yichun city 18637.67 5,419,575 Yuanzhou District 1 6 3
2 361000 Fuzhou city 18811.12 3,912,312 Linchuan District 2 9
8 361100 Shangrao city 22826.04 6,579,714 Xinzhou District 2 9 1

The eleven prefecture-level divisions of Jiangxi are subdivided into 100 county-level divisions (23 districts, 11 county-level cities, and 66 counties). Those in turn are divided into 1548 township-level divisions (770 towns, 651 townships, seven ethnic townships, and 120 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Jiangxi for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Urban areas

  1. ^ a b New district established after census: Xinjian (Xinjian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ a b New district established after census: Chaisang (Jiujiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. ^ a b New districts established after census: Nankang (Nankang CLC), Ganxian (Ganxian County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. ^ a b New district established after census: Dongxiang (Dongxiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ a b New district established after census: Guangfeng (Guangfeng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. ^ a b New district established after census: Yujiang (Yujiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. ^ Gongqingcheng CLC was established by splitting from parts of De'an County after census.
  8. ^ Xingzi County is currently known as Lushan CLC after census.


The Politics of Jiangxi is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Jiangxi is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Jiangxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Jiangxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Jiangxi CPC Party Chief".


Rice is the dominant crop in Jiangxi. Cash crops commonly grown include cotton and rapeseed. Jiangxi is the leading producer of kumquats in China, particularly Suichuan County.[14]

Jiangxi is rich in mineral resources, leading the provinces of China in deposits of copper, tungsten, gold, silver, uranium, thorium, tantalum, niobium, among others. Noted centers of mining include Dexing (copper) and Dayu County (tungsten).

It is located in extreme proximity to some of the richest provinces of China (Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian), which are sometimes blamed for taking away talent and capital from Jiangxi.[15]

Jiangxi has the lowest wages and third lowest property prices in all of China.,[15] As of 2016 Jiangxi's nominal GDP was CNY 1.84 trillion or USD 276.48 billion, and a per capita of CNY 40,400 or USD 6,082.[16]

Historical GDP of Jiangxi Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008)[16]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017[17])
year GDP GDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millions real
GDPpc exchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
USD 1 Int'l$. 1
2016 1,836,440 276,477 524,562 9.0 40,400 6082 11,540 6.6423 3.5009
2015 1,672,378 268,508 471,159 9.1 36,968 5935 10,415 6.2284 3.5495
2014 1,571,463 255,822 442,616 9.7 34,890 5680 9,827 6.1428 3.5504
2013 1,441,019 232,678 402,868 10.1 32,122 5187 8,980 6.1932 3.5769
2012 1,294,888 205,131 364,675 11.0 28,967 4589 8,158 6.3125 3.5508
2011 1,170,282 181,192 333,842 12.4 26,292 4071 7,500 6.4588 3.5055
2010 945,126 139,615 285,485 14.0 21,368 3156 6,454 6.7695 3.3106
2009 765,518 112,065 242,444 13.2 17,437 2553 5,522 6.8310 3.1575
2008 697,105 100,374 219,436 13.3 15,986 2302 5,032 6.9451 3.1768
2007 580,025 76,279 192,386 13.2 13,389 1761 4,441 7.6040 3.0149
2006 482,053 60,470 167,513 12.3 11,197 1405 3,891 7.9718 2.8777
2005 405,676 49,523 141,894 12.9 9,478 1157 3,315 8.1917 2.8590
2000 200,307 24,196 73,661 8.0 4851 586 1,784 8.2784 2.7193
1995 116,973 14,007 42,857 6.8 2896 347 1,061 8.3510 2.7294
1990 42,862 8,961 25,174 4.5 1134 237 666 4.7832 1.7026
1985 20,789 7,079 14,831 14.8 597 203 426 2.9366 1.4017
1980 11,115 7,418 7,432 4.2 342 228 229 1.4984 1.4955
1978 8,700 5,595 13.3 276 177 1.5550

Economic and technological development zones

  • Nanchang Export Processing Zone

Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone is located in NanChang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, it was approved by the State Council on May 8, 2006, and passed the national acceptance inspection on Sep 7th, 2007. It has a planning area of 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi) and now has built 0.31 km2 (0.12 sq mi). It enjoys simple and convenient customs clearances, and special preferential policies both for Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone and NCHDZ.[18]

  • Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone (NCHDZ for short hereafter) is the only national grade high-tech zoned in Jiangxi, it was established in Mar. 1991. The zone covers an area of 231 km2 (89 sq mi), in which 32 km2 (12 sq mi) have been completed. NCHDZ possesses unique nature condition and sound industry foundation of accepting electronics industry. NCHDZ has brought 25% industrial added value and 50% industrial benefit and tax to Nanchang city by using only 0.4% land area.[19]

  • Nanchang Economic and Technological Development Zone[20]


She ethnic townships in Jiangxi
She ethnic townships in Jiangxi

The population of Jiangxi is approximately 39.66 million.[21] 99.73% of that is Han Chinese, predominantly Gan and Hakka. Ganzhou, Jiangxi's largest city, has an especially large number of Hakka. Ethnic minorities include She and Zhuang.

Jiangxi and Henan both have the most unbalanced gender ratios of all Chinese provinces. Based on a 2009 British Medical Journal study, the ratio is over 140 boys for every 100 girls in the 1-4 age group.[22]

Historical population
1912[23] 23,988,000—    
1928[24] 20,323,000−15.3%
1936-37[25] 15,805,000−22.2%
1947[26] 12,507,000−20.9%
1954[27] 16,772,865+34.1%
1964[28] 21,068,019+25.6%
1982[29] 33,184,827+57.5%
1990[30] 37,710,281+13.6%
2000[31] 40,397,598+7.1%
2010[32] 44,567,475+10.3%


Religion in Jiangxi[33][note 1]

  Christianity (2.31%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (73.64%)

The predominant religions in Jiangxi are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 24.05% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 2.31% of the population identifies as Christian.[33]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 73.64% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Shangdi and Doumu altar in Chengxu Temple, Zhouzhuang, Jiangxi

Altar of Shangdi and Doumu at the Chengxu Temple (Taoist) in Zhouzhuang.

Nanchang Youmin Si 20120712-03

Youmin Buddhist Temple in Nanchong.


Porcelain Workshop, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi, China
Porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen.

Jiangxi is the main area of concentration of the Gan varieties of Chinese, spoken over most of the northern two-thirds of the province. Examples include the Nanchang dialect, Yichun dialect and Ji'an dialect. The southern one-third of the province speaks Hakka. There are also Mandarin, Huizhou, and Wu dialects spoken along the northern border.

Ganju (Jiangxi opera) is the type of Chinese opera performed in Jiangxi.

Although little known outside of the province, Jiangxi cuisine is rich and distinctive. Flavors are some of the strongest in China, with heavy use of chili peppers and especially pickled and fermented products.

Jingdezhen is widely regarded as the producer of the best porcelain in China.[34]

Jiangxi also was a historical center of Chan Buddhism.

Prominent examples of Hakka architecture can be found in Jiangxi.


As of January 2015, Jiangxi had two Yangtze River crossings, both in Jiujiang.


The Beijing–Kowloon Railway and Shanghai–Kunming Railway crisscross the province and intersect at Nanchang, which also has a high-speed rail link to Jiujiang. In addition, Jiangxi is connected by rail to Anhui Province via the Anhui–Jiangxi and Tongling–Jiujiang Railways; to Hubei via the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway; and to Fujian via the Yingtan–Xiamen, Hengfeng–Nanping, Ganzhou–Longyan and Xiangtang–Putian Railways.


Mount Lushan - fog
The mountain peaks of Lushan National Park.

Near the northern port city of Jiujiang lies the well-known resort area of Mount Lu. Also near the city are the Donglin (East Wood) Temple and the Tiefo (Iron Buddha) Temple (铁佛寺), two important Buddhist temples.

Near the small city of Yingtan is the resort area of Longhushan, which purports to be the birthplace of Taoism and hence has great symbolic value to Taoists. The region has many temples, cave complexes, mountains and villages.

The Lushan National Park has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1996.

In 2007, Jiangxi (specifically the Zhelin Reservoir, about 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Nanchang) was the filming location for the fifteenth series of the American TV show Survivor.

Flora and fauna

The mountainous terrain and large forest coverage of Jiangxi has made it historically one of the more wild places of central China. South China tigers have been seen as recently as fifteen or twenty years ago and projects are underway to document evidence of existing tigers, if there are any. Several mountain areas along the northern border with Hunan and Hubei are potential sites for "wilderness" preserves specifically for protecting or even reintroducing tigers.

Other wildlife, though not plentiful, are more numerous in Jiangxi than in many other developed areas of China. Numerous species of birds are common, especially around the marshes of Lake Poyang in the north. Though protected, mammals such as muntjac, wild boar, civet cats, and pangolins, are still common enough that they'll even occasionally be seen in markets for sale as game meat, or possibly even in a forest.

The late Paleocene mesonychid, Jiangxia chaotoensis was found in the province, and named after it.


Colleges and universities


See also


  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[33] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. ^ This may include:


  1. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  2. ^ "Statistical Communiqué of Jiangxi on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development / 江西省2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报" (in Chinese). Statistical Bureau of Jiangxi. 2018-03-09. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  3. ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
  4. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica". Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  5. ^ "www.ctoptravel.com". www.ctoptravel.com. Archived from the original on 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  6. ^ (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online.
  7. ^
  8. ^ "www.china.com.cn". China.com.cn. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  9. ^ 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs.
  10. ^ Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  11. ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  12. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  13. ^ a b c 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics]. Beijing: China Statistics Print. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  14. ^ Zhonghua quan guo min zhu fu nü lian he hui (1988). Chung-kuo fu nü. Foreign Language Press. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  15. ^ a b "Jiangxi Province: Economic News and Statistics for Jiangxi's Economy". Thechinaperspective.com. Archived from the original on 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  16. ^ a b Historical GDP of Jiangxi Province published on Jiangxi Statistical Yearbook 2017, ALSO see Jiangxi'GDP Revison (Chinese)
  17. ^ Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according to IMF WEO (October 2017) data; Exchange rate of CN¥ to US$ is according to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published on China Statistical Yearbook.
  18. ^ "Nanchang Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  19. ^ "Nanchang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  20. ^ "Nanchang Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  21. ^ ":: Xinhuanet ::". News.xinhuanet.com. 2003-04-02. Archived from the original on 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  22. ^ "China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey". BMJ. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  23. ^ 1912年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  24. ^ 1928年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  25. ^ 1936-37年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  26. ^ 1947年全国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  27. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.
  28. ^ 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.
  29. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.
  30. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.
  31. ^ 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.
  32. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.
  33. ^ a b c China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Jingdezhen: Where Emperors Got Their Porcelain - Caixin Global". www.caixinglobal.com. Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  35. ^ ":: Notícias MS ::". Noticias.ms.gov.br. 2009-10-23. Archived from the original on 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2012-12-24.

External links

Fuzhou, Jiangxi

Fuzhou (simplified Chinese: 抚州; traditional Chinese: 撫州; pinyin: Fǔzhōu,[fùʈʂóu] ), Fuzhou dialect: Fú-Diù, also named as Gandong (Chinese: 赣东; literally: 'East of Jiangxi'), is a prefecture-level city in the northeastern part of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.

The Fuzhou Prefecture-level City is located to the south of the provincial capital Nanchang, bordered in the east by Fujian Province. Its total area is 18,800 km2 (7,300 sq mi). Its population is 3,900,000 people. The area is located northwest of the Wuyi Mountains, and is drained by the Fu River (Fuhe), which flows northwest and north, to the Poyang Lake (in the neighboring Nanchang Prefecture). Because a number of scholars and statesmen have hailed from the city, it has also earned the epithet 'Cradle of Talent’ (才子之乡).

Gan Chinese

Gan is a group of Chinese varieties spoken as the native language by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in surrounding regions such as Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, and Fujian. Gan is a member of the Sinitic languages of the Sino-Tibetan language family, and Hakka is the closest Chinese variety to Gan in terms of phonetics.

Different dialects of Gan exist; the Nanchang dialect is usually taken as representative.


Ganzhou (Chinese: 赣州; pinyin: Gànzhōu), formerly romanized as Kanchow, is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangxi, China, bordering Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, and Hunan to the west. Its administrative seat is at Zhanggong District. Its population was 8,361,447 at the 2010 census whom 1,977,253 in the built-up (or "metro") area made of Zhanggong and Nankang, and Ganxian largely being urbanized.

Guo Shengkun

Guo Shengkun (Chinese: 郭声琨; born October 1954) is a Chinese politician and business executive who currently serves as a Politburo member and Secretary of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission of the Communist Party of China. Previously Guo served as Minister of Public Security, State Councilor, Communist Party Chief of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and General Manager of Aluminum Corporation of China, a major state-owned enterprise.Guo is a native of Xingguo County, Jiangxi province. He has a doctoral degree in Business Administration from the University of Science and Technology Beijing.


Ji'an (Chinese: 吉安; pinyin: Jí'ān) is a prefecture-level city situated in the central region of Jiangxi province of the People's Republic of China while bordering Hunan province to the west. It has an area of 25,219 km2 (9,737 sq mi) and as of the 2010 census, had a population of 4,810,339, of whom 538,699 live in the built-up (or metro) area made of 2 urban districts. Ji'an lies next to the Luoxiao Mountains (罗霄山脉) with the Gan River running through the middle of the city. Local dialects include a form of Gan Chinese (Jicha subgroup, 吉茶片) as well as Hakka Chinese.

Ji'an is an abbreviation of its original name Jítàimín'ān (吉泰民安). It has also formerly been known as Luling (廬陵) and Jizhou (吉州).

Jiangxi Nanchang Greenland Central Plaza

Jiangxi Nanchang Greenland Central Plaza are two supertall skyscrapers in Nanchang, Jiangxi, China. They have a height of 303 metres (994 ft). Construction began in 2011 and ended in 2015.


Jingdezhen (or the Town of Jingde) is a prefecture-level city, previously a town, in northeastern Jiangxi province, China, with a total population of 1,554,000 (2007), bordering Anhui to the north. It is known as the "Porcelain Capital" because it has been producing pottery for 1,700 years. The city has a well-documented history that stretches back over 2,000 years.

Jinggangshan Airport

Jinggangshan Airport (IATA: JGS, ICAO: ZSJA), also known as Ji'an Airport, is an airport serving the city of Ji'an in Jiangxi province, China.The airport is located in Taihe County which is under the administration of Ji'an, 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the urban area of Ji'an.


Jiujiang (Chinese: 九江), formerly transliterated Kiukiang or Kew Keang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, People's Republic of China. It is the second-largest prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province after the provincial capital Nanchang. Jiujiang literally means "nine rivers".

Its population was 4,728,778 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 704,986 in the built up area made of 2 urban districts (Xunyang and Lianxi). In 2007, the city is named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.

Long March

The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The best known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed over 9,000 kilometers (5600 miles) over 370 days. The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west, then north, to Shaanxi.

The Long March began Mao Zedong's ascent to power, whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party. The bitter struggles of the Long March, which was completed by only about one-tenth of the force that left Jiangxi, would come to represent a significant episode in the history of the Communist Party of China, and would seal the personal prestige of Mao Zedong and his supporters as the new leaders of the party in the following decades.


Nanchang (Chinese: 南昌) is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. Nanchang is the largest city in Jiangxi Province. Nanchang is located in the central part of Jiangxi Province, with a history of more than 2,200 years. It was called “Yuzhang”in Han Dynasty, “Hongdu” and “Hongcheng” from Tang Dynasty to Song Dynasty. It is located in the hinterland of Yuzhang Plain.

According to the Statistical Communique of the National Bureau of Statistics and Statistics of Nanchang City in 2017, as of the end of November 2017, the total population of households in Nanchang City was 5,246,600. The urban population is 2,887,800. Located in the north-central part of the province, it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake. Because of its strategic location connecting the prosperous East and South China, it has become a major railway hub in Southern China in recent decades.

As the Nanchang Uprising in 1927 is distinctively recognized by the ruling Communist Party as "firing the first gunshot against the evil Nationalists", the current government has therefore named the city since 1949 "the City of Heroes", "the place where the People's Liberation Army was born", and the most widely known "place where the military banner of the People's Liberation Army was first raised".


Ruichang (Chinese: 瑞昌; pinyin: Ruìchāng) is a county-level city under the jurisdiction of Jiujiang, in the north of Jiangxi province, along the Yangtze River, bordering Hubei province to the north.

Ruichang suffered deaths and extensive damage from the 2005 Ruichang earthquake.


Ruijin (Chinese: 瑞金; pinyin: Ruìjīn) is a county-level city of Ganzhou in the mountains bordering Fujian Province in the south-eastern part of Jiangxi Province.

It is most famous as one of the earliest centers of Chinese communist activity. After being forced out of Jinggangshan in the late 1920s by the Kuomintang, the Communists fled here, taking advantage of Ruijin's relative isolation in the rugged mountains along Jiangxi's border with Fujian. In 1931, under Mao Zedong's leadership, the Chinese Soviet Republic was established here, with Ruijin serving as its de-facto capital. By 1934, they had again been surrounded by Chiang Kai-shek's forces. It is from here that the famed "Long March" began.Ruijin is a popular destination for red tourism and ecotourism. It is a pilgrimage for Maoists from China and around the globe.


Shangrao (simplified Chinese: 上饶; traditional Chinese: 上饒; pinyin: Shàngráo) is a medium-sized prefecture-level city located in the northeast of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the east, and Fujian to the south; the city's western reaches extend into Poyang Lake. Shangrao had a population of 327,703 in 2010 (6,579,714 for the whole prefecture).Shangrao itself is at the very western edge of the Wu-speaking areas, while most of its associated counties speak Gan.

Xianren Cave

The Xianren Cave (Chinese: 仙人洞), together with the nearby Diaotonghuan (Chinese: 吊桶环) rock shelter, is an archaeological site in Dayuan Township (大源乡), Wannian County in the Jiangxi province, China and a location of historically important discoveries of prehistoric pottery shards and it bears evidence of early rice cultivation. The cave's name refers to the legendary Chinese enlightened people, the Xian "immortals". The cave is 7 m (23.0 ft) high, 11 m (36.1 ft) wide, and 14 m (45.9 ft) deep.

A 2012 publication in the Science journal, announced that the earliest pottery yet known anywhere in the world was found at this site dating to between 20,000 and 19,000 years before present.

Yichun, Jiangxi

Yichun (Chinese: 宜春; pinyin: Yíchūn; Wade–Giles: I2-ch'un1; postal: Ichun) is a mountainous prefecture-level city in western/northwestern Jiangxi Province, China, bordering Hunan to the west. Yichun literally means "pleasant spring". It is located in the northwest of the province along a river surrounded by mountains. Yichun has a history of over 2,200 years. It was established in 201 BC during the Han Dynasty. Yichun has a profound Buddhist culture. "Can Lin Qing Gui", the monastic rules for Buddhists at the Buddhist temple, originated from Yichun. Yichun is also the birthplace of a number of literary figures, such as Tao Yuanming and Deng Gu, both of whom are poets from ancient times.

The transportation in Yichun is convenient. The State Highway 320, State Highway 105, the Shanghai-Ruijin Highway and the Ganyue Highway (the Jiangxi-Guangdong Highway) construct a comprehensive traffic network in the city.

Yichun is a stop along the major railway running between Beijing and Nanchang, the capital of Jiangxi. Since 2014, it is also a stop along the Shanghai-Changsha CRH high speed train line, located between Changsha, the capital of Hunan and Nanchang, the capital of Jiangxi stops. Direct flights to Yichun airport are also available from Shanghai.

A large sports complex with two stadiums was built in the 1990s and draws teams for sports competitions from all across China. Agriculture is the main industry but other natural resource industries such as timber and mining are extremely important for the economy. Major mineral deposits include aluminum, tungsten, gold, zinc, and copper.

Yichun has abundant historical, cultural and natural tourism resources. Hongzhou Kiln, a famous kiln of the Tang Dynasty, was first built during the Southern Dynasty (AD420-589). Wucheng Site of the Shang Dynasty was discovered in Yichun in 1973. Gezhao Mountain, situated in Zhangshu, is a famous Taoist mountain in China. It is home to a number of ancient buildings. Tourists also visit the Guan Mountain Scenic Area, which is located at the juncture of Yifeng and Tonggu counties. The famous Mingyue (moon) Mountain gained its name from its shape like a bright crescent moon. Mingyue Shan can be accessed using the cable car taking to the top of the mountain. The area consists of over ten peaks which are all more than a thousand meters (about 3,281 feet) above sea level. It is also a national forest park comprising six tourist zones. Among them, the Yangshan Scenic Spot is an important birthplace of Buddhism in South China, and the Wentang Town, at the foot of the Mingyue Mountain, is known for hot springs teeming with selenium.


Yingtan (simplified Chinese: 鹰潭; traditional Chinese: 鷹潭; pinyin: Yīngtán; literally: 'Eagle Pond') is a prefecture-level city in the east of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Fujian to the southeast. Its location near the trisection of Jiangxi, Fujian, and Zhejiang has made it a strategically important city for centuries. Today, it continues to be a major rail transport hub. It is best known as the Capital of Copper ,and here placed Jiangxi Copper and its smelting factory.

Near the city of Yingtan is the resort area Mount Longhu which purports to be the birthplace of Taoism and hence has great symbolic value to Taoists. The region has many interesting temples, cave complexes, mountains and villages.


Zhangshu (simplified Chinese: 樟树; traditional Chinese: 樟樹; pinyin: Zhāngshù), formerly Qingjiang County (清江县), is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yichun, in the west-central part of Jiangxi Province. It has an area of 1,291 km2 (498 sq mi) with a population of 536,500. It is the first county of China Top 100 County in Jiangxi Province. The literal translation of the name is Camphor laurel, because traditionally, the city was a major commercial hub for camphor laurel oil. Zhangshu is famous for Chinese medicinal herbs. What's more, the China top 10 medicine producer Renhe Group is located there.Officially, it is the Medicine Capital of China, and there are thousands of pharmaceutical companies. Hundreds of thousands of kinds of Chinese herbal medicines are saled by bulk or by retail.

Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign

The Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign (Japanese: 浙贛作戦, simplified Chinese: 浙赣战役; traditional Chinese: 浙赣戰役; pinyin: Zhè-Gàn Zhànyì), also known as Operation Sei-go, refers to a campaign by the China Expeditionary Army of the Imperial Japanese Army under Shunroku Hata and Chinese 3rd War Area forces under Gu Zhutong in the Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi from mid May to early September 1942.

Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinJiāngxī
Bopomofoㄐㄧㄤ   ㄒㄧ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhJiangshi
RomanizationKong si
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationGōng-sāi
Southern Min
Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations
English Chinese Pinyin Gan Romanization
Jiangxi Province 江西省 Jiāngxī Shěng kɔŋ11 śi11 sɛn2
Nanchang city 南昌市 Nánchāng Shì lan31 chɔŋ11 si32
Jingdezhen city 景德镇市 Jǐngdézhèn Shì ćin2 tɛt41 cǝn31 si32
Pingxiang city 萍乡市 Píngxiāng Shì phin12 śiɔŋ11 si32
Jiujiang city 九江市 Jiǔjiāng Shì ćiu2 kɔŋ11 si32
Xinyu city 新余市 Xīnyú Shì śin11 y31 si32
Yingtan city 鹰潭市 Yīngtán Shì in11 ? si32
Ganzhou city 赣州市 Gànzhōu Shì ? cǝu11 si32
Ji'an city 吉安市 Jí'ān Shì ćit41 ŋɔn11 si32
Yichun city 宜春市 Yíchūn Shì ńi31 chun11 si32
Fuzhou city 抚州市 Fǔzhōu Shì ? cǝu11 si32
Shangrao city 上饶市 Shàngráo Shì sɔŋ32 ? si32
Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[13] District area[13] City proper[13] Census date
1 Nanchang[a] 2,223,661 2,357,839 5,042,566 2010-11-01
(1) Nanchang (new district)[a] 390,719 795,412 see Nanchang 2010-11-01
2 Pingxiang 716,229 893,550 1,854,515 2010-11-01
3 Jiujiang[b] 611,321 704,986 4,728,778 2010-11-01
(3) Jiujiang (new district)[b] 93,035 159,909 see Jiujiang 2010-11-01
4 Ganzhou[c] 605,231 642,653 8,368,447 2010-11-01
(4) Ganzhou (new districts)[c] 430,680 1,334,600 see Ganzhou 2010-11-01
5 Xinyu 567,820 839,488 1,138,874 2010-11-01
6 Fuzhou[d] 482,940 1,089,888 3,912,307 2010-11-01
(6) Fuzhou (new district)[d] 169,404 438,319 see Fuzhou 2010-11-01
7 Yichun 461,817 1,045,952 5,419,591 2010-11-01
8 Jingdezhen 430,084 473,561 1,587,477 2010-11-01
9 Fengcheng 379,914 1,336,392 see Yichun 2010-11-01
10 Ji'an 328,318 538,699 4,810,339 2010-11-01
11 Shangrao[e] 298,975 416,219 6,579,747 2010-11-01
(11) Shangrao (new district)[e] 392,302 752,953 see Shangrao 2010-11-01
12 Gao'an 295,507 811,633 see Yichun 2010-11-01
13 Leping 286,351 810,353 see Jingdezhen 2010-11-01
14 Ruijin 216,229 618,885 see Ganzhou 2010-11-01
15 Guixi 210,319 558,451 see Yingtan 2010-11-01
16 Yingtan[f] 191,893 214,229 1,125,156 2010-11-01
(16) Yingtan (new district)[f] 131,470 352,476 see Yingtan 2010-11-01
17 Zhangshu 188,586 555,120 see Yichun 2010-11-01
18 Ruichang 150,531 419,047 see Jiujiang 2010-11-01
19 Dexing 148,565 293,201 see Shangrao 2010-11-01
(20) Gongqingcheng[g] 118,986 118,986 see Jiujiang 2010-11-01
(21) Lushan[h] 101,630 245,526 see Jiujiang 2010-11-01
22 Jinggangshan 86,673 152,310 see Ji'an 2010-11-01
Places adjacent to Jiangxi
Jiangxi topics
Visitor attractions
Prefecture-level cities
Autonomous regions
Special administrative regions

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