Jiangmen, formerly romanized in Cantonese as Kongmoon, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province in southern China. Its 3 urban districts are now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation and the entire prefecture had a population of about 4.45 million in 2010.
Clockwise from top right: Renshou Lu, Gudou Hotspring Resort, Xinhui Confucian Temple, Changdi Lu, & Jingtang Library
Location of Jiangmen in Guangdong
Location in China
|Coordinates (Jiangmen government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|City Seat||Pengjiang District|
|• Prefecture-level city||9,443 km2 (3,646 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,692 km2 (653 sq mi)|
|• Metro||17,573 km2 (6,785 sq mi)|
|Elevation||10 m (30 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,448,871|
|• Density||470/km2 (1,200/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||2,500/km2 (6,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-GD-07|
|License plate prefixes||粤J|
"Jiangmen" in Chinese calligraphy
|Literal meaning||River Gate|
Jiangmen is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese name 江門 or 江门, based on its pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect. Its former Wade-Giles spelling was Chiang-men. The Postal Map spelling "Kongmoon" was based upon the same name's Cantonese pronunciation Gong¹-mun⁴. Other forms of the name include Kong Moon, Kongmun, and Kiangmoon.
Jiangmen is also known as Pengjiang. Its rural hinterland is known to the Chinese diaspora as the "Four Counties" (q.v.), although the addition of Heshan to Jiangmen has prompted the remaining locals to begin calling it the "Five Counties" instead.
Historically, Jiangmen was a community under the administration of nearby Xinhui County. Jiangmen, however, was forced to open to western trade in 1902. A legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with western-style buildings. The city has an ongoing renewal project which is restoring many of these buildings. Jiangmen was proclaimed a city in 1951 and later became the prefectural seat for the Sze Yup ("Four County") region including Taishan, Kaiping, Xinhui, Enping. (In Mainland China but not abroad, the area became known as the "Five Counties" when Heshan was added to Jiangmen's jurisdiction.)
In 2011, the city banned pet dogs in public after rabies killed 42 people over the preceding 3 years. The city reserved a 13-acre site to allow rural Chinese to adopt the 30,000 dogs, but public outcry led to a softer implementation where violators would be told to leave rather than have the dog confiscated.
The city is located on the lower reaches of the Xijiang or West River, in the west of the Pearl River Delta in the middle of southern Guangdong Province. It faces the South China Sea in the south and is 100 kilometres (62 mi) away from Guangzhou and Zhuhai by highway. Jiangmen city has an area of 9,260 square kilometres (3,580 sq mi), about one quarter the size of the Pearl River Delta.
|Climate data for Jiangmen (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.8
|Average high °C (°F)||18.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||14.3
|Average low °C (°F)||11.4
|Record low °C (°F)||2.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||34.0
|Average relative humidity (%)||71||79||82||84||83||84||82||82||79||72||67||65||78|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
Jiangmen was selected by the Chinese state as a pilot city for a nationwide information programme. It was also chosen by the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) as a trial city for the Regional Integration for Sustainable Economics (RISE) project. According to the "Report on Investment Environment in China 2003" by the World Bank, Jiangmen ranked the fourth after Shanghai, Hangzhou and Dalian of 23 cities under evaluation in China. Among various indicators, Jiangmen excelled in infrastructure, labour redundancy, proportion of joint ventures in all firms, informal payments to government, taxation, productivity and the investment rate.
The economic development strategies within Jiangmen focus on the three urban districts, and the south, middle and north lines. It is planned to develop four main economic areas: the central urban district of the city, the Yinzhou Lake (銀州湖) economic area, and two economic areas along the various transport axes.
Similar to other cities in the western Pearl River Delta, the manufacturing sector plays a significant role in Jiangmen's economy. The chief industries include manufacturing of motorcycles, household appliances, electronics, paper, food processing, synthetic fibers and garments, as well as textiles and stainless steel products. Some worldwide brand names have factories in Jiangmen such as Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings, ABB Group and Lee Kum Kee foods.
The city was the proposed site of a $6.5 billion, 40 billion renminbi, uranium processing plant which would have supplied about half of the enriched uranium needed by China's nuclear power plants. Announcement of the plant in July 2013 was met by public protests. The proposal was withdrawn out of "respect for public opinion" shortly thereafter.
Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province. The local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries to include petrochemical and machinery plants, as well as an ocean-based economy.
|Administrative divisions of Jiangmen|
|Division code||English name||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Postal code||Divisions|
|Subdistricts||Towns||Residential communities||Administrative villages|
|440700||Jiangmen City||江门市||Jiāngmén Shì||9505.42||4,450,703||Pengjiang District||529000||15||61||264||1051|
|440703||Pengjiang District||蓬江区||Péngjiāng Qū||321.97||719,146||Huanshi Subdistrict||529000||6||3||84||56|
|440704||Jianghai District||江海区||Jiānghǎi Qū||109.16||254,313||Jiangnan Subdistrict||529000||3||0||23||36|
|440705||Xinhui District||新会区||Xīnhuì Qū||1354.72||849,155||Huicheng Subdistrict||529100||1||10||31||193|
|440781||Taishan City||台山市||Táishān Shì||3286.30||941,095||Taicheng Subdistrict||529200||1||16||36||277|
|440783||Kaiping City||开平市||Kāipíng Shì||1656.94||699,242||Changsha Subdistrict||529300||2||13||41||226|
|440784||Heshan City||鹤山市||Hèshān Shì||1082.73||494,938||Shaping Subdistrict||529700||1||9||26||112|
|440785||Enping City||恩平市||Ēnpíng Shì||1693.60||492,814||Encheng Subdistrict||529400||1||10||23||151|
Jiangmen is the homeland of 3.68 million overseas Chinese, who live in 107 countries and regions throughout the world. Strong oversea connections are especially found in the villages.
A significant amount of historical heritage survives from the period of mass emigration prior to World War II. The most significant are the fortified multi-story towers found mainly in Kaiping. These are known as "Gold Mountain Towers" or diaolou. A number of natural hotspring resorts has been developed successfully by using its wealthy natural heated ground water resources such as Gudou Hotspring Resort (古兜温泉). Guifeng Mountain, a mountain visited by many tourists, is the peak of Jiangmen with an elevation of 545 meters above sea level.
The local government's economic development strategies emphasize the development of tourism and protection of the environment.
Wuyi University is the main university in Jiangmen.
Jiangmen Polytechnic College, located at Chaolian Island, enrolls about 13,000 students in various technical and humanities programs.
Jiangmen No. 1 Middle School is claimed to be the top middle school in the district. It used to be one of the best middle schools in Guangdong Province in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the quality of its education has been dropping in recent years and within the district of Jiangmen, its status is being constantly challenged by schools such as Xinhui No. 1 Middle School in Xinhui, Kaiqiao (Kaiping Emigrant) Middle School in Kiaping and Heshan No.1 Middle School in Heshan.
Jiangmen has a mature network of inter-city and intra-city highways and expressways, whose total length has reached 10,084.97 kilometres (6,266.51 mi) as of 2016.G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway travels at the north, connecting downtown Jiangmen to three of its administrative divisions Heshan, Kaiping and Enping, as well as nearby cities Yangjiang, Zhongshan and Foshan. S32 Western Costal Expressway goes along Jiangmen's coastlines, linking Zhuhai at the east and Yangjiang at the west. G94 Pearl River Delta Ring Expressway, S20 Guangzhou-Zhongshan-Jiangmen Expressway, G2518 Shenzhen-Cenxi Expressway and S47 Guangzhou-Foshan-Jiangmen-Zhuhai Expressway run through northeast Jiangmen. S49 Xinhui-Taishan Expressway connects Taishan and joints S32 at the south.
China National Highway 325 is the only highway in the national trunk road system that goes into Jiangmen. Several provincial highways, such as S273, S274, S276 and S367 link the city's suburb areas to major towns.
Although the very first railway, Sun Ning Railway, began operation in 1909, it was discontinued in 1938 to deny its use by the Japanese military. The second operational railway is the Xinhui branch of Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit (opened 2011), which provides frequent service from Xinhui railway station to Guangzhou South Railway Station, where connections to the nation's high-speed railway network are available. Since the late 2012, Jiangmen is also served by the freight-only Guangzhou–Zhuhai Railway. Shenzhen–Zhanjiang high-speed railway, which opened in 2018, connects Jiangmen at Jiangmen East railway station, Shuangshuizhen railway station, Taishan railway station, Kaiping South railway station and Enping railway station. Since then, Jiangmen is served by direct trains to Shanghai.
There are 18 coach terminals across Jiangmen as of 2016. 1,137 licensed coaches owned by 23 operators provide inter-county and inter-city bus services to major cities within and outside Guangdong.
Bus service within Pengjiang and Jianghai Districts are provided by Jiangmen Bus Co. Ltd.. Bus routes in Xinhui District were formerly operated by Macao-based Xinfuli Co., but all routes were consolidated into the city-owned bus system run by Jiangmen Automobile Transportation Group Co. Ltd. in 2010. Transit buses in other districts are operated by Jiangmen Automobile Transportation Group and other private companies.
By 2016, there are 1,077 taxicabs in Jiangmen, most of which are operated by local companies.
The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup was the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup, the world championship for women's national association football teams. It took place in Guangdong, China from 16 to 30 November 1991. FIFA, football's international governing body selected China as host nation as Guangdong had hosted a prototype world championship three years earlier, the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament. Matches were played in the state capital, Guangzhou, as well as in Foshan, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. The competition was sponsored by Mars, Incorporated. With FIFA still reluctant to bestow their "World Cup" brand, the tournament was officially known as the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup.It was won by the United States, whose captain April Heinrichs formed a forward line dubbed the "triple–edged sword" with Carin Jennings and Michelle Akers-Stahl. Jennings was named player of the tournament while Akers-Stahl's ten goals won the Golden Shoe. The United States beat Norway 2–1 in the final in front of a crowd of 65,000 people at Guangzhou's Tianhe Stadium. Total attendance was 510,000, an average per match of 19,615. In the opening match at the same stadium, Norway had been defeated 4–0 by hosts China. Chinese defender Ma Li scored the first goal in Women's World Cup history, while goalkeeper Zhong Honglian, also of China, posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament.
The 12 qualified teams were divided into three groups of four (A to C). The top two teams and the two best third-place finishers from the three groups advanced to the knockout round of eight teams.Adolph John Paschang
Bishop Adolph John Paschang (Chinese: 柏增主教, 16 April 1895 – 3 February 1968) was an American Maryknoll Catholic bishop, missionary, relief worker and educator working in the southern part of China in the early 20th century.China Railways CRH6
The CRH6 Hexie (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; literally: "Harmony") is a new generation of regional/commuter high-speed train of the People's Republic of China. It is designed by CSR Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock. and will be manufactured by CSR Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock at its subsidiary, the CSR Guangdong Jiangmen Factory.Diaolou
Diaolou (simplified Chinese: 碉楼; traditional Chinese: 碉樓) formerly romanized as Clock Towers, are fortified multi-storey watchtowers in village countryside, generally made of reinforced concrete. These towers are located mainly in the Kaiping (開平) county of Jiangmen prefecture in Guangdong province, China. In 2007, UNESCO designated the Kaiping Diaolou and Villages (Chinese:开平碉楼与村落) a World Heritage Site, which covers four separate Kaiping village areas: Sanmenli (三门里), Zilicun (自力村), Jinjiangli (锦江里), and Majianglong village cluster (马降龙村落群).Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway
Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway or Guangzhu intercity railway (Chinese: 广州-珠海城际快速轨道; abbreviated as 广珠城轨) is a dedicated, grade-separated regional railway linking Guangzhou South railway station in Panyu, Guangzhou, and Zhuhai Airport in Zhuhai, via Shunde, Zhongshan and Jiangmen, in Guangdong province. It is the first line completed in the currently under construction Pearl River Delta Rapid Transit network. The section in Zhuhai from Zhuhai North to Zhuhai is also known as Line R1.Guangzhou–Zhuhai railway
Guangzhou–Zhuhai railway (Chinese: 广珠铁路) is a railway between Jiangcun (Chinese: 江村) in Guangzhou and Gaolan Port (Chinese: 高栏港) in Zhuhai, via the cities of Foshan and Jiangmen, in Guangdong, China. Opened at the end of 2012, it is used for freight only.Heshan, Guangdong
Heshan, formerly romanized as Hokshan, is a county-level city of Jiangmen City in the southern part of Guangdong Province, China with a total land area of 1,108.3 square kilometres (427.9 sq mi) and a population of 360,000, and some 200,000 internal migrants. There are approximately 360,000 people of Heshan origin or descent living in other parts of the world.
Situated about 60 kilometres (37 mi) south west of the provincial capital, Guangzhou, Heshan occupies a strategic location on the Pearl River Delta, commanding the northern gateway to Jiangmen's five prefectures. Along the opposite bank of the same river, lie the two municipalities of Nanhai and Shunde. Heshan is around one hour from Hong Kong and Macau by road. The city's harbour can accommodate vessels of up to 3,000 long tons (3,050 t). Ships ply from here to Hong Kong directly.Jianghai District
Jianghai (Chinese: 江海区; pinyin: Jiānghǎi Qū; Jyutping: gong1hoi2keoi1) is a district of Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, southern China.Jiangmen East railway station
Jiangmen East railway station (Chinese: 江门东站), formerly Jiangmen railway station (Chinese: 江门站), is an elevated station on the Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit Jiangmen Spur Line.The station is located at the junction of Wuyi Road (Chinese: 五邑路) and Donghai Road (Chinese: 東海路) in the Jianghai District of Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, China, near the Jianghai District Government and Jianghai First Secondary School. It started operations on 7 January 2011. Jiangmen station was renamed Jiangmen East station in English and Chinese on 10 March 2017. A new Jiangmen railway station, originally named Jiangmen South railway station prior to March 2017, will be constructed and completed by June 2018.Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a medium baseline reactor neutrino experiment under construction at Kaiping, Jiangmen in Southern China. It aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and perform precision measurements of the Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix elements. It will build on the mixing parameter results of many previous experiments. The collaboration was formed in July 2014 and construction began January 10, 2015. The schedule aims to begin taking data in 2020. Funding is provided by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, but the collaboration is international.
Planned as a follow-on to the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, it was originally planned for the same location, but the construction of a third nuclear reactor (the planned Lufeng nuclear power plant) in that area would disrupt the experiment, which depends on maintaining a fixed distance to nearby nuclear reactors. Instead it was moved to a location 53 km from both of the planned Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants.Lile railway station
Lile railway station (Chinese: 礼乐站), formerly Xinmin Station (Chinese: 新民站) during planning, is an elevated station on the Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit Jiangmen Spur Line.The station is located in Lile Avenue (Chinese: 礼乐大道) in the Lile Sub-district (Chinese: 礼乐街道) of the Jianghai District of Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, China, near Xinmin Village Committee (Chinese: 新民村村委会). It started operation on 7 January, 2011.List of administrative divisions of Guangdong
Guangdong, a province of the People's Republic of China, is made up of the following administrative divisions.Pearl River Delta
The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD, Chinese: 珠江三角洲都會區; pinyin: Zhūjiāng sānjiǎozhōu) is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea. It is one of the most densely urbanized regions in the world, and is often considered an emerging megacity. The region's economy is referred to as Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, while the Chinese government's development plans consider it part of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.
The PRD is a megalopolis, with future development into a single mega metropolitan area, yet itself is at the southern end of a larger megalopolis running along the southern coast of China, which include metropolises such as Chaoshan, Zhangzhou-Xiamen, Quanzhou-Putian and Fuzhou. The nine largest cities of the PRD had a combined population of 57.15 million at the end of 2013, comprising 53.69% of the provincial population. According to the World Bank Group, the PRD has become the largest urban area in the world in both size and population.This region was also the source of much Chinese emigration from the 19th to the mid 20th centuries, including to the Western world, where they formed many Chinatowns. Today, much of the Chinese diaspora in the US, Canada, Australia, Latin America, and much of Southeast Asia traces their ancestry to this region. Its dominant language is Cantonese.Pengjiang District
Pengjiang (Chinese: 蓬江; pinyin: Péngjiāng; Jyutping: fung4gong1) is a district of Jiangmen, Guangdong province, China.Shenzhen–Zhanjiang high-speed railway
The Shenzhen–Zhanjiang railway is a high-speed railway across the south of Guangdong province. Linking the cities of Shenzhen and Zhanjiang, it will also allow for future high speed train travel between Hong Kong and Hainan Island.Siyi Yue
Siyi (Seiyap or Sze Yup in Cantonese; Chinese: 四邑方言; pinyin: Sìyì fāngyán; Jyutping: sei3 jap1 fong1 jin4) is a coastal branch of Yue Chinese spoken mainly in Guangdong province, but is also used in overseas Chinese communities. Within the province, it is mainly spoken in the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen, but pockets exist outside Jiangmen, including the Doumen and Jinwan districts in Zhuhai, Guzhen in Zhongshan and Jun'an in Foshan. Taishanese, which was one of the most important Chinese dialects in Chinese American communities, is considered a representative dialect.Taishan
Taishan may refer to:
Mount Tai or Taishan (泰山), Shandong, China
Taishan, Guangdong (台山市), a county-level city of Jiangmen, Guangdong, China
Greater Taishan Region (台山地区), a region in Guangdong consisting of the cities of Taishan, Kaiping, Xinhui, Jiangmen, Enping and Heshan
Taishan District, New Taipei (泰山區), a district in New Taipei, Taiwan
Taishan Town (太山镇), a town in Da'an, Jilin, China
Taishan Township, Henan (太山乡), a township in Huojia County, Henan, China
Taishan Township, Gansu (泰山乡), a township in Liangdang County, Gansu, China
Taishan Township, Jiangxi (泰山乡), a township in Anfu County, Jiangxi, China
Taishan Subdistrict, Nanjing (泰山街道), a subdistrict in Pukou District, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
Taishan Subdistrict, Xuzhou (泰山街道), a subdistrict in Quanshan District, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China
Taishan Subdistrict, Jilin City (泰山街道), a subdistrict in Fengman District, Jilin City, Jilin Province, ChinaWaihai railway station
Waihai railway station (Chinese: 外海站), or Jianghai Station (Chinese: 江海站), is an elevated station on the Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit Jiangmen Spur Line.The station is located at the junction of Qianjin Village (前进村) and Qidong Village (七东村) in Waihai Street (外海街道), Jianghai District, Jiangmen, Guangdong Province, China, opposite Guzhen, Zhongshan across the river. It is the first station in Jiangmen for trains heading into the city. It started operation on 7 January 2011.Xinhui railway station
Xinhui railway station (Chinese: 新会站) is an elevated terminus of Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit Jiangmen Spur Line. It started operation on 7 January 2011.
The station is located near Dongjia Village (Chinese: 東甲村) in Huicheng Street (Chinese: 会城街道), Xinhui District, Jiangmen, Guangdong, China. Since it is far away from the current bus terminus in Huicheng, a new bus terminus will be built to serve the passengers. The station started operations in 2011.Xinhui Station was formerly called Jiangmen West Station (Chinese: 江门西站) when planning. However, the station name was strongly criticized by Xinhui citizens that it degraded the position of Xinhui. Therefore, the authorities finally renamed the station to Xinhui Station.