Jiangmen, formerly romanized in Cantonese as Kongmoon, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province in southern China. Its 3 urban districts are now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation and the entire prefecture had a population of about 4.45 million in 2010.
Clockwise from top right: Renshou Lu, Gudou Hotspring Resort, Xinhui Confucian Temple, Changdi Lu, & Jingtang Library
Location of Jiangmen in Guangdong
Location in China
|Coordinates (Jiangmen government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|City Seat||Pengjiang District|
|• Prefecture-level city||9,443 km2 (3,646 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,692 km2 (653 sq mi)|
|• Metro||17,573 km2 (6,785 sq mi)|
|Elevation||10 m (30 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,448,871|
|• Density||470/km2 (1,200/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||2,500/km2 (6,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-GD-07|
|License plate prefixes||粤J|
"Jiangmen" in Chinese calligraphy
|Literal meaning||River Gate|
Jiangmen is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese name 江門 or 江门, based on its pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect. Its former Wade-Giles spelling was Chiang-men. The Postal Map spelling "Kongmoon" was based upon the same name's Cantonese pronunciation Gong¹-mun⁴. Other forms of the name include Kong Moon, Kongmun, and Kiangmoon.
Jiangmen is also known as Pengjiang. Its rural hinterland is known to the Chinese diaspora as the "Four Counties" (q.v.), although the addition of Heshan to Jiangmen has prompted the remaining locals to begin calling it the "Five Counties" instead.
Historically, Jiangmen was a community under the administration of nearby Xinhui County. Jiangmen, however, was forced to open to western trade in 1902. A legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with western-style buildings. The city has an ongoing renewal project which is restoring many of these buildings. Jiangmen was proclaimed a city in 1951 and later became the prefectural seat for the Sze Yup ("Four County") region including Taishan, Kaiping, Xinhui, Enping. (In Mainland China but not abroad, the area became known as the "Five Counties" when Heshan was added to Jiangmen's jurisdiction.)
In 2011, the city banned pet dogs in public after rabies killed 42 people over the preceding 3 years. The city reserved a 13-acre site to allow rural Chinese to adopt the 30,000 dogs, but public outcry led to a softer implementation where violators would be told to leave rather than have the dog confiscated.
The city is located on the lower reaches of the Xijiang or West River, in the west of the Pearl River Delta in the middle of southern Guangdong Province. It faces the South China Sea in the south and is 100 kilometres (62 mi) away from Guangzhou and Zhuhai by highway. Jiangmen city has an area of 9,260 square kilometres (3,580 sq mi), about one quarter the size of the Pearl River Delta.
|Climate data for Jiangmen (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.8
|Average high °C (°F)||18.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||14.3
|Average low °C (°F)||11.4
|Record low °C (°F)||2.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||34.0
|Average relative humidity (%)||71||79||82||84||83||84||82||82||79||72||67||65||78|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
Jiangmen was selected by the Chinese state as a pilot city for a nationwide information programme. It was also chosen by the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) as a trial city for the Regional Integration for Sustainable Economics (RISE) project. According to the "Report on Investment Environment in China 2003" by the World Bank, Jiangmen ranked the fourth after Shanghai, Hangzhou and Dalian of 23 cities under evaluation in China. Among various indicators, Jiangmen excelled in infrastructure, labour redundancy, proportion of joint ventures in all firms, informal payments to government, taxation, productivity and the investment rate.
The economic development strategies within Jiangmen focus on the three urban districts, and the south, middle and north lines. It is planned to develop four main economic areas: the central urban district of the city, the Yinzhou Lake (銀州湖) economic area, and two economic areas along the various transport axes.
Similar to other cities in the western Pearl River Delta, the manufacturing sector plays a significant role in Jiangmen's economy. The chief industries include manufacturing of motorcycles, household appliances, electronics, paper, food processing, synthetic fibers and garments, as well as textiles and stainless steel products. Some worldwide brand names have factories in Jiangmen such as Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings, ABB Group and Lee Kum Kee foods.
The city was the proposed site of a $6.5 billion, 40 billion renminbi, uranium processing plant which would have supplied about half of the enriched uranium needed by China's nuclear power plants. Announcement of the plant in July 2013 was met by public protests. The proposal was withdrawn out of "respect for public opinion" shortly thereafter.
Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province. The local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries to include petrochemical and machinery plants, as well as an ocean-based economy.
|Administrative divisions of Jiangmen|
|Division code||English name||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Postal code||Divisions|
|Subdistricts||Towns||Residential communities||Administrative villages|
|440700||Jiangmen City||江门市||Jiāngmén Shì||9505.42||4,450,703||Pengjiang District||529000||15||61||264||1051|
|440703||Pengjiang District||蓬江区||Péngjiāng Qū||321.97||719,146||Huanshi Subdistrict||529000||6||3||84||56|
|440704||Jianghai District||江海区||Jiānghǎi Qū||109.16||254,313||Jiangnan Subdistrict||529000||3||0||23||36|
|440705||Xinhui District||新会区||Xīnhuì Qū||1354.72||849,155||Huicheng Subdistrict||529100||1||10||31||193|
|440781||Taishan City||台山市||Táishān Shì||3286.30||941,095||Taicheng Subdistrict||529200||1||16||36||277|
|440783||Kaiping City||开平市||Kāipíng Shì||1656.94||699,242||Changsha Subdistrict||529300||2||13||41||226|
|440784||Heshan City||鹤山市||Hèshān Shì||1082.73||494,938||Shaping Subdistrict||529700||1||9||26||112|
|440785||Enping City||恩平市||Ēnpíng Shì||1693.60||492,814||Encheng Subdistrict||529400||1||10||23||151|
Jiangmen is the homeland of 3.68 million overseas Chinese, who live in 107 countries and regions throughout the world. Strong oversea connections are especially found in the villages.
A significant amount of historical heritage survives from the period of mass emigration prior to World War II. The most significant are the fortified multi-story towers found mainly in Kaiping. These are known as "Gold Mountain Towers" or diaolou. A number of natural hotspring resorts has been developed successfully by using its wealthy natural heated ground water resources such as Gudou Hotspring Resort (古兜温泉). Guifeng Mountain, a mountain visited by many tourists, is the peak of Jiangmen with an elevation of 545 meters above sea level.
The local government's economic development strategies emphasize the development of tourism and protection of the environment.
Wuyi University is the main university in Jiangmen.
Jiangmen Polytechnic College, located at Chaolian Island, enrolls about 13,000 students in various technical and humanities programs.
Jiangmen No. 1 Middle School is claimed to be the top middle school in the district. It used to be one of the best middle schools in Guangdong Province in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the quality of its education has been dropping in recent years and within the district of Jiangmen, its status is being constantly challenged by schools such as Xinhui No. 1 Middle School in Xinhui, Kaiqiao (Kaiping Emigrant) Middle School in Kiaping and Heshan No.1 Middle School in Heshan.
Jiangmen has a mature network of inter-city and intra-city highways and expressways, whose total length has reached 10,084.97 kilometres (6,266.51 mi) as of 2016.G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway travels at the north, connecting downtown Jiangmen to three of its administrative divisions Heshan, Kaiping and Enping, as well as nearby cities Yangjiang, Zhongshan and Foshan. S32 Western Costal Expressway goes along Jiangmen's coastlines, linking Zhuhai at the east and Yangjiang at the west. G94 Pearl River Delta Ring Expressway, S20 Guangzhou-Zhongshan-Jiangmen Expressway, G2518 Shenzhen-Cenxi Expressway and S47 Guangzhou-Foshan-Jiangmen-Zhuhai Expressway run through northeast Jiangmen. S49 Xinhui-Taishan Expressway connects Taishan and joints S32 at the south.
China National Highway 325 is the only highway in the national trunk road system that goes into Jiangmen. Several provincial highways, such as S273, S274, S276 and S367 link the city's suburb areas to major towns.
Although the very first railway, Sun Ning Railway, began operation in 1909, it was discontinued in 1938 to deny its use by the Japanese military. The second operational railway is the Xinhui branch of Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit (opened 2011), which provides frequent service from Xinhui railway station to Guangzhou South Railway Station, where connections to the nation's high-speed railway network are available. Since the late 2012, Jiangmen is also served by the freight-only Guangzhou–Zhuhai Railway. Shenzhen–Zhanjiang high-speed railway, which opened in 2018, connects Jiangmen at Jiangmen East railway station, Shuangshuizhen railway station, Taishan railway station, Kaiping South railway station and Enping railway station. Since then, Jiangmen is served by direct trains to Shanghai.
There are 18 coach terminals across Jiangmen as of 2016. 1,137 licensed coaches owned by 23 operators provide inter-county and inter-city bus services to major cities within and outside Guangdong.
Bus service within Pengjiang and Jianghai Districts are provided by Jiangmen Bus Co. Ltd.. Bus routes in Xinhui District were formerly operated by Macao-based Xinfuli Co., but all routes were consolidated into the city-owned bus system run by Jiangmen Automobile Transportation Group Co. Ltd. in 2010. Transit buses in other districts are operated by Jiangmen Automobile Transportation Group and other private companies.
By 2016, there are 1,077 taxicabs in Jiangmen, most of which are operated by local companies.