Jhansi ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a historic city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It lies in the region of Bundelkhand on the banks of the Pahuj River, in the extreme south of Uttar Pradesh. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi district and Jhansi division. Called the Gateway to Bundelkhand, Jhansi is situated between the rivers Pahuj and Betwa at an average elevation of 285 metres (935 feet). It is about 415 kilometres (258 mi) from New Delhi and 99 kilometres (62 mi) south of Gwalior.
The original walled city grew around its stone fort which crowns a neighbouring rock. The ancient name of the city was Balwantnagar. From 1817 to 1854, Jhansi was the capital of the princely state of Jhansi which was ruled by Maratha rajas. The state was annexed by the British Governor General in 1854; Damodar Rao's claim to the throne was rejected but Rani Lakshmibai ruled it from June 1857 to June 1858.
Jhansi is well connected to all other major towns in Uttar Pradesh by road and railway networks. The National Highways Development Project has supported development of Jhansi. Srinagar to Kanyakumari North-South corridor passes through Jhansi as does the East-West corridor; consequently there has been a sudden rush of infrastructure and real estate development in the city. A greenfield airport development has been planned. On 28 August, 2015 Jhansi was selected among 98 cities for smart city initiative by Government of India.
|Founded by||Raja of Orchha|
|Named for||Orchha Cantonment|
|• Mayor||Ram Teerth Singhal (BJP)|
|• Assistant Superintendent||Dinesh Kumar Singh|
|• Member of Parliament||Uma Bharti (Bhartiya Janta Party)|
|Elevation||285 m (935 ft)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||♂ 0.905 : ♀ 1.000|
|Avg. summer temperature||47 °C (117 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||4.0 °C (39.2 °F)|
According to a legend the Raja of Orchha was sitting on the roof of his palace with his friend, the Raja of Jaitpur, and asked the latter whether he could discern this new fort that he had built on Bangara hill, and he replied that he could see it 'jhainsi' (meaning rather indistinct). This name 'Jhainsi' in course of time became corrupted to 'Jhansi'. It was one of the most strategically situated forts of central India being built on an elevated rock rising out of the plain and commanding the city and the surrounding country.
In the 18th century the town of Jhansi served as the capital of a Maratha province and later the Princely State of Jhansi from 1804 till 1853, when the territory became a part of British India.
|Source: 1871-1891 - The Imperial Gazetteer of India|
1901-1981 - Populstat.info
1991-2011 - Citypopulation.de
According to the 2011 census, Jhansi has a population of 1,998,603, its urban agglomeration a population of 547,638. The literacy rate of Jhansi is 83.02%, higher than the state average of 67.68%. The sex ratio is 890 females for every 1000 males. Jhansi city has 231st rank among the most populated cities of India, according to the 2011 census.
According to the Indian Census of 2001 there were 21,917 people in Jhansi Cantonment, of whom 56% were male and 44% female (men 12,264; women 9,653; children 2,612). The rate of literacy was 80%.
Jhansi is located at 25.4333 N 78.5833 E. It has an average elevation of 284 metres (935 feet). Jhansi lies on the plateau of central India, an area dominated by rocky relief and minerals underneath the soil. The city has a natural slope in the north as it is on the south western border of the vast Tarai plains of Uttar Pradesh and the elevation rises on the south. The land is suitable for species of citrus fruit and crops include wheat, pulses, peas, and oilseeds. The region relies heavily on Monsoon the rains for irrigation purposes. Under an ambitious canal project (the Rajghat canal), the government is constructing a network of canals for irrigation in Jhansi and Lalitpur and some part of Madhya Pradesh. The trade in agricultural products (including grain and oilseeds) is of great economic importance. The city is also a centre of brassware manufacture.
Being on a rocky plateau, Jhansi experiences extreme temperatures. Winter begins in October with the retreat of the Southwest Monsoon (Jhansi does not experience any rainfall from the Northeast Monsoon) and peaks in mid-December. The mercury generally reads about 4 degrees minimum and 21 degrees maximum. Spring arrives by the end of February and is a short-lived phase of transition. Summer begins by April and summer temperatures can peak at 47 degrees in May. The rainy season starts by the third week of June (although this is variable year to year). Monsoon rains gradually weaken in September and the season ends by the last week of September. In the rainy season, the average daily high temperature hovers around 36 degrees Celsius with high humidity. The average rainfall for the city is about 900 mm per year, occurring almost entirely within the three-and-a-half months of the Southwest Monsoon. In summer Jhansi experiences temperatures as high as 45-47 degrees and in winter the temperatures fall as low as 0-1 degrees (recorded in winter 2011).
|Climate data for Jhansi (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.8
|Average high °C (°F)||23.3
|Average low °C (°F)||7.4
|Record low °C (°F)||1.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||9.2
|Average rainy days||0.9||1.0||0.7||0.5||1.3||4.9||12.3||13.1||7.0||1.6||0.5||0.5||44.2|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
The early 17th century fort was made by Raja Bir Singh on top of a hill known as Bangara as an army stronghold. The Karak Bijli cannon is in the fort. There is a museum nearby which has a collection of sculpture and provides an insight into the history of Bundelkhand. Extending over 15 acres, this fort is a great example of the north Indian style of architecture.
In the Government Museum there are collections of weapons, statues, dresses and photographs that represent the Chandela dynasty and a picture gallery of the Gupta period. There are also terracottas, bronzes, manuscripts, paintings and coins. The Government Museum specifically keep the belonging of the Rani of Jhansi, for example: her sword, armour and utensils. The museum is closed on Mondays and the second Saturday of every month.
The Rani Mahal was the palace of Rani Lakshmi Bai and has now been converted into a museum. It houses a collection of archaeological remains of the period between the 9th and 12th centuries AD.
This is most popular jain Mandir. Shri Karguvanji Atishaya Kshetra is only 5 km ahead from Jhansi city opposite Gate No. 2 of Medical Collage in the beautiful valley of Karguvan Village on Jhansi–Kanpur Road, Kshetra is about 700 years old. Here 6 idols of Black Stone are installed in a basement, which is situated in the midst 9 acres of land surrounded by a rampart. 200 years ago, at the time of Peshavas, Jhansi was famous as Balvant Nagar. One day a person was carrying broken idols in a bullock cart to drop idols in water, stopped here. After trying again & again the cart did not move ahead. In the same day night a famous man of Balvant Nager, Shri Singhai Nanheju saw dream and came to know that at a place where cart stayed. There were various idols hidden underground. In the next morning Shri Nanheju informed to king about dream of night, after discussion digging at that place was decided and thus the ancient idols were recovered under the basement. The King donated 9 acres of land for temple there, at which rampart & well constructed and a beautiful garden was developed. Here six ancient idols of V.S. 1345 are installed and a big idol of Lord Mahaveer was also installed by Shri Nanheju with organizing Panch Kalyanaka Pratishtha Mahotsava.
Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical college Hospital Jhansi, established in 1968, is named after the "Jhansi ki Rani" Maha Rani Laxmi Bai. The college admits 100 students each year for medical course and nearly 54 post-graduate students in various specialties.
The city is well connected to other parts of India by railways and major highways.
Jhansi Junction has its own Division of the Indian North Central Railways. It is well connected by train services to all parts of the country, including four metropolitan cities. There are direct trains to Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Guwahati, Visakhapatnam, Nagpur, Agra, Gwalior, Trivandrum, Indore, Ahmedabad, Udaipur, Pune, Jammu and Kashmir, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Mahoba, Khajuraho, Gaya, Jalgaon, Bhusaval, Jabalpur, Kanpur, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Bandra and other major towns. A list of all train services passing through Jhansi Junction can be found here.
Jhansi Junction is a major railway junction of Indian Railways: a major intercity hub and a technical stoppage for many superfast trains in India. Jhansi has its own division in the North Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. It lies on the main Delhi-Chennai and Delhi-Mumbai lines. The station code is JHS.
The railway station was built by the British in the late 1880s. After a long survey of three places the current site was selected for the station. The station has a massive fort-like building painted in maroon and off white.
The station had three platforms in the beginning. Platform One is 2,525 feet (770 m) long making it the seventh longest in the world so could easily handle two trains at a time. Platforms two and three are also long enoungh to do this. The first Shatabdi Express of India started between New Delhi and Jhansi. Earlier Jhansi used to be a part of Central railways zone headquartered at Mumbai but now comes under NCR headquartered at Allahabad.
Jhansi Junction is linked with many industrial and important cities of India by direct trains like Gwalior, New Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Chennai, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Jammu and Kashmir, Agra, Bhubaneshwar, and Ahmedabad.
Jhansi Junction is served by four broad gauge routes:
Jhansi Junction has seven platforms and four broad over-bridges. Due to heavy usage, two new platforms are planned, increasing the total to 11. Five pairs of the Rajdhani Express as well as the Bhopal — New Delhi Shatabdi Express pass through Jhansi.Three pairs of Duronto Express also have their technical stoppages at Jhansi. All state Sampark Krantis passing through Jhansi have official stops at Jhansi. In all more than 150 trains stop at Jhansi Junction everyday.
Jhansi is located at the junction of these National Highways: National Highway 27 (India) from Gujarat to Assam; National Highway 44 (India) from Jammu to Kanyakumari; and National Highway 39 (India). Thus, Jhansi commands a strategic position in the roadways network as highways in five different directions diverge from it.
The north-south and east-west corridors pass and cross each other only in Jhansi and the city is also well connected to Kanpur, Lucknow and Madhya Pradesh by road. The four lane national highway is at the last stage of its completion, giving a boom in infrastructure and other sectors in Jhansi and nearby areas;
Jhansi Airport is a military aviation base built in the British era used by the Indian army and political visitors. Though there are provisions for private aircraft to land, there are no civil aviation operations. There had been a demand to make it operational for commercial purposes in the 1990s and again in the 2000s. The Uttar Pradesh government announced the construction of an all new civil aviation base to support tourism in Bundelkhand in April 2011. The Indian army maintains an objection to extension of the military aviation. So, the government has examined three different places other than army aviation base for the airport in Jhansi. Gwalior Airport is the nearest airport from Jhansi.
The Jhansi Cantonment was the site of the accommodation for British civil and military personnel in the period of British rule in India.
Many national and local newspapers are published in Jhansi in Hindi, Urdu and English:
|Daily Aziz E Hindustan||Urdu|
|Dainik Royal Mail||Hindi|
|Dainik Vishwa Pariwar||Hindi|
|Jan Jan Jagran||Hindi|
|Jan Seva Mail||Hindi|
Jhansi has three radio stations: Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM, 92.7 BIG FM, 103.0 AIR FM and 91.1 Red FM.
Jhansi currently has three cinema halls which are operating; the rest are under construction.
Sports stadiums in Jhansi are Dhyanchand Stadium, Railway Stadium, and LVM Sports Place.
Two novels by John Masters are set in the fictional town of Bhowani. According to the author, writing in the glossary to the earlier novel, Nightrunners of Bengal, Bhowani is an "imaginary town. To get a geographical bearing on the story it should be imagined to be about where Jhansi really is - 25.27 N., 78.33 E." Nightrunners of Bengal is set during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 at "Bhowani" (the title alludes to the mysterious distribution of "chapatis" to village headmen which preceded the revolt). Bhowani Junction is set in 1946/47 the eve of independence. In each novel the main character is a British army officer named Colonel Rodney Savage, one of a succession of such men from the same family.
Christina Rossetti wrote a short poem about the fate of the Skene family at Jhansi during the Indian Mutiny. It is entitled "In the Round Tower at Jhansi - 8 June 1857". It was published in 1862 in the same volume as her more celebrated poem "Goblin Market". Some time afterwards, Rossetti discovered that she had been misinformed about the husband and wife's suicide pact in the face of a murderous and implacable enemy ('The swarming howling wretches below' the tower walls) which is the poem's subject, but did not delete it from later editions.