A Jewish quota was a racial quota limiting the number of Jews in various establishments to a certain percentage. In particular, in the 19th and 20th centuries, some countries had Jewish quotas in higher education.
Jewish educational quotas could be statewide law or adopted only in certain institutions, often unofficially. The limitation took the form of total prohibition of Jewish students, or of limiting the number of Jewish students so that their share in the students' population would not be larger than their share in the general population. In some establishments, the Jewish quota placed a limit on growth rather than set a fixed level of participation to be achieved.
Jews who wanted an education used various ways to overcome this discrimination: bribing the authorities, changing their religion, or traveling to countries without such limitations. In Hungary, for example, 5,000 Jewish youngsters (including Edward Teller) left the country after the introduction of numerus clausus.
Afrophobia is a perceived fear of the cultures and peoples of Africa, as well as the African diaspora.Anti-Malay sentiment
Anti-Malay sentiment refers to hostility or hatred that is directed toward Malays or the state of Malaysia.Anti-Thai sentiment
Anti-Thai sentiment involves hostility or hatred that is directed towards Thai people, or the state of Thailand.Antisemitism (authors)
This is a list of authors in the field of antisemitism in alphabetical order.Aporophobia
Aporophobia (from the Spanish aporofobia, and this from the Ancient Greek άπορος (á-poros), without resources, indigent, poor, and φόβος (phobos), fear) is fear of poverty and of poor people. It is the disgust and hostility towards poor people, without resources or helpless.The concept of aporophobia was coined in the 1990s by the philosopher Adela Cortina, professor of Ethics and Political Philosophy at the University of Valencia, to differentiate this attitude from xenophobia, which only refers to the rejection of foreigners, and racism, which is discrimination by ethnic groups. The difference between aporophobia and xenophobia or racism is that socially there is no discrimination or marginalization of immigrants or members of other ethnic groups when these people have assets, economic resources and/or social and media relevance.
The aporophobia consists, therefore, in a feeling of fear and in an attitude of rejection of the poor, the lack of means, the helpless. Such feeling and such attitude are acquired.Disabilities (Catholics)
Disabilities were legal restrictions and limitations placed on the Roman Catholics of England since the issuance of the Act of Supremacy in 1534. These disabilities were first sanctioned by the Penal Laws, enacted under the reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. They were followed by the Clarendon Code (1661–65) and the Test Act (1673).
In spite of the promulgation of the Toleration Act (1689), that removed many civil disabilities, the Catholics still had to face limitations in respect of property rights, succession rights and education. Catholics also still had no right to assemble and pray. The oath of abjuration required, swearing against the legitimacy of the Jacobite succession, was also counted as a disability, and remained in place until 1829.Eliminationism
Eliminationism is the belief that one's political opponents are, in the words of Oklahoma City University School of Law professor Phyllis E. Bernard, "a cancer on the body politic that must be excised—either by separation from the public at large, through censorship or by outright extermination—in order to protect the purity of the nation".Ethnic penalty
Ethnic penalty in sociology is defined as the economic and non-economic disadvantages that ethnic minorities experience in the labour market compared to other ethnic groups. As an area of study among behavioral economists, psychologists, and sociologists, it ranges beyond discrimination to take non-cognitive factors into consideration for explaining unwarranted differences between individuals of similar abilities but differing ethnicities.Gerontophobia
Gerontophobia is the fear of growing old, or a hatred or fear of the elderly. The term comes from the Greek γέρων – gerōn, "old man" and φόβος – phobos, "fear".Judensau
A Judensau (German for "Jews' sow"), is a folk art image of Jews in obscene contact with a large sow (female pig), which in Judaism is an unclean animal, that appeared during the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries; its popularity lasted for over 600 years. In Nazi Germany, classes of German schoolchildren were sent to see the Judensau on German churches and the term remains extant as a neo-Nazi insult.La France juive
La France juive ("Jewish France"), subtitled Essay on Contemporary History, was an antisemitic tract published by Édouard Drumont in 1886.Lesbophobia
Lesbophobia (sometimes lesbiphobia) comprises various forms of negativity towards lesbians as individuals, as couples, or as a social group. Based on the categories of sex, sexual orientation, lesbian identity, and gender expression, this negativity encompasses prejudice, discrimination, and abuse, in addition to attitudes and feelings ranging from disdain to hostility. As such, lesbophobia is sexism against women that intersects with homophobia and vice versa.Lusophobia
Anti-Portuguese sentiment (or Lusophobia) is a hostility toward Portugal, the Portuguese people or the Portuguese language and culture.National Liberal Party-Brătianu
The National Liberal Party-Brătianu (Romanian: Partidul Național Liberal-Brătianu, PNL; also known as Georgiști - "Georgists", from the name of their leader, Gheorghe I. Brătianu) was a right-wing political party in Romania, formed as a splinter group from the main liberal faction, the National Liberals. For its symbol, PNL-Brătianu chose three vertical bars, placed at equal distance from each other. The Georgists' official voice was Mișcarea, a journal that supported an eponymous publishing house; notably, Mișcarea published art chronicles contributed by the writer Tudor Arghezi.The National Liberal Party-Brătianu was active between June 15, 1930 and January 10, 1938. Notable members of the group, other than its founder Brătianu, included the historians Ștefan Ciobanu, Constantin C. Giurescu, Scarlat Lambrino, Constantin S. Nicolăescu-Plopşor, Petre P. Panaitescu, Victor Papacostea, and Aurelian Sacerdoţeanu, the geographer Simion Mehedinți, the novelist Mihail Sadoveanu, the actor and poet Mihail Codreanu, the linguist Alexandru Rosetti, the jurist Paul Negulescu, the Romanian Army general Artur Văitoianu, and the lawyer Mihai Antonescu; it was primarily intellectual in appeal, and was especially involved in recruiting members of social and cultural elites, whom it placed at the top of its political hierarchy.Unlike the main PNL's program of protectionism and selective interventionism, Gheorghe I. Brătianu's party advocated economic liberalism. It fused these ideals with nationalist demands, including, in reference to belonging to the many businesses owned by ethnic minority businessmen, the Romanianization of industry. However, as the Great Depression began to affect Romania, it recommended a government monopoly over the financial market; Its nationalist discourse was itself tempered from inside the group: while welcoming minorities inside its structures, it condemned the far right and anti-Semitic doctrines (including, notably, the Jewish quota proposed by Romanian Front and the National Christian Party).Persecution of autistic people
Autistic people have been subjected to discrimination and persecution.Racial quota
Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. Racial quotas are often established as means of diminishing racial discrimination, addressing under-representation and evident racism against those racial groups or, the opposite, against the disadvantaged majority group (see numerus clausus or bhumiputra systems).
It has been argued that such quotas are a form of racial discrimination.
These quotas may be determined by governmental authority and backed by governmental sanctions. When the total number of jobs or enrollment slots is fixed, this proportion may get translated to a specific number.Sexual orientation discrimination
Sexual orientation discrimination (also often referred to as sexualism) is discrimination based on sexual orientation and/or sexual behaviour.Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism
The Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (Swedish: Svenska Kommittén Mot Antisemitism, SKMA) is a Sweden-based non-profit organization, founded in 1983, that works to counteract and spread knowledge about antisemitism. The organization claims political and religious independence.Universities and antisemitism
Universities in many countries have been the site of antisemitic policies and practices at different times in their history. Several universities have restricted the admission of Jewish students, as well as the hiring and retention of Jewish faculty. In some instances, universities have supported antisemitic government policies and condoned the development of an antisemitic culture on campus. In most democratic countries, officially sanctioned university antisemitism was phased out in the years after World War II.
In recent years, accusations of antisemitism have sometimes been made in relation to the activities of pro-Palestinian organizations on university campuses. These accusations are controversial and have almost always been rejected by the organizations in question.