Jeune Nation

Jeune Nation was a French nationalist movement founded by Albert Heuclin, and with members including Jean Marot, Jacques Wagner and the brothers Sidos, François Sidos (president of the movement), Jacques Sidos and Pierre Sidos (secretary general and later president).

Celtic-style crossed circle
The Celtic Cross, emblem of Jeune Nation, later re-used by far right movements such as Ordre Nouveau

History

In order to underline the credentials of the new movement Sidos chose the Celtic Cross, emblem of the historical French Popular Party and also according a legend about use by Charlemagne SS Waffen Division.[1] The emblem of Jeune Nation was the Celtic cross, a "symbol of universal life", and an element of Christian imagery.

4th Republic

On the 22 October 1949, the movement was present for the first time at the siege of the Napoleonic area in rue du Cirque. On the 28 March 1950, it was officially declared to the Prefecture of Police.[2] The group, which declared itself openly to be neo-fascist, attracted support from far right students as it explicitly rejected the nostalgic Petainisme that defined the far right in France in the immediate post-war era.[3]

Algerian War

It was dissolved in 1958 during the Algerian War after a series of violent episodes.[3] After its dissolution, it announced its merger with the OAS, with a joint name of the Nationalist Party and the same emblem.

May 1968

The legitimate heir of the Jeune Nation movement is Œuvre française, created by Pierre Sidos during the events of May 1968.

Today

Jeune Nation still exists, as an Internet site. After the dissolution of Œuvre Française and Jeunesses nationalistes on 24 July 2013, the site became active.[4]

References

  1. ^ R. Eatwell, A History of Fascism, Pimlico, 2000, p. 304
  2. ^ Journal officiel de la République française, n°86, 9 April 1950.
  3. ^ a b Piero Ignazi, Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 89
  4. ^ Yvan Benedetti et Alexandre Gabriac réactivent « Jeune nation », Le Monde blog, 7 August 2013

External links

Algerian War

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (Arabic: الثورة الجزائرية‎ Al-thawra Al-Jazaa'iriyya; Berber languages: Tagrawla Tadzayrit; French: Guerre d'Algérie or Révolution algérienne) was a war between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (French: Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.

Effectively started by members of the National Liberation Front (FLN) on November 1, 1954, during the Toussaint Rouge ("Red All Saints' Day"), the conflict led to serious political crises in France, causing the fall of the Fourth French Republic (1946–58) replaced by the Fifth Republic with a strengthened Presidency. The brutality of the methods employed by the French forces failed to win hearts and minds in Algeria, alienated support in metropolitan France and discredited French prestige abroad.After major demonstrations in Algiers and several other cities in favor of independence (1960) and a United Nations resolution recognizing the right to independence, De Gaulle decided to open a series of negotiations with the FLN. These concluded with the signing of the Évian Accords in March 1962. A referendum took place on 8 April 1962 and the French electorate approved the Évian Accords. The final result was 91% in favor of the ratification of this agreement and on 1 July, the Accords were subject to a second referendum in Algeria, where 99.72% voted for independence and just 0.28% against.The planned French withdrawal led to a state crisis. This included various assassination attempts on de Gaulle as well as some attempts at military coups. Most of the former were carried out by the Organisation armée secrète (OAS), an underground organization formed mainly from French military personnel supporting a French Algeria, which committed a large number of bombings and murders both in Algeria and in the homeland to stop the planned independence.

Upon independence in 1962, 900,000 European-Algerians (Pieds-noirs) fled to France within a few months in fear of the FLN's revenge. The French government was totally unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in France. The majority of Algerian Muslims who had worked for the French were disarmed and left behind as the treaty between French and Algerian authorities declared that no actions could be taken against them. However, the Harkis in particular, having served as auxiliaries with the French army, were regarded as traitors and many were murdered by the FLN or by lynch-mobs, often after being abducted and tortured. About 90,000 managed to flee to France, some with help from their French officers acting against orders, and as of 2016 they and their descendants form a significant part of the Algerian-French population.

Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890

The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.

It contains entries for what the author regards as "the 500 major figures on the radical right, extreme right, and revolutionary right from 1890 to the present" (publisher's blurb).

It was published, as a 418-page hardcover, in New York by Simon & Schuster in 1990 (ISBN 0-13-089301-3).

In the introduction Rees discusses his criterion for inclusion in the book. He describes the extreme right as "opposed to parliamentary forms of democratic representation and hostile to pluralism."(xvii)

Among those it covers are Argentinian nationalists, Mexican sinarquistas, American nativist demagogues, Brazilian Integralists, German National Socialists, Portuguese National Syndicalists, Spanish Falangists, and Belgian Rexists.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

Dimitri Kitsikis

Dimitri Kitsikis (Greek: Δημήτρης Κιτσίκης; born 2 June 1935) is a Greek Turkologist and Sinologist, Professor of International Relations and Geopolitics. He has also published poetry in French and Greek.

Dominique Venner

Dominique Venner (French: [vɛnɛʁ]; 16 April 1935 – 21 May 2013) was a French historian, journalist and essayist. Venner was a member of the Organisation armée secrète and later became a European nationalist before withdrawing from politics to focus on a career as a historian. He specialized in military and political history. At the time of his death, he was the editor of the La Nouvelle Revue d'Histoire, a bimonthly history magazine. On 21 May 2013, Venner committed suicide inside the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris.

François Duprat

François Duprat (1940–1978) was a writer, a founding member of the Front National party and part of the leadership until his assassination in 1978.

François d'Orcival

François d'Orcival is a French conservative intellectual. He is the editor-in-chief of Valeurs Actuelles and sits on the Board of Directors of the publisher Valmonde.

List of far-right political parties

The following is a list of far-right political parties and movements.

Maurice-Yvan Sicard

Maurice-Yvan Sicard (nom de plume Saint-Paulien; born 21 May 1910 in Le Puy-en-Velay - died 10 December 2000) was a French journalist and far right political activist.

Initially a teacher and journalist for such mainstream publications as Spectateur and Germinal Sicard joined the Parti Populaire Français in 1936 and soon took over the editorship of their journal Jeunesses de France. He took over editing duties on their main journal L'Émancipation nationale in 1937 and soon became a leading figure within the party, joining their Politburo in 1938. He also served the PPF as Propaganda Secretary.As a writer Sicard was noted for his highly pro-German and anti-Semitic views and so it was no surprise that he became involved in collaborationism following the Nazi occupation. As well as continuing to edit L'Émancipation nationale for the duration of the occupation he was also appointed national secretary for press and propaganda for the Vichy regime in 1942. He also served on the central committee of Philippe Pétain's Rassemblement pour la Révolution nationale and was a member of the Comité d’action antibolchévique.As well as in government Sicard's standing within the PPF also grew as the war went on. He was part of the directorate that ran the party during Jacques Doriot's service with the Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism. In this role he demonstrated a rare instance of non-collaboration in December 1943 when, by then the effective leader of the PPF, he boycotted a German-organised rally for Marcel Déat's attempt at creating an umbrella movement in the National Revolutionary Front.Nevertheless, in September 1944 Sicard was one of a number of French collaborators who went into exile in Germany, although unlike supporters of the former Vichy regime housed at Sigmaringen, the PPF was based at Mainau. Following the war he went into exile in Madrid. Sentenced to prison in absentia he was amnestied and returned to France to write under his Saint-Paulien alter ego. Arguing in defence of the collaborators, his work appeared in the likes of Minute, Ecrits de Paris, Rivarol, Arriba and Dominique Venner's Europe-Action. He also became an active supporter of Jeune Nation.

Maurice Rollet

Maurice Rollet (30 January 1933–21 January 2014) was a French poet, activist and medical doctor. He sometimes used the pseudonym François Le Cap.

Neo-Nazism

Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism. Neo-Nazis seek to employ their ideology to promote hatred and attack minorities, or in some cases to create a fascist political state. It is a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries and international networks. It borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, racism, xenophobia, ableism, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, antisemitism, anti-communism and initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler.

In some European and Latin American countries, laws prohibit the expression of pro-Nazi, racist, anti-Semitic, or homophobic views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries (especially Germany) in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism.

Nouvelle Droite

Nouvelle Droite (English: "New Right"), sometimes shortened to the initialism "ND", is a far-right political movement that emerged in France during the late 1960s. The movement has links to older fascist groups and some political scientists regard it as a form of fascism, although this characterisation is rejected by many of the ND's adherents.

The Nouvelle Droite began with the formation of Groupement de recherche et d'études pour la civilisation européenne (GRECE; Research and Study Group for European Civilization), a group guided largely by the philosopher Alain de Benoist, in Nice in 1968. De Benoist and other early members of the group had a long experience in far right groups, and the movement would be influenced by older rightist currents of thought like the German conservative revolutionary movement. Although rejecting their ideas of human equality and building a socialist society, the Nouvelle Droite was also heavily influenced by the tactics of the New Left and forms of Marxism, in particular the ideas of the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci, with ND members describing themselves as "Gramscians of the Right". The ND achieved a level of mainstream respectability in France during the 1970s, although this later declined following sustained liberal and leftist opposition. ND members joined a number of political parties, becoming a particularly strong influence within the French National Front, while ND ideas also influenced far-right groups in other parts of Europe. In the 21st century, the ND has influenced far-right groups such as the identitarian movement and forms of national-anarchism.

The ND opposes multiculturalism and the mixing of different cultures within a single society. It opposes liberal democracy and capitalism and promotes localised forms of what it terms "organic democracy", with the intent of taking away the control of oligarchy. It pushes for an "archeofuturistic" or a type of non-reactionary "revolutionary conservative" method to the reinvigoration of the European identity and culture, while encouraging the preservation of certain regions where Europeans and descendents of Europeans may reside. Concurrently, it attempts to sustain the protection of the variance of ethnicities and identities around the globe, defending the right of each group of peoples to keep their own lands and regions to occupy. To achieve its goals, the ND promotes what it calls "metapolitics", seeking to influence and shift European culture in ways sympathetic to its cause over a lengthy period of time rather than by actively campaigning for office through political parties.

Pierre-Antoine Cousteau

Pierre-Antoine Cousteau (18 March 1906 – 17 December 1958) was a French far right polemicist and journalist. He was the brother of the famous explorer Jacques-Yves Cousteau.

Pierre Sidos

Pierre Sidos (born 6 January 1927 in Saint-Pierre-d'Oléron) was a French far right political figure, mainly active in the post-war era. He achieved his widest prominence as leader of Jeune Nation although he walso involved in several other movements.

René Binet (neo-Fascist)

René Valentin Binet (16 October 1913 in Darnétal, Seine-Maritime – 16 October 1957 in Pontoise) was a French militant political activist who was linked to both Trotskyism and fascism.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.