Jerzy Włodzimierz Świrski (5 April 1882, Kalisz – 12 June 1959, London) was a Polish vice admiral and officer in the Russian Imperial Navy and later the Polish Navy. As Chief of the Polish Naval Command (1925-1947), he was a member of an elite group of high ranking Polish naval officers from foreign navies who became founder members of the re-established naval forces of the newly independent Poland after World War I. During World War II, Polish naval forces under his command, were embedded with the Royal Navy and contributed significantly to the success of Britain's maritime war effort. He notably fell out with Poland's war time Prime Minister-in-exile, General Sikorski, but was backed by the British and survived in post. He was appointed an Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath.
Jerzy Włodzimierz Świrski
Jerzy Świrski, head of the Polish Navy circa 1943
|Born||5 April 1882|
|Died||12 June 1959 (aged 77)|
|Allegiance|| Russian Empire up to 1918, |
|Service/|| Polish Navy|
Polish Marines under Royal Navy
|Years of service||1902–1947|
|Commands held||Chief Navigation Officer Black Sea Fleet (Imperial Russian Navy)|
Chief of Naval operations (Ukrainian People's Republic)
Rear admiral (Polish fleet)
Chief of the Directorate of the Polish Navy
Vice admiral Polish Naval Forces
|Battles/wars||Russian Revolution, World War I, World War II|
|Awards||Companion of the Order of the Bath|
Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta
Gold Cross of Merit
Order of Saint Stanislaus (Poland)
Order of the Cross of Liberty (Finland)
Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour (France)
Order of St. Vladimir (Russian Empire)
Order of St. Anna (Russian Empire)
Order of the Sword (Sweden)
Ordre du Mérite maritime (France)
He was born into a military family on 5 April 1882 in Kalisz, in the Russian Partition of Poland. His father, a graduate of the Moscow Cadet Corps, was an officer in the Imperial Russian Army. Świrski attended the Marine Cadet Corps School in St Petersburg from 1889 to 1902. He completed the course for Navigation officers.
As a commissioned officer in 1902, he joined the Russian Imperial Navy in the rank of Midshipman. Initially he was Watch officer and junior navigation officer on board the Cruiser, Askold. From 1905 he served in the Black Sea Fleet, as watch officer on the destroyer, Rostislav, on the Bug-type minelayer Dunay and on the frigate, Donetz. He was later engaged in mine laying operations and as navigation officer on the cruiser, Pamiat Merkuria. During 1908 he was briefly training officer on board the mine layer, Kronstadt. Between 1909 and 1911 he returned to the Pamiat Merkuria as its navigation officer and also on the Jevstatije. Subsequently he served as navigation officer of the Russian Torpedo Division and commander of the torpedo boat, Stremitielnyi. In 1912 he advanced to navigational Flag officer of the Brigade of Naval Destroyers. From 1914 he was a member of the Training Commission for the Black Sea Fleet.
Throughout World War I he was the navigation officer of the Black Sea Fleet, rising in 1917 to the rank of Captain, then naval commander. In 1918 he was nominated Chief of Naval Operations and Minister of Naval Affairs of the Ukrainian People's Republic. That same year he was promoted to Rear admiral of the Ukrainian Hetmanate. Before the end of hostilities, in December 1917, he had made contact with Polish organisations. He became an active member of the 'Polish House' in Sevastopol. After the fall of the Ukrainian People's Republic, he left for Poland, where he joined the League for the Renewal of the Polish Navy, and later went to France where he was active in the National Committee for Poland.
In 1919 he joined the Polish Army and was integrated into the Department for Maritime Affairs in Warsaw, becoming head of the Organisational Section. In July 1920 he was deputy to the chief of the Department for Maritime Affairs and was acting chief between 6 August to 5 September 1920. From September 1920 he was commander of the Coastal Force, Wybrzeże Morskie, based in Puck. In January 1921 he was confirmed in the rank of colonel of the navy and in April became a member of the Marine Corps. In February 1921 he advanced to the rank of Commander. In May 1922 he was confirmed in the rank with retrospective recognition of seniority dating from June 1919 within the Marine Corps. On 24 November 1922 the Polish Premier and the Chief of staff confirmed his status, as of 1 January 1922, as Head of the Fleet, based in Puck. In August 1924 he moved with the Fleet Command to Grabówek, Gdynia.
In May 1925 the President of Poland, Stanisław Wojciechowski released him from the Fleet Command and appointed him as chief of Marine Operations in Warsaw. In 1931 he was promoted to the rank of Rear admiral. On behalf of the Polish Treasury, he signed contracts for the procurement of naval Destroyer, Submarines and in 1938 for the Minelayer, ORP "Gryf".
On 5 September 1939 Świrski and his staff left Warsaw for Pińsk, but due to heavy bombing they diverted to the border at Kuty and crossed into Romania, arriving in Paris on 6 October. He reported to General Sikorski and presented him with a strategy for the deployment of the Polish Marines. These included the continuation of the Polish Navy as a political and naval force, including the merchant fleet, collecting personnel, organizing military transport in France and consolidating resources. Having become Chief of the Directorate of the Polish Navy in October 1939, in December Sikorski recognized the role played by the Polish Navy in the war and ordered that naval matters be concentrated under the command of its chief, Jerzy Świrski. This meant that for the first time, the Polish Navy became independent of the Army. In 1940 after the fall of France, the Polish Ministry of Military Affairs, evacuated to the United Kingdom which became the war time base of the Polish Government in Exile.
On 18 November 1939 the British and Polish governments had signed an Anglo-Polish naval agreement and protocol laying out how their forces would co-operate. Swirki was a co-signatory of the Anglo-Polish military alliance, alongside Chief of Staff, Lieutenant General Władysław Sikorski and Ambassador Edward Bernard Raczyński. In outline Polish vessels would operate embedded within the Royal Navy, but under their own command. A note dated 6 June 1940 stated that:
"A detachment of the Polish Navy, consisting at present of three destroyers, two submarines and a depot ship, is operating in conjunction with the Royal Navy. The depot ship ORP Gdynia is stationed at Plymouth; two of the destoyers, ORP Błyskawica and Burza form part of the 1st Destroyer Flotilla and the third ORP Garland will shortly join the Mediterranean, and the two submarines, ORP Orzeł and Wilk form part of the 2nd submarine Flotilla."
Unlike the Polish army and air-force, which were largely decimated in the attack on Poland and the survivors thrown into the battle for France in 1940 to suffer further heavy casualties, the Polish Navy, initially had no shortage of manpower. Three destroyers, two submarines and two training ships, all fully manned, reached the UK. In addition Polish merchantmen contained reservists and other seamen who could be conscripted. The training ships included officer instructors and young officer cadets. In all some 800 officers and other ranks commenced naval service based in the UK.
When in 1940 the naval command, under Jerzy Świrski transferred from Paris to London, two administrative divisions were created: The North Command based in Greenock and the South Command based in Devonport. Later, the Mediterranean Command was formed after Polish naval forces had expanded to over 3,000. In 1941, shortly after his promotion to Vice admiral, differences emerged between Świrski and Sikorski who had decided to stand him down. As a result, both Świrski and his deputy, Commander Karol Korytowski were to lose their posts. The reason for the dismissals was their management and procurement style in the Marines and especially Świrski's tendency towards independent thinking. The pretext was ostensibly the death by suicide of the commander of the submarine, ORP Wilk and the submarine flotilla leader, Lieutenant Commander Bogusław Krawczyk, who opposed the admiral's management priorities.
Commander Tadeusz Morgenstern-Podjazd was called in to replace Świrski, but in the event, Świrski remained in post and Morgenstern was confirmed as his deputy. The reason was the British Admiralty could not see anyone competent enough to replace him. Świrski's loyalty towards the Allies of World War II was to earn him the Order of the Bath. In October 1942 Morgenstern resigned and Korytowski resumed his previous role.
Following Sikorski's dramatic death in an air accident off Gibraltar in July 1943, Świrski continued in his earlier role.
After the war Świrski did not return to Poland and remained in exile. He was regarded as a distinguished leader of men and as a brilliant strategist. In the history of Polish naval forces he is rated as an exceptional officer and educationalist of the younger officer corps. Among his signal achievements was his three-pronged plan to ensure the sustainability of the Polish Marines as a defence force: 1. A strategy for the establishment of an effective maritime force (1925 ), 2. The concept of Polish Marines closely shadowing and cooperating with the Royal Navy (1939) 3. Preparing the Marines for post-war effectiveness (1943). He died in June 1959 in London and is buried there in Brompton Cemetery.
A memorial plaque in his honour was unveiled in St Michael Archangel church at Oksywie, Gdynia in 1983. A similar plaque was unveiled in the Polish Naval Cemetery in Gdynia to mark the 80th anniversary of the formation of the Polish Marines.
Józef Unrug (German: Joseph von Unruh; 7 October 1884 – 28 February 1973) was a Polish admiral who helped reestablish Poland's navy after World War I. During the opening stages of World War II, he served as the Polish Navy's commander-in-chief. As a German POW, he refused all German offers to change sides and was incarcerated in several Oflags, including Colditz Castle. He stayed in exile after the war in the United Kingdom, Morocco and France where he died and was buried. In September 2018 he was posthumously promoted in the rank of Admiral of the fleet by the President of Poland. After 45 years his remains, along with those of his wife Zofia, were exhumed from Montrésor and taken in October 2018 to his final resting place in Gdynia, Poland.Kalisz
Kalisz ([ˈkalʲiʂ] (listen); Ancient Greek: Καλισία, Latin: Calisia, Yiddish: קאַליש, German: Kalisch) is a city in central Poland with 100,975 inhabitants (December 2018) making it the second-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship. It is the capital city of the Kalisz Region. Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce.
Kalisz is an important regional industrial and commercial centre with many notable factories. The city is also a centre for traditional folk art. The town was also the site of the former 'Calisia' piano factory, until it went out of business in 2007.List of Polish admirals
The following is a list of Polish officers holding the rank of admiral, as well as generals serving in the Polish Navy. It is to be noted that prior to 1918 the term admirał (and, consistently, wiceadmirał and kontradmirał) referred to a function held in the navy rather than a military rank as such.List of Polish people
This is a partial list of notable Polish or Polish-speaking or -writing persons. Persons of partial Polish heritage have their respective ancestries credited.Ludomił Rayski
Ludomił Antoni Rayski (December 29, 1892 – April 11, 1977) was a Polish engineer, pilot, military officer and aviator. He served as the commander of the Polish Air Force between 1926 and 1939, being responsible for modernization of Polish military aviation. Throughout his life he also served in the Austro-Hungarian Army, Polish Legions, Turkish Army, Turkish Air Force, French Air Force, French Foreign Legion and Royal Air Force. He was also known as one of the most colourful personalities of inter-war Poland - and one of its least submissive officers.Navy of the Ukrainian People's Republic
Navy of the Ukrainian People's Republic was a marine military force of the Ukrainian People's Republic that was based on a free will of Imperial Russia sailors to pledge allegiance to Ukraine. The force was never fully operational as the country constantly fought for its survival with the neighboring Soviet Russia. Eventually most of the Black Fleet was either sunk by the Bolsheviks or become part of expeditionary force of the White movement on evacuation.ORP Błyskawica
ORP Błyskawica (Lightning) is a Grom-class destroyer which served in the Polish Navy during World War II. It is the only Polish Navy ship to have been decorated with the Virtuti Militari, Poland's highest military order for gallantry, and in 2012 was given the Pro Memoria Medal. Błyskawica is preserved as a museum ship in Gdynia and is the oldest preserved destroyer in the world.
She was the second of two Grom (Thunderbolt)-class destroyers built for the Polish Navy by J. Samuel White, of Cowes, in 1935–37. The Grom class were two of the most heavily armed and fastest destroyers in World War II.Order of the Cross of Liberty
The Order of the Cross of Liberty (Finnish: Vapaudenristin ritarikunta; Swedish: Frihetskorsets orden) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the White Rose of Finland and the Order of the Lion of Finland. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of the two orders, and usually of the Order of the Cross of Liberty as well, Grand Mastership of which is attached to the position of Commander-in-chief. In 1944, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (1867–1951) was designated as Grand Master for life. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members. The orders of the White Rose of Finland and the Lion of Finland have a joint board.
The Order of the Cross of Liberty was founded on March 4, 1918, upon the initiative of General C. G. E. Mannerheim. The Finnish artist Akseli Gallen-Kallela was commissioned to design the Order's insignia with the swastika.
At its foundation there were seven classes: grand cross, cross of liberty (1st to 4th class) and the medal of liberty (1st and 2nd class). The decorations of the Order of the Cross of Liberty were initially conferred only in time of war. A decree was issued on 18 August 1944 enabling the decorations to be awarded in peacetime.
The Cross of Liberty has a red ribbon when it is granted in wartime and a yellow ribbon when it is awarded in peacetime.
Decorations of the order were awarded in great numbers during the World War II, partly due to Marshal Mannerheim having issued an order that wounded soldiers were to be awarded for their sacrifice, and Finland has no separate decoration for wounded. The Cross of Liberty is usually reserved for commissioned officers, with the Medal of Liberty being awarded for soldiers of junior rank and NCOs.Polish Naval Academy
The Polish Naval Academy (PNA) "Heroes of Westerplatte" is a naval university supervised by the Ministry of National Defence of the Republic of Poland, with the history, uninterrupted by World War II, dating back to 1922. At present the PNA provides education for officer-cadets, commissioned officers and civilian students at first and second cycles of study (undergraduate and graduate), as well as doctoral studies. It also offers opportunities for professional development at specialized courses and postgraduate programs. In accordance with international agreements the PNA trains officers for naval forces of countries in Europe, North Africa, the Middle and Far East. International exchange significantly contributes to the rise in qualifications of the PNA staff. It also allows the students to attend lectures given by best specialists from leading scientific centers of the world.Polish Navy
The Polish Navy (Polish: Marynarka Wojenna, "War Navy") is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations. The Polish Navy consists of 48 ships and about 12,000 commissioned and enlisted personnel. The traditional ship prefix in the Polish Navy is ORP (Okręt Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, "Warship of the Republic of Poland").Polish Navy order of battle in 1939
This article details the Order of Battle of the Polish Navy prior to the outbreak of World War II and the Polish Defensive War of 1939. Following World War I, Poland's shoreline was relatively short and included no major seaports. In the 1920s and 1930s, such ports were built in Gdynia and Hel, and the Polish Navy underwent a modernisation program under the leadership of Counter-Admiral Józef Unrug (Commanding Officer of the Fleet) and Vice-Admiral Jerzy Świrski (Chief of Naval Staff). Ships were acquired from France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, and the navy was to be able to secure the Polish supply lines in case of a war against the Soviet Union. By September 1939 the Polish Navy consisted of 5 submarines, 4 destroyers, and various support vessels and mine-warfare ships.
This force was no match for the large German Navy, and so a strategy of harassment and indirect engagement was implemented. Lacking numerical superiority, Polish naval commanders decided to execute the Peking Plan, an operation to withdraw most of the naval vessels to British ports, from where the ships were to secure convoys with aid for Poland, either bound for Gdynia or for Constanca in Romania.Vice admiral
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies, vice admiral is a three-star rank with a NATO code of OF-8, although in some navies like the French Navy it is an OF-7 rank, the OF-8 code corresponding to the four-star rank of squadron vice-admiral.Świrski
Świrski is a Polish noble family name of two unrelated descents. It is a toponymic surname literally meaning "of Świr", in the case of Świrskis of Lis clan or "of Świrz", in the case of Świrskis of Szaława clan, see Svirzh Castle.
Notable persons with this surname include:
Jerzy Świrski (1882-1959), Polish vice admiral and officer in the Russian Imperial Navy and later the Polish Navy
Peter Swirski (born 1966), Canadian scholar and literary critic