Jervis Bay (/ˈdʒɑːrvɪs/, locally /ˈdʒɜːr-/) is a 102-square-kilometre (39 sq mi) oceanic bay and village on the south coast of New South Wales, Australia, said to possess the whitest sand in the world. It is surrounded by Jervis Bay and Wreck Bay.
A 70-square-kilometre (27 sq mi) area of land around the southern headland of the bay is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia known as the Jervis Bay Territory. The Australian Navy base, HMAS Creswell, is in the Jervis Bay Territory between Jervis Bay Village and Greenpatch Point.
Jervis Bay from orbit
|Location||Jervis Bay Territory; New South Wales|
|Primary outflows||Tasman Sea|
In the Jervis Bay Territory on the southern side of the bay are the settlements of Greenpatch, Hyams Beach, and Bowen Island. From north to south on the New South Wales shore of the bay are Callala Beach, Callala Bay, Huskisson and Vincentia. Beecroft Peninsula, on the northern side of the bay, has been used as a bombing range by the Australian Navy. Point Perpendicular forms the southern end of the peninsula. Jervis Bay is approximately a three-hour drive south of Sydney. A door to door shuttle service is available between Sydney Airport and the South Coast everyday.
Jervis Bay is a drowned river valley and formed 15,000 years ago, at the end of the last ice age. The bay took on its present appearance around 4000 BC after the sea levels had risen 120 metres (390 ft), and as sand dune barriers created the southern peninsula. Much of the rock in Jervis Bay is part of the Sydney Basin sandstone formation, which is 280-225 million years old, although lower areas are overlain with Tertiary-era sediments.
Jervis Bay experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb), with average maximum temperatures varying from 16°C in winter to 25°C in summer tempered by sea breezes. The highest recorded temperature is 42.1°C in January, and the lowest 4.7°C in August.
Hot summer evenings are sometimes relieved by a front of rapidly moving cool air known as a southerly buster.
Rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the seasons, with a bias to the first half of the year, due to prevailing easterlies. Short high intensity rainfall events may happen at any time of the year and can lead to local flooding. Jervis Bay also experiences thunderstorms during the warmer months bringing lightning, heavy rain and occasionally hail.
Yearly rainfall is influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
Some 158 square kilometres (61 sq mi) of the land on both sides of the bay have been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area (IBA) because the coastal heathland supports the largest sub-population of the endangered eastern bristlebird, isolated from other sub-populations.
Jervis Bay has been recorded as having the whitest sand in the world.
In August 1791 Lieutenant Richard Bowen, aboard the convict transport ship Atlantic, part of the Third Fleet, sailed into the bay and named it in honour of Admiral John Jervis, under whom he had served. In November 1791 Master Matthew Weatherhead entered the bay aboard Matilda, which had also been part of the Third Fleet, in order to undertake repairs to the ship.
In mid 1797, survivors of the wreck of Sydney Cove passed through the area on foot, while undertaking an arduous trek of 600 kilometres in an attempt to get to Port Jackson (Sydney) – only three of them completed the journey.
Alexander Berry's takeover of land in the Shoalhaven displaced Aboriginal people who were moved in 1822 to Wreck Bay. Smallpox and syphilis significantly reduced local populations. A separate population of Aborigines, who settlers called 'the Jervis Bay tribe' - the Wandandian people - remained on their traditional lands on the bank of Currambene Creek (near Huskisson) and around St Georges Basin, until well into the C20th.
The land now comprising the Jervis Bay Territory was surrendered by the state of New South Wales to the Commonwealth Government in 1915 to provide a seaport for the new Federal capital under construction at Canberra, which would be Australia's only inland capital.
Jervis Bay is well known for recreational fishing, kayaking, paddleboarding, sailing and scuba diving, with tour operators departing from Huskisson and amateurs using boat ramps at bayside towns and camp sites. Popular diving sites include The Labyrinths, Gorgonian Wall, Point Perpendicular, a submerged Fairey Firefly aeroplane, scallop beds, Middle Ground, Ten Fathom Reef, and Bowen Island.
Jervis Bay is also known for whale watching, because whale migration, both north and south, can be observed as the animals pass the entrance to the bay, frequently entering the sheltered waters to rest. The majority of whales sighted at Jervis Bay are humpbacks, which migrate along Australia's east coast from June to November. Southern right whales are also showing a slow but steady increase in recent years as they re-colonize former habitats, having been extensively hunted in the 19th and 20th centuries. Other species sighted have been false killer whales, orcas, minke whales and, on one occasion, a blue whale.
Tourism in Jervis Bay is one of the most important avenues of income for many of the local residents, with many businesses orienting themselves towards it. The Jervis Bay Visitors Information Centre is at Huskisson, and is part of the Lady Denman Maritime Museum and Gallery. Local Council-managed Visitor Information Centres are at Nowra and Ulladulla.
Beecroft Peninsula is the northern headland of Jervis Bay, on Australia's east coast. On the western and southern sides of the peninsula steep sandstone cliffs rise out of the ocean, up to 91 metres at its southernmost point, Point Perpendicular. White sandy beaches are found along the northern, eastern and southern sides interspersed with numerous intertidal reefs.
The Beecroft Peninsula encompasses an area of about 5250 hectares just south of the town of Currarong, about 200 kilometres south of Sydney.
The historic Point Perpendicular Lighthouse, and its grounds, constructed in 1899 at Point Perpendicular, is the southern tip of the peninsula at the northern entrance to Jervis Bay.
A large part of the Beecroft Peninsula, about 4200 hectares, is under the administration of the Australian Defence Force for use as a live-firing range called the Beecroft Weapon Range. Access to this weapons range is restricted to the public at certain times.Booderee National Park and Botanic Gardens
Booderee National Park and Botanic Gardens are located in the Jervis Bay Territory of Australia. The reserve is composed of two sections:
the Bherwerre Peninsula, on the southern foreshore of Jervis Bay, Bowen Island and the waters of the south of the bay
lands bordered by Wreck Bay to the south, St Georges Basin to the north and Sussex Inlet to the westWhat is now a national park was declared as a nature reserve in 1971. In 1992, Jervis Bay National Park was declared. Although the local Aboriginal community was offered two seats on the park's Board of Management, the offer was declined as part of a protest over land rights issues.
In 1995, the park was transferred to the Wreck Bay Aboriginal community, which leases the area back to the Australian Department of the Environment and Heritage. At this time, the name of the park was changed to "Booderee". The name, meaning 'bay of plenty' or 'plenty of fish' in the Dhurga language, was chosen by the local Aboriginal community.Bream Beach
Bream Beach is suburb in the Shoalhaven local government area, consisting of holiday resort located near the Jervis Bay Territory in Australia.Cape St George Lighthouse
Cape St George Lighthouse was a lighthouse that stood near Jervis Bay Village, Jervis Bay Territory, Australia. It was located about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) south of the southern entrance to Jervis Bay. Constructed in 1860 it was active until 1889. The tower was destroyed between 1917-1922 to avoid confusion in daylight. The ruins remain and are listed on the Commonwealth Heritage List.Convoy HX 84
Convoy HX 84 was the 84th of the numbered series of Allied North Atlantic HX convoys of merchant ships from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Liverpool, England, during the Battle of the Atlantic. Thirty-eight ships escorted by the armed merchant cruiser HMS Jervis Bay departed from Halifax on 28 October 1940, eastbound to Liverpool.On 5 November 1940, the German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer found the convoy at 50°30′N 32°00′W and attacked immediately. Captain E.S.F. Fegen of Jervis Bay attacked the raider so as to delay Admiral Scheer and to allow the convoy to scatter. Jervis Bay was sunk after 20 minutes of fighting with the loss of 190 of her crew. Nevertheless, their sacrifice allowed the convoy to begin to escape. The merchant ship SS Beaverford, armed with only two guns, engaged Admiral Scheer in a cat and mouse gunnery duel that lasted for over four hours before Beaverford was sunk with all hands. This allowed most of the convoy to complete their escape. Admiral Scheer was only able to sink six of the 38 ships in the convoy.
Maiden, Trewellard, Kenbame Head, Beaverford and Fresno were sunk and the tanker San Demetrio damaged, but failing light now allowed the rest of the convoy to escape. San Demetrio was abandoned by her crew, but two days later some of the crew, now in lifeboats, sighted San Demetrio, still afloat and still ablaze. They reboarded her, got the engines running, and brought her in to port. This incident later formed the basis for the script of the film San Demetrio London.HMAS Jervis Bay (AKR 45)
HMAS Jervis Bay (AKR 45) was a wave piercing catamaran that operated in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN).
Built by Incat in Tasmania and launched in 1997 as Incat 045, the ship was chartered to TT-Line as Tascat to supplement cross-Bass Strait services until the company acquired new ships. The catamaran remained laid up until 1999, when she was commissioned into the Royal Australian Navy as a troop and equipment transport, becoming the first large catamaran to enter naval service. Jervis Bay operated in support of the INTERFET peacekeeping taskforce until May 2001, when she was decommissioned and returned to the builder.
In 2002, the ferry was sent to Europe, operating briefly in the Mediterranean before being chartered by Speed Ferries for a cross-English Channel ferry service as HSC SpeedOne. She is now owned by Condor Ferries and is named HSC Condor Rapide.HMAS Jervis Bay (GT 203)
HMAS Jervis Bay (GT 203) was a roll-on/roll-off passenger and vehicle ferry operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) between 1977 and 1994.
The ship was built by the State Dockyard between 1967 and 1969 for service with the Australian National Line, under the name MV Australian Trader. Initially operating on the Melbourne to Devonport run, Australian Trader was reassigned to the Sydney to Tasmania run in 1972. Passenger service on that run ended in 1976, and at the start of 1977, the vessel was purchased by the RAN for use as a training vessel and troop transport, and was renamed HMAS Jervis Bay.
After decommissioning in 1994, the vessel was sold to Voyager Marine, and renamed MS Agios Andreas. After modifications to increase her passenger and vehicle capacity, Agios Andreas commenced ferry services between Greece and Turkey in 1995. In 2003, she was sold to Marwan Shipping and Trading, renamed MS Amjan Leader, and began operations in the Persian Gulf. The ship was renamed MS Amjan City in 2004, but was sold for scrapping later that year.HMS Jervis Bay
HMS Jervis Bay was a British liner later converted into an armed merchant cruiser, pennant F40. She was launched in 1922, and sunk on 5 November 1940 by the German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer.Huskisson, New South Wales
Huskisson is a town in New South Wales, Australia in the City of Shoalhaven, on the shores of Jervis Bay. It is 24 km south-east of Nowra.Hyams Beach, New South Wales
Hyams Beach is a seaside village in the City of Shoalhaven, New South Wales, Australia, on the shores of Jervis Bay. At the 2016 census, it had a population of 112. The village, 180 km south of Sydney, is bordered by two beaches, Chinaman's Beach to the north and Seaman's Beach (sometimes referred to as "Sailors Beach") to the south, with Hyams Beach being in the centre. A seaside resort, its beach is known for having turquoise/aqua-coloured waters and fine, squeaky, brilliantly white sand that's composed of pure quartz. The village is a 3-hour drive from Sydney and can be accessed via Princes Motorway from the Sydney CBD or Hume Motorway from Greater Western Sydney.Jervis Bay Airfield
Jervis Bay Airfield (ICAO: YJBY) is a military aerodrome in the Jervis Bay Territory in Australia. It is the only aerodrome in the territory and is located about 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Sussex Inlet; and about 2 km (1.2 mi) south of Jervis Bay Village and HMAS Creswell.
It was opened in 1941 as a satellite airfield of Royal Australian Air Force Base Nowra (now HMAS Albatross). It was primarily used to support torpedo training by No. 6 Operational Training Unit RAAF and search and rescue operations during World War II. During 1945 it was home to the Royal Navy Mobile Naval Air Base MONAB V (HMS Nabswick) and several Fleet Air Arm squadrons of the British Pacific Fleet.
The airfield was transferred to the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) in 1948. It continued to be used as a base for the RAN's GAF Jindivik pilotless target aircraft. Today the RAN's British Aerospace MQM-107E Kalkara Flight is based at the airfield, along with the RAN School of Ship Survivability and Safety that has fire and damage control (flooding) training facilities.Jervis Bay National Park
Jervis Bay National Park, formerly known as Jervis Bay National Park (NSW), consists of several protected areas on the western and northern foreshores of Jervis Bay, on the south coast of New South Wales. The park is close to the town of Huskisson and includes Hyams Beach, renowned for its white sand, whale watching and fishing opportunities.
Visitor facilities are provided in the Greenfield Beach section of the park, including toilets, showers and walking tracks.
The park was gazetted in 1995 as "Jervis Bay National Park (NSW)" to avoid confusion with nearby Booderee National Park in the Jervis Bay Territory, then known by the same name. Part of Jervis Bay itself is reserved as Jervis Bay Marine Park.
Jervis Bay National Park is 48.57 km² in size and is managed by the New South Wales Department of Environment and Climate Change.Jervis Bay Territory
The Jervis Bay Territory ( or ) is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia. It was surrendered by the state of New South Wales to the Commonwealth Government in 1915 so that the Australian Capital Territory would have access to the sea.It was administered by the Department of the Interior (and later by the Department of the Capital Territory) as if it were part of the Australian Capital Territory, although it has always been a separate Commonwealth territory. The perception that it is part of the ACT stems from the fact that under the terms of the Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act, the laws of the ACT apply to the Jervis Bay Territory.
In 1989, when the ACT achieved self-government, the Department of The Arts, Sport, The Environment, Tourism and Territories took over responsibility for the JBT's administration, and it has since been administered by various Commonwealth Departments responsible to the Minister for Territories.Lake Wollumboola
Lake Wollumboola is a 648 ha coastal lake in the Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia. It lies to the immediate south of the town of Culburra Beach and to the north of Jervis Bay. It forms part of Jervis Bay National Park. The lake is separated from the ocean by a berm about 100 m wide which breaches only when the lake fills to over 2.5 m above mean sea level.Royal Australian Naval College, HMAS Creswell
The Royal Australian Naval College (RANC), HMAS Creswell, commonly known as Creswell, is the naval academy of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) that consists of the RAN School of Survivability and Ship's Safety, Kalkara Flight, the Beecroft Weapons Range and an administrative support department. It is located between Jervis Bay Village and Greenpatch on the shores of Jervis Bay in the Jervis Bay Territory. Since 1915, the RANC has been the initial officer training establishment of the Royal Australian Navy.
The commanding officer of Creswell since January 2019 is Captain Warren Bairstow, RAN, who is also the Superintendent of Naval Waters for Jervis Bay and the lead authority for the conduct and management of Navy's initial entry, leadership and management training around Australia.South Coast (New South Wales)
The South Coast refers to the narrow coastal belt from Sydney in the north to the border with Victoria in the south in the south-eastern part of the State of New South Wales, Australia. It is bordered to the west by the coastal escarpment of the Southern Tablelands, and is largely covered by a series of national parks, namely Jervis Bay National Park, Eurobodalla National Park, and Ben Boyd National Park. To the east is the coastline of the Pacific Ocean, which is characterised by rolling farmlands, small towns and villages along a rocky coastline, interspersed by numerous beaches and lakes.
The South Coast includes Shoalhaven district in the north and the Bega Valley in the more remote south as well as the Eurobodalla Shire and the Commonwealth Jervis Bay Territory which is adjacent to the City of Shoalhaven Local Government Area. Some definitions of the region include the Illawarra,but it is often seen as a separate and distinct region of New South Wales.St Georges Basin (New South Wales)
St Georges Basin is an open intermediate estuary, or inland sea, located in the South Coast region of New South Wales, adjacent to the Jervis Bay Territory.States and territories of Australia
Government in the Commonwealth of Australia is exercised on three levels: federal, states and territories, and local government.
There are six states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania. (Historically, each is a successor to one of the previous Australian colonies.) Each state has its own constitution, with its own legislature (parliament), judiciary and executive. The state parliaments have plenary legislative power, except that some areas of legislative power are exclusive to the federal parliament, many others are exercised concurrently with it and, in case of conflict between federal and state legislation, the federal legislation prevails. A decision of a state judiciary is subject to appeal to a federal court.
There are also ten territories, whose existence and governmental structure (if any) depend on federal legislation. The territories are distinguished for federal administrative purposes between internal territories, i.e. those within the Australian mainland, and external territories, although the differences among all the territories relate to population rather than location.
Two of the three internal territories—the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), which was established to be a neutral site of the federal capital, and the Northern Territory—function almost as states. Each has self-government, through its legislative assembly, but the assembly's legislation can be federally overridden. Each has its own judiciary, with appeal to a federal court. The third internal territory, the Jervis Bay Territory, is the product of Australia's complex relationship with its capital city; rather than having the same level of autonomy as the other internal territories, it has services provided by the ACT.
There are also seven external territories, not part of the Australian mainland or of any state. Three of them have a small permanent population, two have tiny and transient populations, and two are uninhabited. All are directly administered by the federal Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities (or the Department of the Environment and Energy in the case of the Australian Antarctic Territory). Norfolk Island, which is permanently populated, was partially self-governing until 2015.
The term "interstate" is used within Australia to refer to any cross-border events, transactions, or travel.Sussex Inlet, New South Wales
Sussex Inlet is a town in the South Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. The town lies on the west bank of the waterway called Sussex Inlet, which divides New South Wales from the Jervis Bay Territory. The town lies within the City of Shoalhaven.
As at the 2016 census, the population of Sussex Inlet was 3,575.
Climate data for Jervis Bay (Point Perpendicular)
|Record high °C (°F)||42.1
|Average high °C (°F)||24.9
|Average low °C (°F)||18.3
|Record low °C (°F)||13.1
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||95.5
|Average rainy days||11.3||13.3||12.6||14.1||10.4||12.1||10.9||8.8||9.5||11.3||12.6||12.6||139.5|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Jervis Bay Territory, Australia
|Places of interest|