The Jerusalem Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah. Naming this version of the Talmud after the Land of Israel rather than Jerusalem is considered more accurate by some because, while the work was certainly composed in "the West" (as seen from Babylonia), i.e. in the Holy Land, it mainly originates from the Galilee rather than from Jerusalem in Judea, as no Jews lived in Jerusalem at this time. The Jerusalem Talmud was compiled in the Land of Israel, then divided between the Byzantine provinces of Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda, and was brought to an end sometime around 400. The Jerusalem Talmud predates its counterpart, the Babylonian Talmud (known in Hebrew as the Talmud Bavli), by about 200 years, and is written in both Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic.
The word Talmud itself is often defined as "instruction". Both versions of the Talmud comprise two parts, the Mishnah (of which there is only one version), which was finalized by Judah the Prince around the year 200 CE, and either the Babylonian or the Jerusalem Gemara. The Gemara is what differentiates the Jerusalem Talmud from its Babylonian counterpart.
The Jerusalem Gemara contains the written discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel (primarily in the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea), compiled c. 350-400 CE into a series of books.
The Babylonian Gemara, which is the second recension of the Mishnah, was compiled by the scholars of Babylonia (primarily in the Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita), and was completed c. 500. The Babylonian Talmud is often seen as more authoritative and is studied much more than the Jerusalem Talmud. In general, the terms "Gemara" or "Talmud," without further qualification, refer to the Babylonian recension. Additionally, the Babylonian manuscripts were copied and distributed nearly complete through the Middle Ages, while the "Jerusalem" version was rare, and several portions were lost. (See Text editions, below.)
Following the redaction of the Mishnah, many Jewish scholars living in Roman-controlled Syria Palaestina moved to the Sasanian Empire to escape the harsh decrees against Jews enacted by the emperor Hadrian after the Bar Kokhba revolt. The remaining scholars who lived in the Galilee area decided to continue their teaching activity in the learning centers that had existed since Mishnaic times.
The Jerusalem Talmud probably originated in Tiberias in the School of Johanan bar Nappaha. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias, Sepphoris and Caesarea. It is written largely in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic variety that differs from its Babylonian counterpart.
This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah that was developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina (principally those of Tiberias and Caesarea). Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel. Traditionally, the redaction of this Talmud was thought to have been brought to an abrupt end around 425, when Theodosius II suppressed the Nasi and put an end to the practice of semikhah (formal scholarly ordination). It was thought that the compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended and that this is the reason why the Gemara do not comment upon the whole Mishnah.
In recent years scholars have come to doubt the causal link between the abolition of the Nasi and the seeming incompletion of the final redaction. However, as no evidence exists of Amoraim activity in Syria Palaestina after the 370s, it is still considered very likely that the final redaction of the Jerusalem Talmud took place in the late fourth or early fifth century.
According to the Jewish Encyclopedia,
Yerushalmi has not been preserved in its entirety; large portions of it were entirely lost at an early date, while other parts exist only in fragments. The editio princeps (ed. Bomberg, Venice, 1523 et seq.), based on the Leiden manuscript and on which all later editions are based, terminates with the following remark: "Thus far we have found what is contained in this Talmud; and we have endeavored in vain to obtain the missing portions." Of the four manuscripts used for this first edition (comp. the note at the conclusion of Shab. xx. 17d and the passage just cited), only one is now in existence; it is preserved in the library of the University of Leyden (see below). Of the six orders of the Mishnah, the fifth, Ḳodashim, is missing entirely from the Palestinian Talmud, while the sixth, Ṭohorot, contains only the first three chapters of the treatise Niddah (iv. 48d-51b).
The Leiden Jerusalem Talmud (Or. 4720) is today the only extant complete manuscript of the Jerusalem Talmud. It was copied in 1289 by Rabbi Yechiel ben Yekutiel the Physician of Rome and shows elements of a later recension. The additions which are added in the biblical glosses of the Leiden manuscript do not appear in extant fragments of the same Talmudic tractates found in Yemen, additions which are now incorporated in every printed edition of the Jerusalem Talmud. These Yemenite fragments are important as source material (as evidenced below), a consequence of isolation the Yemenite community.
The Leiden manuscript is important in that it preserves some earlier variants to textual readings, such as in Tractate Pesachim 10:3 (70a), which brings down the old Hebrew word for charoseth (the sweet relish eaten at Passover), viz. dūkeh (Hebrew: דוכה), instead of rūbeh/rabah (Hebrew: רובה), saying with a play on words: “The members of Isse's household would say in the name of Isse: Why is it called dūkeh? It is because she pounds [the spiced ingredients] with him.” The Hebrew word for "pound" is dakh (דך), which rules out the spelling of rabah (רבה), as found in the printed editions. Yemenite Jews still call it dūkeh. 
Among the Hebrew manuscripts held in the Vatican Library is a late 13th-century – early 14th-century copy of Tractate Sotah and the complete Seder Zera'im for the Jerusalem Talmud (Vat. ebr. 133): Berakhot, Peah, Demai, Kilayim, Sheviit, Terumot, Maaserot, Maaser Sheni, Ḥallah and Orlah (without the Mishnah for the Tractates, excepting only the Mishnah to the 2nd chapter of Berakhot). L. Ginzberg printed variant readings from this manuscript on pp. 347–372 at the end of his Fragments of the Yerushalmi (New York 1909). S. Lieberman printed variants at the end of his essay, ʿAl ha-Yerushalmi (Hebrew), Jerusalem 1929. Both editors noted that this manuscript is full of gross errors but also retains some valuable readings.
There are significant differences between the two Talmud compilations. The language of the Jerusalem Talmud is Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic dialect which differs from that of the Babylonian. The Jerusalem Talmud is often fragmentary and difficult to read, even for experienced Talmudists. The redaction of the Babylonian Talmud, on the other hand, is more careful and precise. The traditional explanation for this difference was the idea that the redactors of the Jerusalem Talmud had to finish their work abruptly. A more probable explanation is the fact that the Babylonian Talmud wasn't redacted for at least another 200 years, in which a broad discursive framework was created. The law as laid down in the two compilations is basically similar, except in emphasis and in minor details. In a novel view, David Weiss Halivni describes the longer discursive passages in the Babylonian Talmud as the "Stammaitic" layer of redaction, and believe that it was added later than the rest: if one were to remove the "Stammaitic" passages, the remaining text would be quite similar in character to the Jerusalem Talmud.
Neither the Jerusalem nor the Babylonian Talmud covers the entire Mishnah: for example, a Babylonian Gemara exists only for 37 out of the 63 tractates of the Mishnah. In particular:
The Babylonian Talmud records the opinions of the rabbis of Israel as well as of those of Babylonia, while the Jerusalem Talmud seldom cites the Babylonian rabbis. The Babylonian version contains the opinions of more generations because of its later date of completion. For both these reasons, it is regarded as a more comprehensive collection of the opinions available. On the other hand, because of the centuries of redaction between the composition of the Jerusalem and the Babylonian Talmud, the opinions of early amoraim might be closer to their original form in the Jerusalem Talmud.
At the sixth World Congress of the World Agudath Israel which took place in Jerusalem in 1980, a proclamation was made by rabbi Simcha Bunim Alter, the sixth Gerrer Rebbe, to start a daily study of the Jerusalem Talmud. The Yerushalmi Daf Yomi program takes approx. 4.5 years or 51 months. Unlike the Daf Yomi Bavli cycle, the Yerushalmi cycle skips both Yom Kippur and Tisha B'Av. The page numbers are according to the Vilna Edition which is used since 1900. In the year 2012 Oz Vehadar and Artscroll publications created a new page layout of the Talmud Yerushalmi.
The influence of the Babylonian Talmud has been far greater than that of the Jerusalem Talmud. In the main, this is because the influence and prestige of the Jewish community of Israel steadily declined in contrast with the Babylonian community in the years after the redaction of the Talmud and continuing until the Gaonic era. Furthermore, the editing of the Babylonian Talmud was superior to that of the Jerusalem version, making it more accessible and readily usable. Hai Gaon, on the preeminence of the Babylonian Talmud, has written:
Anything that has been decided halachically in our Talmud (i.e. the Babylonian Talmud), we do not rely on [any contradictory view found in] the Jerusalem Talmud, seeing that many years have passed since instruction coming from there (i.e. the Land of Israel) had ceased on account of persecution, whereas here (i.e. in Babylonia) is where the final decisions were clarified.
However, on the Jerusalem Talmud’s continued importance for the understanding of arcane matters, Rabbi Hai Gaon has also written:
Whatever we find in the Jerusalem Talmud and there is nothing that contradicts it in our own Talmud (i.e. the Babylonian Talmud), or which gives a nice explanation for its matters of discourse, we can hold-on to it and rely upon it, for it is not to be viewed as inferior to the commentaries of the rishonim (i.e. the early exponents of the Torah).
In addition, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land. It was also an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacob, with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot and the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides.
The Babylonian Talmud has traditionally been studied more widely and has had greater influence on the halakhic tradition than the Jerusalem Talmud. However, some traditions associated with the Jerusalem Talmud are reflected in certain forms of the liturgy, particularly those of the Italian Jews and Romaniotes.
Following the formation of the modern state of Israel, there was some interest in restoring the Jerusalem Talmud's traditions. For example, David Bar-Hayim of the Makhon Shilo institute has issued a siddur reflecting the practices found in the Jerusalem Talmud and other sources.
There is no comprehensive commentary to the Jerusalem Talmud by any of the Rishonim but explanations of many individual passages can be found in the literature of the Rishonim. Most significantly, Rabbi Samson ben Abraham of Sens (c. 1150–c. 1230), known as the Rash, excerpts and explains many sections of the Jerusalem Talmud in his commentary to the Mishna of Seder Zeraim. His work however, is focused on the Mishna and is not a comprehensive commentary on the entire Jerusalem Talmud.
Many Acharonim, however, wrote commentaries on all or major portions of the Jerusalem Talmud, and as with the Babylonian Talmud, many also wrote on individual tractates of the Jerusalem Talmud.
One of the first of the Acharonim to write a commentary on the Jerusalem Talmud was Solomon Sirilio (1485–1554), also known as Rash Sirilio, whose commentaries cover only the Seder Zeraim and the tractate Shekalim of Seder Moed. Sirilio's commentary remained in manuscript form until 1875, when it was first printed in Mainz by Meir Lehmann. In the Vilna edition of the Jerusalem Talmud, Rash Sirilio appears only for tractates Berakhot and Pe'ah but the commentary for the entire Seder Zeraim appears in the Mutzal Mi’Eish edition of the Jerusalem Talmud. In addition to his commentary, Sirilio worked to remove mistakes made by manuscript copyists that over time had slipped into the text of the Jerusalem Talmud and his amended text of the Gemara is reproduced alongside his commentary in the Vilna and Mutzal Mi’Eish editions of the Jerusalem Talmud.
Today's modern printed editions almost all carry the commentaries, Korban ha-Eida, by David ben Naphtali Fränkel (c. 1704–1762) of Berlin, and Pnei Moshe, by Moses Margolies (c.1710?–1781) of Amsterdam.
A modern edition and commentary, known as Or Simchah, is currently being prepared in Beersheba; another edition in preparation, including paraphrases and explanatory notes in modern Hebrew, is Yedid Nefesh. The Jerusalem Talmud has also received some attention from Adin Steinsaltz, who plans a translation into modern Hebrew and accompanying explanation similar to his work on the Babylonian Talmud. So far only Tractates Pe'ah and Shekalim have appeared.
Although it is popularly known as the Jerusalem Talmud (Talmud Yerushalmi), a more accurate name for this text is either "Palestinian Talmud" or "Talmud of the Land of Israel." Indeed, for most of the amoraic age, under both Rome and Byzantium, Jews were prohibited from living in the holy city, and the centers of Jewish population had shifted northwards... The Palestinian Talmud emerged primarily from the activity of the sages of Tiberias and Sepphoris, with some input, perhaps entire tractates, from the sages of the "south" (Lydda, modern Lod) and the coastal plain, most notably Caesarea.
Origin of TALMUD Late Hebrew talmūdh, literally, instruction
For the fifth generation Amora sage of the Land of Israel, see Jose ben Abin (his son).
For the 6th generation Amora sage of the Land of Israel, see Samuel b. Jose b. Boon (his grandson).
For the 4th generation Amora sages of Babylon, see Idi b. Abin Abin Naggara & Hiyya b. Abin Naggara or their Father of the 3d generation: Abin NaggaraR. Abin (I) (Hebrew: רבי אבין) was a Jewish Amora sage of the Land of Israel of the third generation of the Amoraic era. He was one of R. Yochanan bar Nafcha's most prominent pupils. As a young man he even managed to study under Judah ha-Nasi, and had delivered statements in his name. However, he acquired most of his Torah knowelege from his Teacher par excellence, R. Yochanan bar Nafcha. Abin's sayings are mentioned many times in the Babylon Talmud, mainly as an Halkhaic inquiry (Hebrew :בעי), and as an Amora of the Land of Israel he is cited frequently in the Jerusalem Talmud. His son was Jose ben Abin.
R. Abin is the only Amora sage among the rest of the Amora sages who are also called "Abin" - that was called so not as an appellation or an epithet, unlike the rest of the Amora sages who lived in Babylon, such as R. Abin Naggara the father of Idi b. Abin Abin Naggara and Hiyya b. Abin Naggara, or unlike Rabin whose real name was "R. Abin", as cited in the Jerusalem Talmud.
Among his colleague was Jeremiah (I), who was one of the elders pupils of Yochanan bar Nafcha, and said to R. Abbahu that for this reason his and Jeremiah (I), Abin I, and R. Measha's opinions should be preferred over the opinions of R. Abbahu, R. Isaac Nappaha, and R. Hanina b. Papi.Avdimi of Haifa
Avdimi of Haifa (Hebrew: אבדימי דמן חיפה, translit: Avdimi d'min Haifa; in the Jerusalem Talmud: אבדומה ד'חיפה, translit: Avduma d'Haifa; hebraized form of Ancient Greek: Εὔδημος, Eudēmos) was among the greatest of the amoraim of Eretz Israel who flourished during the 3rd and 4th centuries.
He was a student of Levi ben Sisi and Resh Lakish and his pupils included Rabbi Abbahu, Rav Zeira and Rabbi Helbo.His traditional burial place lies in the ancient Jewish cemetery in Haifa, on Yaffa Street. Travelers and pilgrims from the Middle Ages noted his grave site.David ben Naphtali Fränkel
David ben Naphtali Fränkel or David Hirschel Fränkel (Hebrew: דוד בן נפתלי הירש פרנקל; c. 1704 – 4 April 1762), was a Jewish German rabbi.Demai (tractate)
Demai (Hebrew: דְּמַאי, meaning "agricultural produce about which there is a doubt whether it has been properly tithed" is the third tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud. It deals with the Jewish legal concept of demai, doubtfully tithed produce, and concerns the laws related to agricultural produce about which it is suspected that certain obligatory tithes have not been properly separated in accordance with requirements specified in the Torah. The tithes in question are ma'aser rishon (the first tithe, for the Levite), terumath ma'aser (the Levite's tithe to the kohen), and ma'aser sheni (the second tithe, for the owner to consume in Jerusalem) or ma'aser ani (the tithe for the poor), depending on the year of the Sabbatical year cycle.
The tractate consists of seven chapters and has a Gemara only in the Jerusalem Talmud. There is a Tosefta of eight chapters for this tractate.Hasa of Eshtemoa
Hasa of Eshtemoa (Hebrew: חסא דאשתמוע) was an amora active in Eshtemoa in the Land of Israel during the end of the 3rd-century or beginning of the 4th-century CE. He is mentioned once in the Jerusalem Talmud as being visited by Rav Yasa of Tiberias.Hiyya b. Joseph
For the 3d generation Amora sage of babylon, see Rav Yosef b. Hiyya.R. Hiyya b. Joseph (or Rav Hiyya b. Yosef;Hebrew: רבי חייא בר יוסף) was an Amora sage of Babylon of the second generation (3rd-century) of the Amoraic era. He studied under the most prominent sages of the Amoraim, R. Abba Arika ("Rav"), and Samuel of Nehardea, and later made Aliyah to the Land of Israel and studied under R. Yochanan bar Nafcha and Shimon ben Lakish.Jehiel b. Jekuthiel Anav
Jehiel b. Jekuthiel Anav (YeKhiEl ben YeKuSiEl (Hebrew: יחיאל ב. יקותאל) Anav), also referred to as Jehiel b.Reb Jekuthiel b.Reb Benjamin ha-Rofe, who lived in Rome during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries,
was a famous scholar, poet, payton and copyist.
He is best known as the author of Maalot ha-Middot
, a book of piety.
He was the copyist of the Leiden Jerusalem Talmud, "the only extant complete manuscript of Talmud Yerushalmi." This project, which he did in 1289, also involved correcting errors in the source document, another copy.Joshua ben Levi
Joshua ben Levi (Yehoshua ben Levi) was an amora, a scholar of the Talmud, who lived in the Land of Israel in the first half of the third century. He lived and taught in the city of Lod. Rabbi Yehoshua was an elder contemporary of Johanan bar Nappaha and Resh Lakish, who presided over the school in Tiberias. With Johanan bar Nappaha, he often engaged in homiletic exegetical discussions.Kil'ayim (tractate)
Kil'ayim (Hebrew: כִּלְאַיִם, lit. "Mixed Kinds") is the fourth tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah, dealing with several biblical prohibitions of mixed species, namely, planting certain mixtures of seeds, grafting different species of trees together, growing plants other than grapevines in vineyards, crossbreeding animals, working a team of different kinds of animals together, and mixing wool and linen in garments.
The prohibitions are derived from the Torah in Lev. 19:9 and Deuteronomy 22:9-11.
Like most tractates in the order of Zeraim, it appears in the Mishnah, the Jerusalem Talmud and the Tosefta only; there is no Babylonian Talmud for this tractate.Mikva'ot
Tractate Miqwaʾoth (Hebrew: מקואות, lit. "Pools of Water"; in Talmudic Hebrew: Miqwaʾoth) is a section of the Mishna discussing the laws pertaining to the building and maintenance of a mikvah, a Jewish ritual bath. Like most of Seder Tohorot, Mikva'ot is present only in its mishnaic form and has no accompanying gemara in either the Babylonian or Jerusalem Talmud. It contains 10 chapters, with 83 paragraphs total.Moses Margolies
Moses Margolies or Moshe ben Shimon Margalit (Hebrew: משה מרגלית; c. 1710 in Kėdainiai – 1780 in Brody) was a rabbi and a commentator on the Jerusalem Talmud.Rabbi Aha
Rabbi Aha (Hebrew: רבי אחא, read as Rabbi Achah) was a Jewish Amora sage of the Land of Israel, of the fourth generation of the Amora era. He resided at Lod, and was a colleague of R. Yehudah b. Pazi. Most of his work on the Halakha and Aggadah is cited in the Jerusalem Talmud and the Midrash, and very few is cited in the Babylon Talmud.Rabbi Hilkiah
Rabbi Hilkiah (Hebrew :רבי חלקיה) was a Jewish Amora sage of the Land of Israel of the fourth generation of the Amoraic era. He was an Aggadist and his articles mostly dealt with this issue.
R. Hilkiah is mentioned dozens of times in the Jerusalem Talmud and the Midrash Aggadah, and once in the Babylon Talmud. He was the pupil of R. Phinehas and a colleague of R. Simeon. The Midrash mentions a sage called Isaac ben Rabbi Hilkiah, who may very well be his son.Rabbi Mana II
R. Mana (II) (or R. Mani II; Hebrew: רבי מנא, read as Rabbi Mana; Recorded on the Talmud as R. Mani) was a Jewish Amora sage of the Land of Israel, of the fifth generation of the Amora era. He was the son of Rav Jonah, and headed the Yeshiva of Sepphoris. He is cited mostly on the Jerusalem Talmud.Rabbi Yannai
Rabbi Yannai (or Rabbi Jannai; Hebrew: רבי ינאי, read as Rabbi Yannai) was a Jewish sage, living during the first half of the 3rd century, and of the first generation of the Amora sages of the Land of Israel. He was a disciple of R. Judah haNasi - the sealer of the Mishnah. R. Yannai founded a Beth midrash in 'Akbara that was located, at the time, nearby Safed in the Upper Galilee, where he taught the Torah, and at the same time served as a dayan, religious judge, on the Beth din, rabbinical court in Sepphoris community. Among his disciples one can note: Abba Arika - Author of "Sefer" and "Sifri"; Yochanan bar Nafcha - One of the authors of the Jerusalem Talmud, Shimon ben Lakish, and more. R. Yannai is one of the descendants of Eli Ha-Kohen.
His name is mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud 176 times, and in the Jerusalem Talmud 254 times.Rav Karna
Karna (or Rav Karna as he is recorded on the Jerusalem Talmud; On the Babylon Talmud he appears simply as Krana; Hebrew: קרנא) was a Jewish Amora sage of Babylon, of the first generation of the Amora era, and accounted as one of the first Amora sages, after the sealing of the Mishnah. He was a colleague of Samuel of Nehardea and Abba Arika, and served as a Dayan (Religious Judge), and the phrase "Judges of the Exile" in the babylon Talmud is an epithet attributed to Karna and Samuel of Nehardea. He wrote a compilation of Baraitas to Seder Nezikin, known as Nezikin of the School of Karna. He made his living from testing wine quality.Sotah (Talmud)
Tractate Sotah (Hebrew: שוטה this spelling is based on the Gemara on .ג / סוטה) deals with the ordeal of the bitter water—the woman suspected of adultery—as well as other rituals involving speech. In most editions this tractate is the sixth in the order of Nashim, and it is divided into nine chapters. The tractate exists in the Mishna, Tosefta, and both the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmud.Talmud
The Talmud (; Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd) is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving also as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews.The term "Talmud" normally refers to the collection of writings named specifically the Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli), although there is also an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud (Talmud Yerushalmi). It may also traditionally be called Shas (ש״ס), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah.
The Talmud has two components; the Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה, c. year 200 CE), a written compendium of Rabbinic Judaism's Oral Torah; and the Gemara (circa year 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone, or the Mishnah and Gemara together.
The entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, and in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis (dating from before the Common Era through to the fifth century) on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, philosophy, customs, history, lore and many other topics. The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, and is widely quoted in rabbinic literature.Yoma
Yoma (Aramaic: יומא, lit. "The Day") is the fifth tractate of Seder Moed ("Order of Festivals") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud. It is concerned mainly with the laws of the Jewish holiday Yom Kippur, on which Jews atone for their sins from the previous year. It consists of eight chapters and has a Gemara ("Completion") from both the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud.