Jerusalem Bible

The Jerusalem Bible (JB or TJB) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1966 by Darton, Longman & Todd. As a Catholic Bible, it includes the traditional 73 books found in most English translations until the mid 19th century: the 39 books shared with the Hebrew Bible, along with the seven deuterocanonical books as the Old Testament, and the 27 books shared by all Christians as the New Testament. It also contains copious footnotes and introductions.

The Jerusalem Bible is the basis of the lectionary for mass used in Catholic worship throughout England, Wales, and the majority of the English-speaking world outside the United States and Canada, though the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales has approved other translations for conditional liturgical use.[1][2]

The Jerusalem Bible
Jerusalem Bible
Full nameThe Jerusalem Bible
AbbreviationJB or TJB
Complete Bible
published
1966
Textual basisOld Testament: La Bible de Jerusalem, Masoretic text with strong Septuagint (especially in Psalms) and some Vulgate influence. New Testament: La Bible de Jérusalem, Eclectic text with high correspondence to the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece with major variant readings from the Majority text and sacred tradition (i.e. Comma Johanneum and the longer ending of Mark) incorporated or noted. Deuterocanon: Septuagint with Vulgate influence.
Translation typeDynamic equivalence
Copyright1966, 1967 and 1968 by Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd and Doubleday and Co. Inc.
Genesis 1:1–3
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was a formless void, there was darkness over the deep, and God's spirit hovered over the water. God said, 'Let there be light', and there was light.
Genesis 1:1 in other translations
John 3:16
Yes, God loved the world so much that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not be lost but may have eternal life.
John 3:16 in other translations

History

In 1943 Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical letter, Divino afflante Spiritu, which encouraged Roman Catholics to translate the scriptures from the Hebrew and Greek texts, rather than from Jerome's Latin Vulgate. As a result, a number of Dominicans and other scholars at the École Biblique in Jerusalem translated the scriptures into French. The product of these efforts was published as La Bible de Jérusalem in 1956.

This French translation served as the impetus for an English translation in 1966, the Jerusalem Bible. For the majority of the books, the English translation was a translation of the Hebrew and Greek texts; in passages with more than one interpretation, the interpretation chosen by the French translators is generally followed. For a small number of Old Testament books, the first draft of the English translation was made directly from the French, and then the General Editor (Alexander Jones) produced a revised draft by comparing this word-for-word to the Hebrew or Aramaic texts.[3] The footnotes and book introductions are almost literal translations from the French.

The translation

The translation itself has been admired for its literary qualities, perhaps in part due to its most famous contributor, J. R. R. Tolkien (his primary contribution was the translation of Jonah).[a] It is commonly held that the Jerusalem Bible was not a translation from the French; rather, it was an original translation heavily influenced by the French. This view is not shared by Henry Wansbrough, editor of the New Jerusalem Bible, who writes, "Despite claims to the contrary, it is clear that the Jerusalem Bible was translated from the French, possibly with occasional glances at the Hebrew or Greek, rather than vice versa."[5]

The dynamic equivalence of the translation is more "thought-for-thought" than "word-for-word" compared to other modern translations. The introductions, footnotes, and even the translation itself reflect a modern scholarly approach and the conclusions of scholars who use historical-critical method. As examples, the introduction and notes reject Moses' authorship of the Pentateuch, as well as the Book of Wisdom having been authored by King Solomon.

The Jerusalem Bible was the first widely accepted Roman Catholic English translation of the Bible since the Douay-Rheims Version of the 17th century. It has also been widely praised for an overall very high level of scholarship, and is widely admired and sometimes used by liberal and moderate Protestants. The Jerusalem Bible is one of the versions authorized to be used in services of the Episcopal Church[6] and other Anglican churches.

Translation of the tetragrammaton

The Jerusalem Bible returned to the use of the historical name Yahweh as the name of God in the Old Testament, rendered as such in 6,823 places within this translation. If La Bible de Jerusalem of 1956 had been followed literally, this name would have been translated as "the Eternal."[7] The move has been welcomed by some;[8] however, it has not been popular among groups who would prefer the name of God be left unpronounced, or replaced by "the LORD" or another title.

On 29 June 2008, Cardinal Francis Arinze, Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, wrote to the presidents of all conferences of bishops at the behest of Pope Benedict XVI, stating that the use of the name Yahweh was to be dropped from Catholic Bibles in liturgical use,[9] (most notably the CTS New Catholic Bible, which uses the Jerusalem Bible text) as well as from songs and prayers, since pronunciation of this name violates long-standing Jewish and Christian tradition.[10]

Updates

  • In 1973, the French translation received an update. A third French edition was produced in 1998.
  • In 1985, the English translation was completely updated. This new translation — known as the New Jerusalem Bible — was freshly translated from the original languages and not tied to any French translation (except indirectly, as it maintained many of the stylistic and interpretive choices of the French Jerusalem Bible).
  • In 2007 the Catholic Truth Society published the CTS New Catholic Bible, consisting of the original 1966 Jerusalem Bible text revised to match its use in lectionaries throughout most English-speaking countries, in conformity with the directives of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments[11][12] and the Pontifical Biblical Commission.[13] The name "Yahweh" has been replaced by "the LORD" throughout the Old Testament, and the Psalms have been completely replaced by the 1963 Grail Psalter. The revised text is accompanied by new introductions, and textual and liturgical notes, supplemented as needed with material from the notes to the New Jerusalem Bible.[14]
  • Last updated in 1998, the French La Bible de Jérusalem is currently the subject of a revision project operating under the title The Bible in its Traditions.[15] According to the notes, more weight will be given to the Septuagint in the translation of the Hebrew Bible scriptures, though the Masoretic Text will remain the primary source. The French portion of the Demonstration Volume is available online, together with a single sample of the English translation.[16] In this new version, the tetragrammaton is not transliterated as in the Jerusalem Bible and the New Jerusalem Bible, and several kinds of commentary are included in a manner different from the practice of other Bible editions.
  • Publisher Darton, Longman and Todd is publishing the Revised New Jerusalem Bible. The New Testament and Psalms was published in February, 2018, and the complete Bible will be published in late 2018. Substantially revising the JB and NJB texts, the new translation "applies formal equivalence translation for a more accurate rendering of the original scriptures, sensitivity to readable speech patterns and more inclusive language." It will contain new study notes and book introductions written by Henry Wansbrough.[17]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ On his contribution to the Jerusalem Bible, Tolkien wrote, "Naming me among the 'principal collaborators' was an undeserved courtesy on the part of the editor of the Jerusalem Bible. I was consulted on one or two points of style, and criticized some contributions of others. I was originally assigned a large amount of text to translate, but after doing some necessary preliminary work I was obliged to resign owing to pressure of other work, and only completed 'Jonah', one of the shortest books."[4]

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Liturgy Office". liturgyoffice.org.uk.
  2. ^ "Liturgical Books In The English Speaking World". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  3. ^ This is explained in the Editor's Foreword to the Jerusalem Bible.
  4. ^ Tolkien 1981, letter 294.
  5. ^ Wansbrough, Henry. "How the Bible Came to Us". Archived from the original on 2015-03-22.
  6. ^ Episcopal Church 2016, p. 61.
  7. ^ La Bible de Jerusalem (1956), Genesis 2:4, et passim.
  8. ^ Archer 1971.
  9. ^ "Letter to the Bishops Conferences on the Name of God". 2007-12-31.
  10. ^ CatholicMusicNetwork.com (26 August 2008). "Vatican Says No 'Yahweh' In Songs, Prayers At Catholic Masses". Catholic Online. Catholic.org. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  11. ^ Arinze, Francis; Ranjith, Malcolm. "Letter to the Bishops Conferences on The Name of God". Bible Research: Internet Resources for Students of Scripture. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  12. ^ Gilligan, Michael. "Use of Yahweh in Church Songs". American Catholic Press. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  13. ^ Roxanne King (15 October 2008). "No 'Yahweh' in liturgies is no problem for the archdiocese, officials say" (PDF). Denver Catholic Register. Archdiocese of Denver. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  14. ^ Wansbrough, Henry, "Foreword," The CTS New Catholic Bible.
  15. ^ "École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem". EBAF. Archived from the original on 2007-03-10.
  16. ^ "La Bible en ses Traditions". bibest.org.
  17. ^ "Revised New Jerusalem Bible". dltbooks.com.

Bibliography

Archer, Gleason L. (1971). "Review of The Old Testament of the Jerusalem Bible". Westminster Theological Journal. 33 (2): 191–194. ISSN 0043-4388.
Episcopal Church (2016). Constitution & Canons Together with the Rules of Order for the Government of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America Otherwise Known as the Episcopal Church (PDF). New York: Episcopal Church. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
Tolkien, J. R. R. (1981). Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien.

Further reading

Marlowe, Michael D. (ed.). "The Jerusalem Bible (1966)". Bible Research. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
Venard, Olivier-Thomas (2006). "The Cultural Background and Challenges of La Bible de Jérusalem". In McCosker, Philip. What Is It that the Scripture Says?: Essays in Biblical Interpretation, Translation, and Reception in Honour of Henry Wansbrough OSB. London: T&T Clark. pp. 111–134. ISBN 978-0-567-04353-5.

External links

Catholic Bible

Within Catholicism, the Bible comprises the whole 73-book canon recognized by the Catholic Church, including the deuterocanonical books. It is sometimes referred to as the Catholic Bible.

Eliyahu Koren

Eliyahu Koren (Hebrew: אליהו קורן; July 23, 1907 — February 17, 2001) was a master typographer and graphic artist. After studying in Nuremberg, he immigrated to Israel in 1933. He served as head of the graphics department of Keren Kayemet, the Jewish National Fund, from 1936 to 1957. He founded Koren Publishers Jerusalem in 1961, which published the Koren Bible in 1962. He published the Koren Siddur in 1981, and various religious texts until his death.

Isaiah 22

Isaiah 22 is the twenty-second chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. This chapter contains a prophecy against "untimely rejoicing in Jerusalem" and "a threefold prediction of Shebna's fall, of Eliakim's elevation, and of Eliakim's fall".

Isaiah 28

Isaiah 28 is the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible groups chapters 28-35 together as a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah".

Isaiah 29

Isaiah 29 is the twenty-ninth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible groups chapters 28-35 together as a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah".

Isaiah 30

Isaiah 30 is the thirtieth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible groups chapters 28-35 together as a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah". The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges describes this chapter as "a series of Oracles dealing with the Egyptian Alliance and its consequences; the present state and future prospects of Israel, and the destruction of the Assyrians".

Isaiah 31

Isaiah 31 is the thirty-first chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible groups chapters 28-35 together as a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah". Biblical commentators Keil and Delitzsch note that "again and again", Isaiah returns to the subject of Judah's alliance with Egypt, this chapter being a notable example.

Isaiah 32

Isaiah 32 is the thirty-second chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is one of the Book of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible groups chapters 28-35 together as a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah". Unlike the previous chapters, this chapter makes no reference to "the overthrow of the Assyrians".

Isaiah 33

Isaiah 33 is the thirty-third chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible groups chapters 28-35 together as a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah".

Isaiah 34

Isaiah 34 is the thirty-fourth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible groups chapters 28-35 together as a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah", although this chapter is addressed to all nations and to Edom in particular.

Isaiah 35

Isaiah 35 is the thirty-fifth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. This is the final chapter in a group (chapters 28–35) which the Jerusalem Bible calls a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah". The New King James Version entitles this chapter "The Future Glory of Zion".

Isaiah 66

Isaiah 66 is the sixty-sixth and final chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is one of the Book of the Prophets. Chapters 56-66 are often referred to as Trito-Isaiah. This chapter contains an oracle delivered after the temple in Jerusalem had been re-built following the Jewish peoples' return from exile, and warns against "an unduly materialistic" approach to the worship of God.

Jeremiah 44

Jeremiah 44 is the forty-fourth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is part of a narrative section consisting of chapters 37 to the present one. Chapters 42-44 describe the emigration to Egypt involving the groups remaining in Judah after the others were exiled to Babylon. The Jerusalem Bible describes this chapter as "the last episode of Jeremiah's ministry".

Jewish English Bible translations

Jewish English Bible translations are English translations of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) according to the Masoretic Text, in the traditional division and order of Torah, Nevi'im, and Ketuvim. Most Jewish translations appear in bilingual editions (Hebrew–English).

Jewish translations often reflect traditional Jewish exegesis of the Bible; all such translations eschew the Christological interpretations present in many non-Jewish translations. Jewish translations contain neither the books of the apocrypha nor the Christian New Testament.

New Jerusalem Bible

The New Jerusalem Bible (NJB) is an English-language translation of the Bible published in 1985 by Darton, Longman and Todd and Les Editions du Cerf, edited by Henry Wansbrough and approved for use in study and personal devotion by Roman Catholics.

Pierre Benoit (archaeologist)

Maurice Benoit (3 August 1906 – 23 April 1987), better known as Pierre Benoit, was a French Catholic priest, exegete, and theologian.

Psalm 129

Psalm 129 is the 129th psalm of the biblical Book of Psalms. In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, and in its Latin translation in the Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 128 in a slightly different numbering system. It is one of 15 psalms that begins with the words "A song of ascents" (Shir Hama'alot). In the Jerusalem Bible it is sub-titled "Against the enemies of Zion".

Revised New Jerusalem Bible

The Revised New Jerusalem Bible (RNJB) is an English translation of the Bible published by Darton, Longman & Todd. Its current edition consists of the New Testament and the Psalms, and was released in February 2018, with the full Bible set to be released in 2020. It is a revision of the Jerusalem Bible and the New Jerusalem Bible done by the British biblical scholar and Ampleforth Abbey monk Henry Wansbrough.

Sacred Name Bible

Sacred Name Bibles are Bible translations that consistently use Hebraic forms of God's personal name, instead of its English language translation, in both the Old and New Testaments. Some Bible versions, such as the Jerusalem Bible, employ the name Yahweh, a transliteration of Hebrew YHWH, in the English text of the Old Testament, where traditional English versions have LORD.Most sacred name versions use the name Yahshua, a Semitic form of the name Jesus.None of the Sacred Name Bibles are published by mainstream publishers. Instead, most are published by the same group that produced the translation. Some are available for download on the Web. Very few of these Bibles have been noted or reviewed by scholars outside the Sacred Name Movement.Some Sacred Name Bibles, such as the Hallelujah Scriptures, are also considered Messianic Bibles due to their significant Hebrew style. Therefore they are commonly used by Messianic Jews as well.

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