Sherrill David Robinson (January 1, 1922 – December 7, 2011), known as Jerry Robinson, was an American comic book artist known for his work on DC Comics' Batman line of comics during the 1940s. He is best known as the co-creator of Robin and the Joker and for his work on behalf of creators' rights.
He was inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2004.
Robinson at the 2008 Comic Con International in San Diego.
|Born||Sherrill David Robinson|
January 1, 1922
Trenton, New Jersey, United States
|Died||December 7, 2011 (aged 89)|
Staten Island, New York City, New York, United States
|Awards||National Cartoonists Society Award
Robinson was a 17-year-old journalism student at Columbia University in 1939 when he was discovered by Batman creator Bob Kane, who hired him to work on that fledgling comic as an inker and letterer. Kane, with writer Bill Finger, had shortly before created the character Batman for National Comics, the future DC Comics. Robinson rented a room from a family in The Bronx near Kane's family's Grand Concourse apartment, where Kane used his bedroom as an art studio. He started as a letterer and a background inker, shortly graduating to inking secondary figures. Within a year, he became Batman's primary inker, with George Roussos inking backgrounds. Batman quickly became a hit character, and Kane rented space for Robinson and Roussos in Times Square's Times Tower. In addition to Batman, Robinson and Roussos did inks and backgrounds on Target and the Targeteers for Novelty Press. Roussos recounted of his collaboration with Robinson:
It was hard to make the deadlines, because Jerry was a heavy sleeper. I used to have to go to the Bronx to get him to come to work. I'd go and wake him up 2 o'clock in the afternoon so we could work all night. ... We were committed to do about 13 pages a week. Jerry was always behind - he was always whiting out things and re-inking them. Bob's stuff was so sketchy, Jerry had to do a lot of work.
Approximately a year and a half after Robinson, Roussos, and Finger were hired by Kane, National Comics lured them away, making them company staffers. Roussos has claimed that their work on Target and the Targeteers made the series look "almost identical to Kane's Batman", and National hired them as staffers because they saw that it had become a significant competition for Batman. Robinson recalled working in the bullpen at the company's 480 Lexington Avenue office, alongside Superman creators Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, as well as Jack Kirby, Fred Ray, and Mort Meskin, "one of my best friends, who[m] I brought up from MLJ".
By early 1940, Kane and Finger discussed adding a sidekick. Robinson suggested the name "Robin" after Robin Hood books he had read during boyhood, saying (in a 2005 interview) that he was inspired by one book's N.C. Wyeth illustrations. The new character, orphaned circus performer Dick Grayson, came to live with Bruce Wayne (Batman) as his young ward in Detective Comics #38 (April 1940). Robin would inspire many similar sidekicks throughout the remainder of the Golden Age of Comic Books.
Batman's nemesis, the Joker, was introduced around the same time, in Batman #1 (Spring 1940). Though Kane claimed he and writer Bill Finger came up with the idea for the Joker, most comic historians credit Robinson for the iconic villain, modeled after Conrad Veidt in the 1928 film, The Man Who Laughs. Credit for that character's creation, however, is disputed. Robinson has said he created the character. Kane's position was that:
Bill Finger and I created the Joker. Bill was the writer. Jerry Robinson came to me with a playing card of the Joker. That's the way I sum it up. [The Joker] looks like Conrad Veidt — you know, the actor in The Man Who Laughs [the 1928 film based on the novel] by Victor Hugo ... Bill Finger had a book with a photograph of Conrad Veidt and showed it to me and said, 'Here's the Joker.' Jerry Robinson had absolutely nothing to do with it. But he'll always say he created it till he dies. He brought in a playing card, which we used for a couple of issues for him [the Joker] to use as his playing card.
Robinson, whose original Joker playing card was on public display in the exhibition "Masters of American Comics" at the Jewish Museum in New York City, New York, from September 16, 2006 to January 28, 2007, and the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum in Atlanta, Georgia from October 24, 2004 to August 28, 2005, has countered that:
Bill Finger knew of Conrad Veidt because Bill had been to a lot of the foreign films. Veidt ... had this clown makeup with the frozen smile on his face. When Bill saw the first drawing of the Joker, he said, 'That reminds me of Conrad Veidt in The Man Who Laughs.' He said he would bring in some shots of that movie to show me. That's how that came about. I think in Bill's mind, he fleshed out the concept of the character.
Finger provided his own account in 1966:
I got a call from Bob Kane. ... He had a new villain. When I arrived he was holding a playing card. Apparently Jerry Robinson or Bob, I don't recall who, looked at the card and they had an idea for a character ... the Joker. Bob made a rough sketch of it. At first it didn't look much like the Joker. It looked more like a clown. But I remembered that Grosset & Dunlap formerly issued very cheap editions of classics by Alexandre Dumas and Victor Hugo ... The volume I had was The Man Who Laughs — his face had been permanently operated on so that he will always have this perpetual grin. And it looked absolutely weird. I cut the picture out of the book and gave it to Bob, who drew the profile and gave it a more sinister aspect. Then he worked on the face; made him look a little clown-like, which accounted for his white face, red lips, green hair. And that was the Joker!
In 1943, when Kane left the Batman comic books to focus on penciling the daily Batman newspaper comic strip, Robinson took over the full penciling, along with others such as Dick Sprang. Only Kane's name appeared on the strip.
From 1944 to 1946, Robinson and his friend Meskin formed a studio which produced material for the short-lived Spark Publications. Robinson worked on numerous other characters for several publishers, at one point doing freelance illustrations for a textbook publisher. After leaving superhero comics, he became a newspaper cartoonist and created True Classroom Flubs and Fluffs, which ran during the 1960s in the New York Sunday News (later incorporated into the Daily News). Robinson also did a political satire cartoon panel feature, Still Life which began national syndication on June 3, 1963.
Robinson never saw himself only as a comic-book artist. In the 1950s, he started drawing cover illustrations for Playbill and tried his hand at political sketches, producing what he considered his best work: "I did 32 years of political cartoons, one every day for six days a week. That body of work is the one I'm proudest of. While my time on Batman was important and exciting and notable considering the characters that came out of it, it was really just the start of my life."
Robinson was president of the National Cartoonists Society from 1967 to 1969 and served a two-year term as president of the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists starting in 1973.
During the mid-1970s, Robinson was a crucial supporter of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster in their long struggle with DC Comics to win full recognition and compensation as the creators of Superman. With comics artist and rights advocate Neal Adams, Robinson organized key support around Siegel and Shuster, to whom DC, in December 1975, granted lifetime stipends and a credit in all broadcast and published Superman works. In 1978, he founded CartoonArts International, which as of 2010 has more than 550 artists from over 75 countries.
During 1999, Robinson created an original manga series, Astra, with the help of manga artist Shojin Tanaka and Ken-ichi Oishi. This was later on released in English through Central Park Media by their manga line CPM Manga as a comic book miniseries and then a trade paperback.
On May 26, 2007, DC Comics announced that Robinson had been hired by the company as a "creative consultant". The press release accompanying this announcement did not describe his duties or responsibilities.
In 1974, Robinson wrote The Comics, a comprehensive study of the history of newspaper comic strips.
Robinson won the National Cartoonists Society Award for the Comic Book Division in 1956, their 1963 Newspaper Panel Cartoon Award for Still Life, their 1965 Special Features Award for Flubs and Fluffs and their Milton Caniff Lifetime Achievement Award in 2000. Robinson was inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2004. Robinson received the Sparky Award for lifetime achievement from the Cartoon Art Museum at the 2011 San Diego Comic-Con International.
Alfred, most commonly (but not originally) named in full as Alfred Thaddeus Crane Pennyworth, is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, most commonly in association with the superhero Batman.
Pennyworth is depicted as Bruce Wayne's loyal and tireless butler, housekeeper, legal guardian, best friend, aide-de-camp, and surrogate father figure following the murders of Thomas and Martha Wayne. As a classically trained British actor and an ex-Special Operations Executive operative of honor and ethics with connections within the intelligence community, he has been called "Batman's batman". He serves as Bruce's moral anchor while providing comic relief with his sarcastic and cynical attitude which often adds humor to dialogue with Batman. A vital part of the Batman mythos, Alfred was nominated for the Wizard Fan Award for Favorite Supporting Male Character in 1994.In non-comics media, the character has been portrayed by noted actors William Austin, Eric Wilton, Michael Gough, Michael Caine, and Jeremy Irons on film and by Alan Napier, Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., Ian Abercrombie, David McCallum, and Sean Pertwee on television. Ralph Fiennes voiced Alfred in two animated films. A young version of Alfred before he became a butler to the Wayne Family will appear in the upcoming television series Pennyworth and will be played by Jack Bannon.Alternative versions of Joker
As a fictional character and the archenemy of Batman, the Joker has been represented in a variety of different stories that redefine elements of the characters appearance and personality. Each work typically establishes its own continuity, and sometimes introduces parallel universes, to the point where distinct differences in the portrayal of the character can be identified. This article details various versions of the Joker depicted in works including various alternative universe stories.Apache Chief
Apache Chief is a Native American superhero from the various Hanna-Barbera Super Friends cartoons and the DC comic book series of the same name. He was one of the new heroes added (along with Black Vulcan, Rima the Jungle Girl, El Dorado and Samurai) to increase the number of non-white characters in the Super Friends' ranks. He was voiced by Michael Rye in most of his appearances, Regis Cordic in his debut appearance, and Al Fann in "History of Doom".
In the Challenge of the Super Friends series, Apache Chief was seen in every episode except one, but had spoken lines in only nine out of the sixteen episodes of the series. His arch enemy from the Legion of Doom was Giganta, who was originally an enemy of Wonder Woman.Bill Finger
Milton Finger, known professionally as Bill Finger (February 8, 1914 – January 18, 1974), was an American comic strip and comic book writer best known as the co-creator, with Bob Kane, of the DC Comics character Batman, and the co-architect of the series' development. Although Finger did not receive contemporaneous credit for his hand in the development of Batman, Kane acknowledged Finger's contributions years after Finger's death.Finger also wrote many of the original 1940s Green Lantern stories featuring the original Green Lantern (Alan Scott), and contributed to the development of numerous other comic book series.
He was posthumously inducted into the comic book industry's Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1999. The Bill Finger Award, founded by Jerry Robinson and presented annually at the San Diego Comic-Con to honor excellence in comic-book writing, is named for him.Bill Finger Award
The Bill Finger Award for Excellence in Comic Book Writing is an American award for excellence in comic book writing. The awards committee, chaired by Mark Evanier, is charged each year with selecting two recipients, one living and one deceased. The award, along with the Eisner Awards, is presented in July of each year at the annual San Diego Comic-Con. It was established by Bill Finger's colleague and fellow writer Jerry Robinson.
Evanier in 2003 said the premise of the award was "to recognize writers for a body of work that has not received its rightful reward and/or recognition. That was what Jerry Robinson intended as his way of remembering his friend, Bill Finger. Bill is still kind of the industry poster boy for writers not receiving proper reward or recognition."Bob Kane
Robert Kane (born Robert Kahn ; October 24, 1915 – November 3, 1998) was an American comic book writer and artist who co-created, with Bill Finger, the DC Comics character Batman. He was inducted into the comic book industry's Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1994 and into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1996.Jerry Robinson (kick returner)
Jerry Robinson (March 9, 1939 –January 13, 2013) was a professional American football player who played wide receiver for four seasons for the San Diego Chargers and New York Jets.Jerry Robinson (linebacker)
Jerry Dewayne Robinson (born December 18, 1956) is a former American college and professional football player who was a linebacker in the National Football League (NFL) for thirteen seasons during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. He played college football for the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and earned All-American honors. Chosen in the first round of the 1979 NFL Draft, he played professionally for the Philadelphia Eagles and Los Angeles Raiders of the NFL.Joker (character)
The Joker is a supervillain created by Bill Finger, Bob Kane, and Jerry Robinson who first appeared in the debut issue of the comic book Batman (April 25, 1940), published by DC Comics. Credit for the Joker's creation is disputed; Kane and Robinson claimed responsibility for the Joker's design while acknowledging Finger's writing contribution. Although the Joker was planned to be killed off during his initial appearance, he was spared by editorial intervention, allowing the character to endure as the archenemy of the superhero Batman.
In his comic book appearances, the Joker is portrayed as a criminal mastermind. Introduced as a psychopath with a warped, sadistic sense of humor, the character became a goofy prankster in the late 1950s in response to regulation by the Comics Code Authority, before returning to his darker roots during the early 1970s. As Batman's nemesis, the Joker has been part of the superhero's defining stories, including the murder of Jason Todd—the second Robin and Batman's ward—and the paralysis of one of Batman's allies, Barbara Gordon. The Joker has had various possible origin stories during his decades of appearances. The most common story involves him falling into a tank of chemical waste which bleaches his skin white and turns his hair green and lips bright red; the resulting disfigurement drives him insane. The antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance, the Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary.
The Joker possesses no superhuman abilities, instead using his expertise in chemical engineering to develop poisonous or lethal concoctions, and thematic weaponry, including razor-tipped playing cards, deadly joy buzzers, and acid-spraying lapel flowers. The Joker sometimes works with other Gotham City supervillains such as the Penguin and Two-Face, and groups like the Injustice Gang and Injustice League, but these relationships often collapse due to the Joker's desire for unbridled chaos. The 1990s introduced a romantic interest for the Joker in his former psychiatrist, Harley Quinn, who becomes his villainous sidekick. Although his primary obsession is Batman, the Joker has also fought other heroes including Superman and Wonder Woman.
One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, the Joker has been listed among the greatest comic book villains and fictional characters ever created. The character's popularity has seen him appear on a variety of merchandise, such as clothing and collectible items, inspire real-world structures (such as theme park attractions), and be referenced in a number of media. The Joker has been adapted to serve as Batman's adversary in live-action, animated, and video game incarnations, including the 1960s Batman television series played by Cesar Romero and in films by Jack Nicholson in Batman (1989) and Heath Ledger in The Dark Knight (2008). Mark Hamill, Troy Baker, and others have provided the character's voice.Peter Bonerz
Peter Bonerz (, born August 6, 1938) is an American actor and director who is best known for his role as Dr. Jerry Robinson on The Bob Newhart Show.Robin (character)
Robin is the name of several fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was originally created by Bob Kane, Bill Finger, and Jerry Robinson, to serve as a junior counterpart to the superhero Batman. The character's first incarnation, Dick Grayson, debuted in Detective Comics #38 (April 1940). Conceived as a way to attract young readership, Robin garnered overwhelmingly positive critical reception, doubling the sales of the Batman titles. The early adventures of Robin included Star Spangled Comics #65–130 (1947–1952), which was the character's first solo feature. Robin made regular appearances in Batman related comic books and other DC Comics publications from 1940 through the early 1980s until the character set aside the Robin identity and became the independent superhero Nightwing. The team of Batman and Robin has commonly been referred to as the Caped Crusaders or Dynamic Duo.
The character's second incarnation Jason Todd first appeared in Batman #357 (1983). This Robin made regular appearances in Batman related comic books until 1988, when the character was murdered by the Joker in the storyline "A Death in the Family" (1989). Jason would later find himself alive after a reality changing incident, eventually becoming the Red Hood. The premiere Robin limited series was published in 1991 which featured the character's third incarnation Tim Drake training to earn the role of Batman's vigilante partner. Following two successful sequels, the monthly Robin ongoing series began in 1993 and ended in early 2009, which also helped his transition from sidekick to a superhero in his own right. In 2004 storylines, established DC Comics character Stephanie Brown became the fourth Robin for a short duration before the role reverted to Tim Drake. Damian Wayne succeeds Drake as Robin in the 2009 story arc "Battle for the Cowl".
Following the 2011 continuity reboot "the New 52", Tim Drake was revised as having assumed the title Red Robin, and Jason Todd, operating as the Red Hood, was slowly repairing his relationship with Batman. Dick Grayson resumed his role as Nightwing and Stephanie Brown was introduced anew under her previous moniker Spoiler in the pages of Batman Eternal (2014). The 2016 DC Rebirth continuity relaunch starts off with Damian Wayne as Robin, Tim Drake as Red Robin, Jason Todd as Red Hood, and Dick Grayson as Nightwing. Robins have also been featured throughout stories set in parallel worlds, owing to DC Comics' longstanding "Multiverse" concept. For example, in the original Earth-Two, Dick Grayson never adopted the name Nightwing, and continues operating as Robin into adulthood. In the New 52's "Earth-2" continuity, Robin is Helena Wayne, daughter of Batman and Catwoman, who was stranded on the Earth of the main continuity and takes the name Huntress.Scarecrow (DC Comics)
The Scarecrow (Dr. Jonathan Crane) is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics, created by Bill Finger, Bob Kane, and Jerry Robinson. The character first appeared in World's Finest Comics #3 (September, 1941). The self-proclaimed "Master of Fear" is commonly depicted as an obsessive ex-professor of psychology in Gotham City who uses a variety of experimental drugs and toxins to exploit the fears and phobias of his victims. He is one of the most enduring enemies of superhero Batman and belongs to the collective of adversaries that make up the Dark Knight's rogues gallery.In 2009, the Scarecrow was ranked as IGN's 58th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time. He has been substantially adapted from the comics into various forms of media, including feature films, television series, and video games. He has been voiced by Henry Polic II and Jeffrey Combs in the DC animated universe, by Dino Andrade and John Noble in the Batman: Arkham video game series, and by Robert Englund in Injustice 2. He has also been portrayed in live-action by Cillian Murphy in The Dark Knight Trilogy, and both Charlie Tahan and David W. Thompson in the FOX television show Gotham.Skippy (comic strip)
Skippy was an American comic strip written and drawn by Percy Crosby that was published from 1923 to 1945. A highly popular, acclaimed and influential feature about rambunctious fifth-grader Skippy Skinner, his friends and his enemies, it was adapted into movies, a novel and a radio show. It was commemorated on a 1997 U.S. Postal Service stamp and was the basis for a wide range of merchandising that includes Skippy peanut butter.
An early influence on cartoonist Charles Schulz and an inspiration for his Peanuts, Skippy is considered one of the classics of the form. In Vanity Fair, humorist Corey Ford described it as "America's most important contribution to humor of the century", while comics historian John A. Lent wrote, "The first half-century of the comics spawned many kid strips, but only one could be elevated to the status of classic... which innovated a number of sophisticated and refined touches used later by Charles Schulz and Bill Watterson..." Comics artist Jerry Robinson said,
Nothing like Skippy had ever been seen before in the comic strips. It was not just Skippy's expert draftsmanship or remarkable flair, although that artistry earned its creator a reputation as "the cartoonist's cartoonist"... The brilliance of Skippy was that here was fantasy with a realistic base, the first kid cartoon with a definable and complex personality grounded in daily life.
Skippy started in 1923 as a cartoon in Life and became a syndicated comic strip two years later through King Features Syndicate. Creator Crosby retained the copyright, a rarity for comic strip artists of the time.Thomas Wayne
Thomas Wayne, MD is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, commonly in association with the superhero Batman. The character was introduced in Detective Comics #33 (Nov. 1939) in the first exposition of Batman's origin story. He is the father of Bruce Wayne, who is Batman, and husband of Martha Wayne.
A gifted physician and philanthropist to Gotham City, Dr. Thomas Wayne, MD inherited the Wayne family fortune after Patrick Wayne. When Dr. Wayne and his wife are murdered in a street robbery, Bruce Wayne becomes inspired to fight crime as the vigilante Batman.The character was revived in Geoff Johns' alternate timeline comic Flashpoint (2011), in which he plays a major role as a hardened version of Batman, whose son was killed instead of his wife and himself, and dies again by the end of the storyline. Thomas Wayne returned to the main DC Universe in DC Rebirth, as a revived amalgamation of his original Dr. Thomas Wayne self killed by Joe Chill and his Flashpoint Batman self killed by Eobard Thawne in "The Button", a storyline revolving around the "Smiley-face" button from Watchmen.Tony Zucco
Anthony "Tony" Zucco is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. First appearing in Detective Comics #38 (April 1940), Zucco is a mobster responsible for murdering the parents of Dick Grayson, which leads to Grayson becoming the original Robin and Nightwing.
Outside of comics, he has appeared in Batman: The Animated Series, voiced by Thomas F. Wilson, and The Batman, voiced by Mark Hamill. Zucco made his live action debut in the DC Universe series Titans, played by Richard Zeppieri.ToonSeum
ToonSeum: Pittsburgh Museum of Cartoon Art is a museum devoted exclusively to the cartoon arts, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ToonSeum is one of three museums dedicated to cartoon art in the United States. ToonSeum moved to its own gallery space on Liberty Avenue in Pittsburgh's downtown Cultural District on November 8, 2009, aided by the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust. It is currently led by John Kelly.In 2009, the ToonSeum established its NEMO Award, given to notable individuals "for excellence in the cartoon arts". Recipients to date include veteran comic-book artist Ron Frenz, editorial and comic-strip artist Dick Locher, and comics artist, editorial cartoonist and artists' rights advocate Jerry Robinson. In May 2013, ToonSeum hosted the two-day North American Conference of the National Cartoonists Society. In that same month, plans for expansion of the museum were announced.On February 16, 2018 the ToonSeum announced on their Facebook page that they would close the physical location on Liberty avenue February 24, 2018 to focus on direct community outreach.Tray Chaney
Tray Chaney is an American actor. He appeared on the HBO program The Wire as Poot Carr which became his most successful acting role. He also appears in Saints and Sinners as Kendrick.
Chaney began his entertainment career as a dancer at the age of four winning competitions at the Apollo Theater. He appeared in the 2003 music video "My Baby" by rap artist Bow Wow. He later appeared in The Wire BET Promo Shoot commercial in 2006. He has also appeared on America's Most Wanted, playing a fugitive named "Jerry Robinson."
He released his self-published book entitled The Truth You Can't beTray in January 2007. Chaney grew up in Forestville, Maryland and currently lives with his wife in Clinton, Maryland.Tweedledum and Tweedledee (comics)
Tweedledum and Tweedledee are two fictional characters, a duo of supervillains appearing in comic books published by DC Comics, primarily known as enemies of Batman.UCLA Bruins football statistical leaders
The UCLA Bruins football statistical leaders are individual statistical leaders of the UCLA Bruins football program in various categories, including passing, rushing, receiving, total offense, defensive stats, and kicking. Within those areas, the lists identify single-game, single-season, and career leaders. The Bruins represent the University of California, Los Angeles in the NCAA's Pac-12 Conference.
Although UCLA began competing in intercollegiate football in 1919, these lists are dominated by more recent players for several reasons:
Since 1919, seasons have increased from 8 games to 11 and then 12 games in length.
The NCAA didn't allow freshmen to play varsity football until 1972 (with the exception of the World War II years), allowing players to have four-year careers.
Bowl games only began counting toward single-season and career statistics in 2002. The Bruins have played in 11 bowl games since this decision, giving many recent players an extra game to accumulate statistics.These lists are updated through the end of the 2018 season.
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