Jenderal besar, translated literally as "grand general", is the highest rank of the Army of Indonesia. Within the Indonesian Armed Forces ranking system, jenderal besar is the equivalent of laksamana besar (admiral of the fleet) and marsekal besar (marshal of the air force).
Currently the rank has been held only by three persons, all granted in 1997 on the 50th anniversary of Indonesian National Armed Forces.
A jenderal besar could technically be appointed if ever Indonesia became engaged in a major war or suffered from a massive invasion. A jenderal besar would then, most likely, become supreme commander of all Indonesian military forces.
Abdul Haris Nasution (3 December 1918 – 6 September 2000) was an Indonesian army general. Born into a Batak Muslim family in the North Sumateran village of Hutapungkut, in what was then the Dutch East Indies, he studied teaching and enrolled at a military academy in Bandung. After Soekarno declared Indonesia's independence on 17 August 1945, Nasution joined the fledgling Indonesian armed forces which was fighting the Indonesian National Revolution against the Dutch. The following year he was appointed commander of the Siliwangi Division, the guerrilla unit opreating in West Java. After the country's internationally recognised independence in 1949, Nasution was appointed Chief of Staff of the army. He remained in post being suspended in 1952 following a failed show of force against the president. He was reappointed Chief of Staff in 1955. In 1965 there was a coup attempt by the 30 September Movement. Nasution's house was attacked, and his daughter killed, but he managed to escape scaling a wall and hiding in the Iraqi ambassador's residence.Army officer ranks
Armies have military rank systems that are often used by other military services such as air forces or marines.Comparative army officer ranks of Asia
Rank comparison chart of armies/ land forces of Asian states.
Note: Since none of the countries on this list are part of NATO, the conversion to equivalent NATO ranks are approximate.Deaths in September 2000
The following is a list of notable deaths in September 2000.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.Five-star rank
A five-star rank is a very senior military rank, first established in the United States in 1944, with a five-star general insignia, and corresponding ranks in other countries. The rank is that of the most senior operational military commanders, and within NATO's "standard rank scale" it is designated by the code OF-10.
Not all armed forces have such a rank, and in those that do the actual insignia of the "five-star ranks" may not contain five stars. For example: the insignia for the French OF-10 rank maréchal de France contains 7 stars; the insignia for the Portuguese marechal contains four gold stars; and many of the insignia of the ranks in the Commonwealth of Nations contain no stars at all.
Typically, five-star officers hold the rank of general of the army, admiral of the fleet, field marshal, marshal or general of the air force, and several other similarly named ranks. Five-star ranks are extremely senior—usually the highest ranks. As an active rank, the position exists only in a minority of countries and is usually held by only a very few officers during wartime. In times of peace, it is usually held only as an honorary rank. Traditionally, five-star ranks are granted to distinguished military commanders for notable wartime victories and/or in recognition of a record of achievement during the officer's career, whether in peace or in war. Alternatively, a five-star rank (or even higher ranks) may be assumed by heads of state in their capacities as commanders-in-chief of their nation's armed forces.
Despite the rarity and seniority of five-star officers, even more-senior ranks have been adopted in the United States, namely, admiral of the navy and general of the armies. Other names for highly senior ranks from the twentieth century include généralissime (France), generalisimo (Spain) and generalissimus (USSR).General Sudirman Airport
General Sudirman Airport (Indonesian: Bandar Udara Jenderal Besar Soedirman), also known as Wirasaba Airport (IATA: PWL, ICAO: WICP) is located at Purbalingga Regency, Central Java, Indonesia.
It is actually an Indonesian Airforce airfield that has permitted to use as a public airport since 2007.The airforce base was officially renamed in 2016 after General Sudirman, who is a National Hero of Indonesia, and was born in Purbalingga. The airport serves Banyumas Regency, Purbalingga Regency, Banjarnegara Regency, Kebumen Regency, Wonosobo Regency and Pemalang Regency. The status of the airbase also changed to an airport that would serve civil aviation. Commercial operation of the airport is expected to be commenced by 2019, and the airport will be operated by PT Angkasa Pura II after completion of ongoing development.General of the army
General of the army is a military rank used to denote a senior military leader, usually a general in command of a nation's army.Grand general
Grand general is a supreme military rank which is normally the accepted translation of:
The Indonesian rank jenderal besar
The Nepal military rank of pradhan senadhipati
The Chinese rank of da jiangGreat General DR. Abdul Haris Nasution Museum
The Great General DR. Abdul Haris Nasution Museum (officially known as Indonesian: Museum Sasmitaloka Jenderal Besar DR. Abdul Haris Nasution) is a museum in Jakarta, Indonesia. The museum showcases life, career and works of Great General Abdul Haris Nasution, the country's prominent military figure and the then Indonesian Armed Forces Chief of Staff who barely escaped capture and eventual assassination at the hands of the alleged communist coup movement in 1965.
The museum was originally the residence of Nasution and his family when he was the Indonesian Armed Forces Chief of Staff in 1949 until his death on 6 September 2000. On 30 September 1965, troops from the Cakrabirawa G30S/PKI attempted kidnapping and killing of Nasution. Nasution escaped the attempt, but in the event, his daughter Ade Irma Suryani Nasution and the First Lieutenant Pierre Tendean was murdered.
The museum houses a collection from Abdul Haris Nasution and some dioramas about the G-30-S PKI, 30 September 1965. The museum is open free to public from Tuesday until Sunday, from 08:00 WIB until 14:00 WIB.Index of Indonesia-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Indonesia.Indonesian Army
The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD), literally "Indonesian National Military-Land Force") is the land branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. It has an estimated strength of 300,000 active personnel. The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh, Maluku, and Papua. The army's operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.The Indonesia Army is composed of a headquarters, 15 military region commands, a strategic reserve command KOSTRAD, a special forces command Kopassus, and various adjunct units.Indonesian National Armed Forces
The Indonesian National Armed Forces (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, literally "Indonesian National Military"; abbreviated as TNI) are the military forces of the Republic of Indonesia. It consists of the Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL), and Air Force (TNI-AU). The President of Indonesia is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. In 2016, it comprises approximately 395,500 military personnel including the Indonesian Marine Corps (Korps Marinir), which is the branch of the Navy.
The Indonesian Armed Forces was formed during the Indonesian National Revolution, when it undertook a guerrilla war along with informal militia. As a result of this, and the need to maintain internal security, the Armed forces including the Army, Navy, and Air Force has been organised along territorial lines, aimed at defeating internal enemies of the state and potential external invaders.Under the 1945 Constitution, all citizens are legally entitled and obliged to defend the nation. Conscription is provided for by law, yet the Forces have been able to maintain mandated strength levels without resorting to a draft. Most enlisted personnel are recruited in their own home regions and generally train and serve most of their time in units nearby.
The Indonesian armed forces are voluntary. The active military strength is 395,500 with available manpower fit for military service of males aged between 16 and 49 is 75,000,000, with a further 4,500,000 new suitable for service annually.Military spending in the national budget was widely estimated 3% of GDP in 2005, but is supplemented by revenue from many military-run businesses and foundations. The defence budget for 2017 was $8.17bn. The Indonesian armed forces (Military) personnel does not include members of law enforcement and paramilitary personnel such as the Indonesian National Police (Polri) consisting of approximately 590,000+ personnel, Mobile Brigade Corps (Brimob) of around 42,000+ armed personnel, the Civil Service Police Unit (Municipal police) or Satpol PP, Indonesian College Students' Regiment or Resimen Mahasiswa (Menwa) which is a collegiate military service consisting 26,000 trained personnel, and civil defence personnel (Linmas or Public Protection Service Corps, which replaced the old Hansip in 2014).Indonesian military ranks
The Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) uses a simplified ranking system for the three branches of Indonesian Army, Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Air Force. Most of the ranks are similar with differences for the rank titles of the high-ranking officers. Exception exists, however, in the ranks of the service members of the Indonesian Marine Corps. While Indonesian Marine Corps is a branch of the Navy, the rank titles of the Marine Corps are the same as those of the Army, but it still uses the Navy's style insignia (for lower-ranking enlisted men, blue are replacing the red colour).
As said above, all services maintain the same rank insignia and title, with the main difference for officers are that high-ranking officers use their special titles, while officers below that rank use the similar title but followed by their respective branch/corps abbreviation. For example, an Army colonel with Infantry branch use the title "Kolonel INF.", which "INF" means "Infanteri" or "Infantry"; A Navy colonel with Supply Corps background use the title "Kolonel Laut (S)", in which "S" means "Suplai" or "Supply". Also, an Air Force Colonel with Electronical Engineering Corps background use the title "Kolonel (Lek)", in which "Lek" means "Elektronika" or "Electronics". There are no differences with enlisted personnel's title for Army and Air Force, but the Navy still use the personnel's branch/corps abbreviation behind the title.
High-ranking officers use gold stars as their insignia, middle-rank officers use gold jasmine buds and lower-rank officer use gold bars. High-rank NCOs use wavy bars, NCOs use yellow chevrons, high-rank enlisted men use red chevrons (blue for Navy and Marine Corps) and lower-rank enlisted men use red bars (blue for Navy and Marine Corps).List of Indonesia-related topics
This is a list of topics related to Indonesia.List of museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia
This list includes many museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia (including aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens, following the definition of the International Council of Museums).
Heritage buildings such as candi, mosques, colonial churches and buildings with no site museum should not be placed in the list.Star (classification)
Stars are often used as symbols for ratings. They are used by reviewers for ranking things such as films, TV shows, restaurants, and hotels. For example, a system of one to five stars is commonly employed to rate hotels, with five stars being the highest quality.