The Jekyll Island Club was a private club on Jekyll Island, on Georgia's Atlantic coast. It was founded in 1886 when members of an incorporated hunting and recreational club purchased the island for $125,000 (about $3.1 million in 2017) from John Eugene du Bignon. The original design of the Jekyll Island Clubhouse, with its signature turret, was completed in January 1888. The club thrived through the early 20th century; its members came from many of the world's wealthiest families, most notably the Morgans, Rockefellers, and Vanderbilts. The club closed at the end of the 1942 season due to complications from World War II. In 1947, after five years of funding a staff to keep up the lawn and cottages, the island was purchased from the club's remaining members for $675,000 (about 7.4 million in 2017) during condemnation proceedings by the state of Georgia.
The State tried operating the club as a resort, but this was not financially successful and the entire complex was closed by 1971. The complex was designated a historic landmark in 1978.
It was restored and reopened as a luxury resort hotel in 1985. Today, Jekyll Island Club Hotel is a member of Historic Hotels of America, the official program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
Jekyll Island Club
|Location||Jekyll Island, Georgia|
|Architectural style||Queen Anne|
|NRHP reference #||72000385|
|Added to NRHP||January 20, 1972|
|Designated NHLD||June 2, 1978|
At the end of the plantation era of Jekyll Island, Newton Finney, suggested to Dubignon, his brother-in-law, that they might acquire the island and then sell it to Northern businessmen as a winter resort. A New York banker helped with the purchase of the entire island. By 1885, Dubignon was the sole owner of Jekyll.
In 1885, Finney and a New York associate, Oliver K. King, gathered a group of men and petitioned the Glynn county courts, becoming incorporated as the "Jekyl Island Club" on December 9, 1885. They agreed to sell 100 shares of the Jekyll Island Club stock to 50 people at $600 a share (about $15,000 in 2017).
Finney had no difficulty selling the shares. Six of the first seven shares went to the men who signed the charter petition: Finney, Dubignon, King, Richard L. Ogden, William B. D'Wolf, and Charles L. Schlatter. In all, Finney was able to find 53 people to join the Club, including such famous names as Henry Hyde, Marshall Field, John Pierpont Morgan, Joseph Pulitzer, and William K. Vanderbilt.
On February 17, 1886, Finney signed an official agreement with Dubignon, who sold Jekyll Island to Finney's Jekyll Island Club for $125,000. On April 1, 1886, a meeting was held in New York to create the constitution and by-laws, and to nominate officers for the club. The first president was Lloyd Aspinwall, vice president was Judge Henry Elias Howland, treasurer was Franklin M. Ketchum, and Richard L. Ogden became secretary. These men faced the difficult task of turning the undeveloped property into a social club for the wealthy upper class of America.
Lloyd Aspinwall served just 5 months as the club president before he died suddenly. Henry Howland then took up the position as president of the Club.
Committees were formed to get the club off the ground. Charles A. Alexander of Chicago was chosen to design the clubhouse, and Horace William Shaler Cleveland, a famous landscape architect, was chosen to design and lay out the grounds.
Ground was broken on the clubhouse building in mid-August 1886. After some setbacks the clubhouse was completed on November 1. The club officially opened its doors when the executive committee arrived for the 1888 season on January 21.
Several nationally important events took place on Jekyll Island during the Club era, including the first transcontinental telephone call made by Theodore N. Vail, president of AT&T, to Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas A. Watson and President Woodrow Wilson in 1915; and the development of the Aldrich Vreeland Act for the National Monetary Commission in 1908.
The Jekyll Island Club was a unique resort, more family oriented than the Union Club or the Chicago Club. It enjoyed great popularity among the elite classes, maintaining a highly exclusive character for 60 years.
When the club started out, hunting was a major recreational activity. A gamekeeper was hired to keep the island well stocked with pheasants, turkeys, quail and deer.
All members were to report daily what they had killed and turn it over to the club. Wild game was a common sight on the menu of the clubhouse. A taxidermist shop was located within the club compound, specifically for mounting the prize game.
As the club grew, other recreations became popular. Golf eventually took over as the Club's dominant sport. The first course was located just to the north of the Club compound. Later, in the 1920s, an ocean side course was built. A portion of this historic golf course is still intact, and can be played.
Jekyll Island was the location of a meeting in November 1910 in which draft legislation was written to create the U.S. Federal Reserve. Following the Panic of 1907, banking reform became a major issue in the United States. Senator Nelson Aldrich (R-RI), chairman of the National Monetary Commission, went to Europe for almost two years to study that continent's banking systems. Upon his return, he brought together many of the country's leading financiers to Jekyll Island to discuss monetary policy and the banking system, an event which was the impetus for the creation of the Federal Reserve.
On the evening of November 22, 1910, Sen. Aldrich and A.P. Andrews (Assistant Secretary of the United States Treasury Department), Paul Warburg (a naturalized German representing Kuhn, Loeb & Co.), Frank A. Vanderlip (president of the National City Bank of New York), Henry P. Davison (senior partner of J. P. Morgan Company), Charles D. Norton (president of the Morgan-dominated First National Bank of New York), and Benjamin Strong (representing J. P. Morgan), together representing about one fourth the world's wealth at the time, left Hoboken, New Jersey on a train in complete secrecy, dropping their last names in favor of first names, or code names, so no one would discover who they all were. The excuse for such powerful representatives and wealth was to go on a duck hunting trip on Jekyll Island.
Picture a party of the nation's greatest bankers stealing out of New York on a private railroad car under cover of darkness, stealthily riding hundreds of miles South, embarking on a mysterious launch, sneaking onto an island deserted by all but a few servants, living there a full week under such rigid secrecy that the names of not one of them was once mentioned, lest the servants learn the identity and disclose to the world this strangest, most secret expedition in the history of American finance. I am not romancing; I am giving to the world, for the first time, the real story of how the famous Aldrich currency report, the foundation of our new currency system, was written ... The utmost secrecy was enjoined upon all. The public must not glean a hint of what was to be done. Senator Aldrich notified each one to go quietly into a private car of which the railroad had received orders to draw up on an unfrequented platform. Off the party set. New York's ubiquitous reporters had been foiled ... Nelson (Aldrich) had confided to Henry, Frank, Paul and Piatt that he was to keep them locked up at Jekyll Island, out of the rest of the world, until they had evolved and compiled a scientific currency system for the United States, the real birth of the present Federal Reserve System, the plan done on Jekyll Island in the conference with Paul, Frank and Henry ... Warburg is the link that binds the Aldrich system and the present system together. He more than any one man has made the system possible as a working reality.
The Great Depression in 1929 caused great changes on Jekyll Island. This depression touched even the very wealthy across the country and membership in an exclusive club became an extravagance. Membership dropped slowly through the 1930s as the depression continued.
With the financial situation of the club worsening, the executive committee decided to create a new level of club membership in 1933. A more affordable level of membership, the Associate membership was designed to fit the needs, and pocketbook, of anyone. It was an attempt to draw in new and younger people as well as to draw more members back to the clubhouse. This new membership did revitalize the club membership roster, although only for a brief period.
World War II was the final blow to the life of the Jekyll Island Club. The club opened as usual for the 1942 season. However, by the beginning of March it was announced there would be an early close to the season due to the club's financial situation and the strain the war had on the labor situation. The 1942 season would turn out to be the final season for the Jekyll Island Club.
There was hope by the president that the Club might be reopened after the war with renewed interest. However, in 1946 the state of Georgia entered the picture. The state's revenue commissioner, Melvin E. Thompson, wanted to purchase one of Georgia's barrier islands and open it to the public as a state park. Finally, on June 2, 1947, the state purchased the island through a condemnation order for $675,000 (or approximately $5,563,416 in 2003 dollars).
The club was turned into a public resort by the state, but closed by 1971, a financial failure. It was made a historic landmark in 1978 and restored and reopened as the Radisson Jekyll Island Club Hotel in 1985. Radisson ceased managing the hotel some years later, and it currently operates as the Jekyll Island Club Resort.
During the club's inception, a limit of 100 members was imposed to ensure the club's exclusiveness. During the financially difficult Great Depression period, the club began referring to its members as founders and created the new Associate Membership. This membership was purchased at a lower price, but with all of the benefits that the founders enjoyed, and limited to a total of 150.
|John J. Albright||1890-1931|
|Nelson W. Aldrich||American politician, daughter Abby married John D. Rockefeller Jr.||1912-1915|
|Lloyd Aspinwall, Jr.||1886-1892|
|George Fisher Baker||Founder of First National Bank of the City of New York predecessor to Citibank||1901-1931|
|John Eugene du Bignon||1886-1896|
|Cornelius Newton Bliss||1886-1911|
|Cornelius Newton Bliss Jr.||1912-1921|
|Matthew Chaloner Durfee Borden||The "Calico King", owner of the American Printing Company||1892-1912|
|Frederick Gilbert Bourne||President of the Singer Manufacturing Company between 1889 and 1905.||1901-1919|
|Robert Elbert Bourne||1926-1929|
|Robert Brewster||Son of Benjamin Brewster (financier) an early Standard Oil Trustee||1912-1939|
|Charles S. Brown||1924-1935|
|McEvers Bayard Brown||1886-1926|
|John Claflin||1886-1912, 1921-1938|
|Charles Richard Crane||Eldest son of plumbing parts mogul, Chicago manufacturer, Richard T. Crane||1916-1924|
|Florence Higinbotham Crane||1919-1940|
|Richard T. Crane||Founder of R.T. Crane & Bro., a Chicago-based manufacturer of valves and pipes that would later become an aerospace and plumbing manufacturer.||1911-1931|
|Robert Fulton Cutting||1923-1934|
|William Bayard Cutting||1886-1912|
|Charles M. Daniels||1924-1932|
|John Eugene du Bignon||1886-1896|
|Duncan Steuart Ellsworth||1895-1908|
|Nathaniel Kellogg Fairbank||1886-1903|
|Walton Ferguson, Jr.||1902-1906|
|Marshall Field||Founder of Marshall Field's department stores.||1886-1906|
|Newton Sobieski Finney||1886-1897|
|Ogden Goelet||New York real estate developer and director of The Chemical Bank. He had residences in 608 Fifth Ave., New York and a seasonal residence Ochre Point in Newport, Rhode Island||1886-1897|
|Robert Goelet||New York real estate developer and director of The Chemical Bank. He had residences at 591 Fifth Avenue, New York and seasonal residences at Tuxedo Park, New York and Ochre Point in Newport, RI||1886-1899|
|Frank H. Goodyear||Chairman of the board of the Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad Co., Buffalo, New York and lumber business magnate.||1902-1907|
|Frank H. Goodyear Jr.||1916-1930|
|Edwin Gould||Son of railroad financier Jay Gould||1899-1933|
|George Jay Gould I||Son of railroad financier Jay Gould||1895-1916|
|Edward S. Harkness||Philanthropist and one of four sons of Stephen V. Harkness, a harness-maker who invested in the forerunner of Standard Oil, John D. Rockefeller's oil company||1911-1923|
|Edmund B. Hayes||1886-1921|
|James J. Hill||1888-1916|
|Bayard C. Hoppin||1925-1931|
|Gerard B. Hoppin||1923-1938|
|Dr. Walter James||1917-1927|
|Morris Ketchum Jesup||1888-1908|
|John Stewart Kennedy||1898-1909|
|Thomas W. Lamont|
|Cornelius "Connie" Lee||1919-1947|
|Pierre Lorillard IV||Heir of the Lorillard Tobacco Company||1886-1886, 1888-1891|
|George Macy||Founder of The Heritage Press||1902-1918|
|Valentine Everit Macy||1909-1927|
|Charles Stewart Maurice||1886-1924|
|Cyrus Hall McCormick, Jr.||1891-1936|
|JP Morgan||Financier, created United States Steel Corporation by buying Carnegie Steel and formed General Electric||1886-1913|
|J. P. Morgan, Jr.||1913-1943|
|William Fellowes Morgan||1925-1934|
|Rev. Charles H. Parkhurst||1894-1909|
|Henry Kirke Porter||1891-1921|
|Joseph Pulitzer||Today, best known for the Pulitzer Prizes. Pulitzer was a journalist.||1886-1911|
|William Rockefeller||American financier, was a co-founder of Standard Oil with his older brother John D. Rockefeller.||1905-1922|
|Grant B. Schley||1903-1917|
|Dr. Frederick Shattuck||1912-1929|
|George Frederick Shrady, Sr.||1904-1907|
|Frederick Snow||1915-1918, 1925-1929|
|George Baker St. George||1925-1933|
|Theodore Newton Vail||1912-1920|
|Cornelius Vanderbilt, II||The first son of William Henry Vanderbilt, an American industrialist and philanthropist who built his wealth in shipping and railroads, and grandson of "The Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt.|
|William Kissam Vanderbilt||The second son of William Henry Vanderbilt, from whom he inherited $55 million, and grandson of "The Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt,||1886-1902|
|William Warren Vaughn||1919-1931|
Associate Members: (This class of membership was adopted in 1933)
|William Truman Aldrich||1933-?|
|John Foster Dulles||1933-?|
|David Sinton Ingalls||?|
|George Herbert Walker||1933-?|
Barbara Spofford Morgan (July 15, 1887 - April 1, 1971) was an American educator, essayist on religion and a specialist in mental testing.Cornelius Newton Bliss
Cornelius Newton Bliss (January 26, 1833 – October 9, 1911) was an American merchant, politician and art collector, who served as Secretary of the Interior in the administration of President William McKinley and as Treasurer of the Republican National Convention in four successive campaigns.Cyrus McCormick Jr.
Cyrus Hall McCormick Jr. (May 16, 1859 – 1936) was an American businessman. He was president of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company from 1884 to 1902.Edwin Gould Sr.
Edwin Gould Sr. (February 26, 1866 – July 12, 1933) was an American investor and railway official.Frederick Gilbert Bourne
Frederick Gilbert "Commodore" Bourne (December 20, 1851 – March 1919) was an American businessman. He served as the 5th President of the Singer Manufacturing Company between 1889 and 1905. He made the business "perhaps the first modern multinational industrial enterprise of any nationality".Bourne greatly expanded global production as well as international sales of the Singer sewing machine. Bourne was revolutionary to the sewing machine industry. He used the "installment plan" to make sewing machines a household item. Bourne is also remembered "among the most important innovators in building vertically integrated firms".In 1902 Frederick Bourne hired architect Ernest Flagg to build a small hunting lodge on the St. Lawrence River. This hunting lodge was based on a book written by Sir Walter Scott in 1826 called Woodstock. This book describes an elegant castle with secret passageways, tunnels, and a dungeon. This castle is today known as Singer Castle and is open for public tours.
A sailing enthusiast, Bourne served as a Commodore of the New York Yacht Club. He was also a member of the famous Jekyll Island Club (aka The Millionaires Club) on Jekyll Island, Georgia. Bourne owned many boats that he frequently used in New York City and at his summer home in the Thousand Islands.James Ellsworth (industrialist)
James William Ellsworth (October 13, 1849 – June 2, 1925) was an American industrialist and a Pennsylvania coal mine owner. The coal town of Ellsworth, Pennsylvania is named after him. He also served as president of the Caxton Club and the Jekyll Island Club.
Ellsworth married Eva Francis Butler on November 4, 1874. They had two children, Lincoln and Claire. But Mrs. Ellsworth died in 1888 at the age of 36. In 1895, Ellsworth married a second time to Julia Clarke Fincke. The second Mrs. Ellsworth lived to be 74 years old; she died in 1921.
In 1907, following the completion of the Monongahela Railway, Ellsworth sold the coal mines to Bethlehem Steel and purchased the Villa Palmieri, Fiesole, in part to further his interests as a collector of art and rare coins.His son, Lincoln Ellsworth, was a pilot in the Amundsen-Ellsworth Polar Flying Expedition of May 1925 which Ellsworth sponsored. In 1925, Ellsworth died of bronchial pneumonia at his villa near Florence, while awaiting the news of his son's safety.Jekyll Island
Jekyll Island is located off the coast of the U.S. state of Georgia, in Glynn County. It is one of the Sea Islands and one of the Golden Isles of Georgia barrier islands. The island is owned by the State of Georgia and run by a self-sustaining, self-governing body.Long used seasonally by indigenous peoples of the region, beginning in the colonial era, some of its lands became privately owned. A few structures still stand made of tabby, a coastal building material of crushed oyster shells. The island was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was evacuated during World War II by order of the US government. In 1947 the state of Georgia acquired all the property, for security and preservation.
A popular tourist destination, the island has beaches frequented by vacationers. Guided tours of the Landmark Historic District are available. Bike trails, walks along the beaches and sandbars, and Summer Waves, a water park, are among the active attractions. The historic district features numerous impressive and ambitious buildings from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The island is also full of wildlife, consisting of many different mammals, reptiles, and birds living and breeding in the island's inland salt marshes. In 2018, Architectural Digest named Jekyll Island the 11th most beautiful small town in America.Jekyll Island Museum
The MOSAIC (formerly known as the Jekyll Island Museum) is a history museum in the historic district of Jekyll Island of Georgia, in the United States.
The historic Club Stables, located on Stable Road, is now the home of the Jekyll Island Museum. This historic building was renovated by Weber Group, Inc. and Main Street Design in 2018, and plans to re-open spring of 2019. The museum features more exhibit space, more artifacts, a new outdoor classroom, and a new multi-purpose room. Constructed completely within the current footprint of the historic stables building, the new design will highlight the building’s construction with high, lofted ceilings and open space.
The museum serves as a gateway for daily tours of Jekyll Island’s 90-acre (360,000 m2) National Historic Landmark District, including the restored Indian Mound Cottage, a 25 room mansion, and the historic remains of Horton House. The Historic District includes the Jekyll Island Clubhouse (now the Jekyll Island Club hotel, a fully functional and award-winning four-star historic hotel), 11 cottages, the historic wharf (now a seafood restaurant), the historic power plant (now the Georgia Sea Turtle Center), club-era employee housing and a shopping area consisting of numerous historic buildings once used during the club-era.John Stewart Kennedy
John Stewart Kennedy (January 4, 1830 – October 30, 1909) was a Scottish-born American businessman, financier and philanthropist. He was a member of the Jekyll Island Club (also known as The Millionaires' Club) on Jekyll Island, Georgia along with J.P. Morgan and William Rockefeller among others.
He married Ms. Emma Baker (1833-1930), of Elizabeth, New Jersey in 1858 (two years after moving to New York City). He had no children but mentored his sister Mary Kennedy's son John Kennedy Tod in the international banking and investment profession.National Register of Historic Places listings in Glynn County, Georgia
This is a list of properties and districts in Glynn County, Georgia that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.Old South
Geographically, the Old South is a subregion farming country of the American South, differentiated from the Deep South by being limited to those Southern laws, states represented among the original thirteen British colonies which became the first thirteen U.S. states. Culturally, "Old South" is used to describe the rural, agriculturally-based, pre-Civil War economy and society in the Southern United States, in contrast to the post-war New South.Oliver Burr Jennings
Oliver Burr Jennings (June 3, 1825 – February 12, 1893) was an American businessman and one of the original stockholders in Standard Oil.Pierre Lorillard II
Pierre Abraham Lorillard II or Peter Abraham Lorillard II (September 7, 1764 – May 23, 1843), also known as Peter Lorillard, Jr., was an American tobacco manufacturer, industrialist, banker, businessman, and real estate tycoon.Rockefeller Cottage
The Rockefeller Cottage, also known as Indian Mound Cottage, is a house on Jekyll Island, Georgia. It is next to the Jekyll Island Club. It stands three stories high, and has a total of 25 rooms. There are nine bedrooms, nine bathrooms, and seven servant rooms. The house has many distinguishing features such as an elevator, a cedar-lined walk-in safe, and taps for hot and cold salt water on the bathtub in the master bedroom bath. Tours of the mansion are provided by the Jekyll Island Museum.SS Alanson B. Houghton
SS Alanson B. Houghton was a Liberty ship built in the United States during World War II. She was named after Alanson B. Houghton, the vice president and later president of Corning Glass Works, a member of the United States House of Representatives from New York (1919–1922), the United States Ambassador to Germany (1922–1925), United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1925–1929), and a member of the Jekyll Island Club.William Kissam Vanderbilt
William Kissam Vanderbilt I (December 12, 1849 – July 22, 1920) was an American heir, businessman, philanthropist and horsebreeder. Born into the Vanderbilt family, he managed his family's railroad investments.William Rockefeller
William Avery Rockefeller, Jr. (May 31, 1841 – June 24, 1922) was an American businessman and financier. He was a co-founder of Standard Oil along with his older brother John Davison Rockefeller (1839–1937). He was also a prominent member of the Rockefeller family.William Tuthill
William Burnet Tuthill (February 11, 1855 – August 25, 1929) was an American architect celebrated for designing New York City's Carnegie Hall.
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