Jeep is a brand of American automobile and division of FCA US LLC (formerly Chrysler Group, LLC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Italian-American corporation Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Jeep has been a part of Chrysler since 1987, when Chrysler acquired the Jeep brand, along with remaining assets, from its previous owner American Motors Corporation (AMC).
Jeep's product range consists solely of sport utility vehicles – both cross-overs and fully off-road worthy models, including one pickup truck. Previously, Jeep's range included other pick-ups, as well as small vans, and a few roadsters. Some of Jeep's vehicles—such as the Grand Cherokee—reach into the luxury SUV segment, a market segment the 1963 Wagoneer is considered to have started. Jeep sold 1.4 million SUVs globally in 2016, up from 500,000 in 2008, two-thirds of which in North America, and was Fiat-Chrysler's best selling brand in the U.S. during the first half of 2017. In the U.S. alone, over 2400 dealerships hold franchise rights to sell Jeep-branded vehicles, and if Jeep were spun off into a separate company, it is estimated to be worth between $22 and $33.5 billion—slightly more than all of FCA (US).
Prior to 1940 the term "jeep" had been used as U.S. Army slang for new recruits or vehicles, but the World War II "jeep" that went into production in 1941 specifically tied the name to this light military 4x4, arguably making them the oldest four-wheel drive mass-production vehicles now known as SUVs. The Jeep became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Armed Forces and the Allies during World War II, as well as the postwar period. The term became common worldwide in the wake of the war. Doug Stewart noted: "The spartan, cramped, and unstintingly functional jeep became the ubiquitous World War II four-wheeled personification of Yankee ingenuity and cocky, can-do determination." It is the precursor of subsequent generations of military light utility vehicles such as the Humvee, and inspired the creation of civilian analogs such as the original Series I Land Rover. Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been designed in other nations.
The Jeep marque has been headquartered in Toledo, Ohio, ever since Willys-Overland launched production of the first CJ or Civilian Jeep branded models there in 1945. Its replacement, the conceptually consistent Jeep Wrangler series, remains in production since 1986. With its solid axles and open top, the Wrangler has been called the Jeep model that is as central to the brand’s identity as the rear-engined 911 is to Porsche.
|Founded||1943 trademark application |
1945 first Jeep branded product launched
|Christian Meunier (President of the Jeep brand, worldwide)|
|Owner||Fiat Chrysler Automobiles|
When it became clear that the United States would be involved in the European theater of World War II, the Army contacted 135 companies to create working prototypes of a four-wheel drive reconnaissance car. Only two companies responded: American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland. The Army set a seemingly impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype. Willys asked for more time, but was refused. The Bantam Car Company had only a skeleton staff left on the payroll and solicited Karl Probst, a talented freelance designer from Detroit. After turning down Bantam's initial request, Probst responded to an Army request and began work on July 17, 1940, initially without salary.
Probst laid out full plans in just two days for the Bantam prototype known as the BRC or Bantam Reconnaissance Car, working up a cost estimate the next day. Bantam's bid was submitted on July 22, complete with blueprints. Much of the vehicle could be assembled from off-the-shelf automotive parts, and custom four-wheel drivetrain components were to be supplied by Spicer. The hand-built prototype was completed in Butler, Pennsylvania and driven to Camp Holabird, Maryland on September 23 for Army testing. The vehicle met all the Army's criteria except engine torque.
The Army thought that the Bantam company was too small to supply the required number of vehicles, so it supplied the Bantam design to Willys and Ford, and encouraged them to modify the design. The resulting Ford "Pygmy" and Willys "Quad" prototypes looked very similar to the Bantam BRC prototype, and Spicer supplied very similar four-wheel drivetrain components to all three manufacturers.
1,500 of each model (Bantam BRC-40, Ford GP, and Willys MA) were built and extensively field-tested. After the weight specification was revised from 1,275 lb (578 kg) to a maximum of 2,450 lb (1,110 kg) including oil and water, Willys-Overland's chief engineer Delmar "Barney" Roos modified the design in order to use Willys's heavy but powerful "Go Devil" engine, and won the initial production contract. The Willys version became the standard Jeep design, designated the model MB and was built at their plant in Toledo, Ohio. The familiar pressed-metal Jeep grille was a Ford design feature and incorporated in the final design by the Army.
Because the US War Department required a large number of vehicles in a short time, Willys-Overland granted the US Government a non-exclusive license to allow another company to manufacture vehicles using Willys' specifications. The Army chose Ford as a second supplier, building Jeeps to the Willys' design. Willys supplied Ford with a complete set of plans and specifications. American Bantam, the creators of the first Jeep, built approximately 2,700 of them to the BRC-40 design, but spent the rest of the war building heavy-duty trailers for the Army.
Final production version Jeeps built by Willys-Overland were the Model MB, while those built by Ford were the Model GPW (G=government vehicle, P designated the 80" wheelbase, and W = the Willys engine design). There were subtle differences between the two. The versions produced by Ford had every component (including bolt heads) marked with an "F", and early on Ford also stamped their name in large letters in their trademark script, embossed in the rear panel of their jeeps. Willys followed the Ford pattern by stamping 'Willys' into several body parts, but the U.S. government objected to this practice, and both parties stopped this in 1942. In spite of persistent advertising by both car and component manufacturers' contributions to the production of the successful jeeps during the war, no "Jeep"-branded vehicles were built until the 1945 Willys CJ-2A.
The cost per vehicle trended upwards as the war continued from the price under the first contract from Willys at US$648.74 (Ford's was $782.59 per unit). Willys-Overland and Ford, under the direction of Charles E. Sorensen (Vice-President of Ford during World War II), produced about 640,000 Jeeps towards the war effort, which accounted for approximately 18% of all the wheeled military vehicles built in the U.S. during the war.
Jeeps were used by every service of the U.S. military. An average of 145 were supplied to every Army infantry regiment. Jeeps were used for many purposes, including cable laying, saw milling, as firefighting pumpers, field ambulances, tractors and, with suitable wheels, would even run on railway tracks. An amphibious jeep, the model GPA, or "seep" (Sea Jeep) was built for Ford in modest numbers but it could not be considered a huge success—it was neither a good off-road vehicle nor a good boat. As part of the war effort, nearly 30% of all Jeep production was supplied to Great Britain and to the Soviet Red Army.
The Jeep has been widely imitated around the world, including in France by Delahaye and by Hotchkiss et Cie (after 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under license from Willys), and in Japan by Mitsubishi Motors and Toyota. The Land Rover was inspired by the Jeep. The utilitarian good looks of the original Jeep have been hailed by industrial designers and museum curators alike. The Museum of Modern Art described the Jeep as a masterpiece of functionalist design, and has periodically exhibited the Jeep as part of its collection. Pulitzer Prize-winning war correspondent Ernie Pyle called the jeep, along with the Coleman G.I. Pocket Stove, "the two most important pieces of noncombat equipment ever developed." Jeeps became even more famous following the war, as they became available on the surplus market. Some ads claimed to offer "Jeeps still in the factory crate." This legend persisted for decades, despite the fact that Jeeps were never shipped from the factory in crates (although Ford did "knock down" Jeeps for easier shipping, which may have perpetuated the myth).
The Jeepney is a unique type of taxi or bus created in the Philippines. The first Jeepneys were military-surplus MBs and GPWs, left behind in the war-ravaged country following World War II and Filipino independence. Jeepneys were built from Jeeps by lengthening and widening the rear "tub" of the vehicle, allowing them to carry more passengers. Over the years, Jeepneys have become the most ubiquitous symbol of the modern Philippines, even as they have been decorated in more elaborate and flamboyant styles by their owners. Most Jeepneys today are scratch-built by local manufacturers, using different powertrains.
Aside from Jeepneys, backyard assemblers in the Philippines construct replica Jeeps with stainless steel bodies and surplus parts, and are called "owner-type jeeps" (as jeepneys are also called "passenger-type jeeps").
After World War II, Jeep began to experiment with new designs, including a model that could drive under water. On February 1, 1950, contract N8ss-2660 was approved for 1,000 units "especially adapted for general reconnaissance or command communications" and "constructed for short period underwater operation such as encountered in landing and fording operations." The engine was modified with a snorkel system so that the engine could properly breathe under water.
In 1965, Jeep developed the M715 1.25-ton army truck, a militarized version of the civilian J-series Jeep truck, which served extensively in the Vietnam War. It had heavier full-floating axles and a foldable, vertical, flat windshield. Today, it serves other countries, and is still being produced by Kia under license.
Many explanations of the origin of the word jeep have proven difficult to verify. The most widely held theory is that the military designation GP (for Government Purposes or General Purpose) was slurred into the word Jeep in the same way that the contemporary HMMWV (for High-Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle) has become known as the Humvee. Joe Frazer, Willys-Overland President from 1939 to 1944, claimed to have coined the word jeep by slurring the initials G.P. There are no contemporaneous uses of "GP" before later attempts to create a "backronym."
A more detailed view, popularized by R. Lee Ermey on his television series Mail Call, disputes this "slurred GP" origin, saying that the vehicle was designed for specific duties, and was never referred to as "General Purpose" and it is highly unlikely that the average jeep-driving GI would have been familiar with this designation. The Ford GPW abbreviation actually meant G for government use, P to designate its 80-inch (2,000 mm) wheelbase and W to indicate its Willys-Overland designed engine. Ermey suggests that soldiers at the time were so impressed with the new vehicles that they informally named it after Eugene the Jeep, a character in the Thimble Theatre comic strip and cartoons created by E. C. Segar, as early as mid-March 1936. Eugene the Jeep was Popeye's "jungle pet" and was "small, able to move between dimensions and could solve seemingly impossible problems."
The word "jeep" however, was used as early as World War I, as US Army slang for new uninitiated recruits, or by mechanics to refer to new unproven vehicles. In 1937, tractors which were supplied by Minneapolis Moline to the US Army were called jeeps. A precursor of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress was also referred to as the jeep.
Words of the Fighting Forces by Clinton A. Sanders, a dictionary of military slang, published in 1942, in the library at The Pentagon gives this definition:
This definition is supported by the use of the term "jeep carrier" to refer to the Navy's small escort carriers.
Early in 1941, Willys-Overland demonstrated the vehicle's off-road capability by having it drive up the steps of the United States Capitol, driven by Willys test driver Irving "Red" Hausmann, who had recently heard soldiers at Fort Holabird calling it a "jeep." When asked by syndicated columnist Katharine Hillyer for the Washington Daily News (or by a bystander, according to another account) what it was called, Hausmann answered, "It's a jeep."
Katharine Hillyer's article was published nationally on February 19, 1941, and included a picture of the vehicle with the caption:
Although the term was also military slang for vehicles that were untried or untested, this exposure caused all other jeep references to fade, leaving the 4x4 with the name.
The "Jeep" brand has gone through many owners, starting with Willys-Overland, which filed the original trademark application for the "Jeep" brand-name in February 1943. To help establish the term as a Willys brand, the firm campaigned with advertisements emphasizing Willys' prominent contribution to the Jeep that helped win the war. Willys' application initially met with years of opposition, primarily from Bantam, but also from Minneapolis-Moline. The Federal Trade Commission initially ruled in favor of Bantam in May 1943, largely ignoring Minneapolis-Moline's claim, and continued to scold Willys-Overland after the war for its advertising. The FTC even slapped the company with a formal complaint, to cease and desist any claims that it "created or designed" the Jeep — Willys was only allowed to advertise its contribution to the Jeep's development. Willys however proceeded to produce the first Civilian Jeep (CJ) branded vehicles in 1945, and simply copyrighted the Jeep name in 1946. Being the only company that continually produced "Jeep" vehicles after the war, Willys-Overland was eventually granted the name "Jeep" as a registered trademark in June 1950. Aside from Willys, King Features Syndicate has held a trademark on the name "Jeep" for their comics since August 1936.
Willys had also seriously considered the brand name AGRIJEEP, and was granted the trademark for it in December 1944, but instead the civilian production models as of 1945 were marketed as the "Universal Jeep," which reflected a wider range of uses outside of farming.
A division of FCA US LLC, the most recent successor company to the Jeep brand, now holds trademark status on the name "Jeep" and the distinctive 7-slot front grille design. The original 9-slot grille associated with all World War II jeeps was designed by Ford for their GPW, and because it weighed less than the original "Slat Grille" of Willys (an arrangement of flat bars), was incorporated into the "standardized jeep" design.
The history of the HMMWV (Humvee) has ties with Jeep. In 1971, Jeep's Defense and Government Products Division was turned into AM General, a wholly owned subsidiary of American Motors Corporation, which also owned Jeep. In 1979, while still owned by American Motors, AM General began the first steps toward designing the Humvee. AM General also continued manufacturing the two-wheel-drive DJ, which Jeep created in 1953. The General Motors Hummer and Chrysler Jeep have been waging battle in U.S. courts over the right to use seven slots in their respective radiator grilles. Chrysler Jeep claims it has the exclusive rights to use the seven vertical slits since it is the sole remaining assignee of the various companies since Willys gave their postwar jeeps seven slots instead of Ford's nine-slot design for the Jeep.
Jeep advertising has always emphasized the brand's vehicles' off-road capabilities. Today, the Wrangler is one of the few remaining four-wheel-drive vehicles with solid front and rear axles. These axles are known for their durability, strength, and articulation. New Wranglers come with a Dana 44 rear differential and a Dana 30 front differential. The upgraded Rubicon model of the JK Wrangler is equipped with electronically activated locking differentials, Dana 44 axles front and rear with 4.10 gears, a 4:1 transfer case, electronic sway bar disconnect and heavy duty suspension.
Another benefit of solid axle vehicles is they tend to be easier and cheaper to "lift" with aftermarket suspension systems. This increases the distance between the axle and chassis of the vehicle. By increasing this distance, larger tires can be installed, which will increase the ground clearance, allowing it to traverse even larger and more difficult obstacles. In addition to higher ground clearance, many owners aim to increase suspension articulation or "flex" to give their Jeeps greatly improved off-road capabilities. Good suspension articulation keeps all four wheels in contact with the ground and maintains traction.
Useful features of the smaller Jeeps are their short wheelbases, narrow frames, and ample approach, breakover, and departure angles, allowing them to fit into places where full-size four-wheel drives have difficulty.
After the war, Willys did not resume production of its passenger-car models, choosing instead to concentrate on Jeeps and Jeep-branded vehicles, launching the Jeep Station Wagon in 1946, the Jeep Truck in 1947, and the Jeepster in 1948. An attempt to re-enter the passenger-car market in 1952 with the Willys Aero sedan proved unsuccessful, and ended with the company’s acquisition by Kaiser Motors in 1953, for $60 million. Kaiser initially called the merged company "Willys Motors", but renamed itself Kaiser-Jeep in 1963. By the end of 1955, Kaiser-Frazer had dropped the Willys Aero, as well as its own passenger cars to sell Jeeps exclusively.
American Motors Corporation (AMC) in turn purchased Kaiser's money-losing Jeep operations in 1970. This time $70 million changed hands. The utility vehicles complemented AMC's passenger car business by sharing components, achieving volume efficiencies, as well as capitalizing on Jeep's international and government markets. In 1971 AMC spun off Jeep's commercial, postal and military vehicle lines into a separate subsidiary, AM General – the company that later developed the M998 Humvee. In 1976 Jeep introduced the CJ-7, replacing the CJ-6 in North America, as well as crossing 100,000 civilian units in annual global sales for the first time.
The French automaker Renault began investing in AMC in 1979. During this period Jeep introduced the XJ Cherokee, its first unibody SUV; and global sales top 200,000 for the first time in 1985. However, the replacement of the CJ Jeeps by the new Wrangler line in 1986 marked the start of a different era. By 1987, the automobile markets had changed and Renault itself was experiencing financial troubles.
At the same time, Chrysler Corporation wanted to capture the Jeep brand, as well as other assets of AMC. So Chrysler bought out AMC in 1987, shortly after the Jeep CJ-7 had been replaced with the AMC-designed Wrangler YJ. After more than 40 years, the four-wheel drive utility vehicles brand that had been a profitable niche for smaller automakers, fell into the hands of one of the Big Three; and Jeep was the only AMC brand continued by Chrysler after the acquisition. But Chrysler subsequently merged with Daimler-Benz in 1998 and folded into DaimlerChrysler. DaimlerChrysler eventually sold most of their interest in Chrysler to a private equity company in 2007. Chrysler and the Jeep division operated under Chrysler Group LLC, until December 15, 2014, when Chrysler folded into Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, with the stateside division operating under 'FCA US LLC'.
Jeeps have been built under licence by various manufacturers around the world, including Mahindra in India, EBRO in Spain, and several in South America. Mitsubishi built more than 30 models in Japan between 1953 and 1998; Most were based on the CJ-3B model of the original Willys-Kaiser design.
Toledo, Ohio has been the headquarters of the Jeep brand since its inception, and the city has always been proud of this heritage. Although no longer produced in the same Toledo Complex as the World War II originals, two streets in the vicinity of the old plant are named Willys Parkway and Jeep Parkway. The Jeep Wrangler and Jeep Cherokee are built in the city currently, in separate facilities, not far from the site of the original Willys-Overland plant.
American Motors set up the first automobile-manufacturing joint venture in the People's Republic of China on January 15, 1984. The result was Beijing Jeep Corporation, Ltd., in partnership with Beijing Automobile Industry Corporation, to produce the Jeep Cherokee (XJ) in Beijing. Manufacture continued after Chrysler's buyout of AMC. This joint venture is now part of DaimlerChrysler and DaimlerChrysler China Invest Corporation. The original 1984 XJ model was updated and called the "Jeep 2500" toward the end of its production that ended after 2005.
While Jeeps have been built in India under licence by Mahindra & Mahindra since the 1960s, Jeep has entered the Indian market directly in 2016, starting with release of the Wrangler and Grand Cherokee in the country.
The CJ (for "Civilian Jeep") series were literally the first "Jeep" branded vehicles sold commercially to the civilian public, beginning in 1945 with the CJ-2A, followed by the CJ-3A in 1949 and the CJ-3B in 1953. These early Jeeps are frequently referred to as "flat-fenders" because their front fenders were completely flat and straight, no different than on the original WW II model (the Willys MB and identical Ford GPW).
The CJ-4 exists only as a single 1951 prototype, and constitutes the "missing link" between the flat-fendered CJ-2A and CJ-3A/B, and the subsequent Jeeps with new bodies, featuring rounded fenders and hoods, beginning with the 1955 CJ-5, first introduced as the military Willys MD (or M38A1). The restyled body was mostly prompted to clear the taller new overhead-valve Hurricane engine.
With over 300,000 wagons and its variants built in the U.S., it was one of Willys' most successful post-World War II models. Its production coincided with consumers moving to the suburbs.
The 1948 introduced Jeepster was directly based on the rear-wheel-drive Jeep Station Wagon chassis, and shared many of the same parts.
From 1955 onwards Willys offered two-wheel drive versions of their CJ Jeeps for commercial use, called DJ models (for 'Dispatcher Jeep'), in both open and closed body-styles. A well-known version was the right-hand drive model with sliding side-doors, used by the US Postal service.
In 1961 the range was expanded with the 'Fleetvan' delivery-van, based on DJ Jeeps.
SUV models (1962-1991)
Pickup models (1962-1988)
The Jeep brand currently produces five models, but 8 vehicles are under the brand name or use the Jeep logo:
Jeeps have been built and/or assembled around the world by various companies.
Jeep is also a brand of apparel of outdoor lifestyle sold under license. It is reported that there are between 600 and 1,500 such outlets in China, vastly outnumbering the number of Jeep auto dealers in the country.
In August 2014 Jeep signed a sponsorship deal with Greek football club AEK Athens F.C..
... served as the auditor for Fiat S.p.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries, which include Chrysler Group
Chrysler Group LLC operates as a subsidiary of Fiat North America LLC
The first Land-Rover owed a lot to the Jeep. Designer Gordon Bashford, who laid out the basic concept, makes no secret of that. It was also his job to go off to an ex-WD surplus vehicle dump in the Cotswolds, buy a couple of roadworthy Jeeps...
American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company on 1 May, 1954. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.AMC went on to compete with the U.S. Big Three—Ford, General Motors and Chrysler—with its small cars including the Rambler American, Hornet, Gremlin and Pacer; its intermediate and full-size cars including the AMC Ambassador, AMC Rebel, and AMC Matador; muscle cars including the Marlin, AMX and Javelin; and early four-wheel-drive variants of the Eagle, the U.S. market's first true crossover.
The company was known as "a small company deft enough to exploit special market segments left untended by the giants", and was widely known for the design work of chief stylist, Dick Teague, who "had to make do with a much tighter budget than his counterparts at Detroit's Big Three" but "had a knack for making the most of his employer's investment".After periods of intermittent but unsustained success, Renault acquired a major interest in AMC in 1979—and the company was ultimately acquired by Chrysler. At its 1987 demise, The New York Times said AMC was "never a company with the power or the cost structure to compete confidently at home or abroad."Beijing Benz
Beijing Benz (officially Beijing Benz Automotive Co., Ltd) is an automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Beijing, China, and a joint venture between BAIC Motor and Daimler AG.Originally established in 1984 as Beijing Jeep Corporation (Chinese: 北京吉普汽车有限公司) by BAIC Motor with American Motors Corporation (AMC), it was the first Chinese auto-making joint venture with a Western partner. It continued after AMC was acquired by Chrysler in 1987 and after Chrysler merged with German automaker Daimler-Benz AG in 1998.
Jeep later returned to the Chinese market in March 2010 under GAC Fiat where the company produces the Jeep Cherokee (K4) in Changsha from 2015 onwards. The Jeep Commander/Jeep Grand Commander (K8) were added in 2018 for assembling at the Changsha plant and is an exclusive model the Chinese market. The Jeep Compass (M4) and Jeep Renegade (BQ) are produced in Guangzhou from 2016 onwards.
Mercedes was firstly involved in a short lived joint venture from 1987 until 1988 with FAW (First Automobile Works) where 828 vehicles were produced consisting of the Mercedes-Benz (W123) 200 and 230E Lang, most of which were made from CKD kits. It was later established in 2005 where Mercedes Benz was reintroduced to the Chinese market as Beijing Benz and assembled its first car, a Mercedes-Benz E-Class in December 2005.
As of 2016, Beijing Benz assembles and manufactures the Mercedes-Benz E-Class (long wheelbase), and C-Class in China.As well as Beijing, there is also a subsidiary in Fuzhou, Fujian under the name Fujian Benz established in 2007 where they have produced the Viano and Vito since April 2011 and the Sprinter in November 2011. The V-Class was launched in March 2016.Curtiss-Wright AT-9
The Curtiss-Wright AT-9 Jeep was a twin-engined advanced trainer aircraft used by the United States during World War II to bridge the gap between single-engined trainers and twin-engined combat aircraft. The AT-9 had a low-wing cantilever monoplane configuration, retractable landing gear and was powered by two Lycoming R-680-9 radial engines.Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., often abbreviated as FCA, is an Italian-American multinational corporation and is the world's eighth largest auto maker. The group was established in October 2014 by merging Fiat and Chrysler into a new holding company. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles' main headquarters are located in the Netherlands, and the financial headquarters are in London for tax purposes. The holding company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and Borsa Italiana in Milan. Exor N.V., an Italian investment group controlled by the Agnelli family, owns 29.19% of FCA and controls 44.31% through a loyalty voting mechanism.FCA's mass-market brands operate through two main subsidiaries: FCA Italy (previously Fiat Group Automobiles SpA) headquartered in Turin; and FCA US (previously Chrysler Group LLC) headquartered in Detroit. The company's portfolio includes automotive brands Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Dodge, Fiat, Fiat Professional, Jeep, Lancia, Maserati, and Ram Trucks. Ferrari was spun off from the group in 2016. Today FCA operates in four global markets (NAFTA, LATAM, APAC, EMEA).FCA also owns industrial subsidiaries Comau and Teksid.Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges.
In day-to-day language, "jeep" has become the common noun used for four-wheel drive vehicles resembling the original World War II Jeep.A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive" (AWD). However, "four-wheel drive" typically refers to a set of specific components and functions, and intended off-road application, which generally complies with modern use of the terminology.Jeep CJ
The Jeep CJ models are both a series and a range of small, open-bodied off-road vehicles and compact pickup trucks, built and sold by several successive incarnations of the Jeep automobile marque from 1945 to 1986. The 1945 Willys Jeep was the world's first mass-produced civilian four-wheel drive car.
In 1944, Willys-Overland, one of the two main manufacturers of the World War II military Jeep, built the first prototypes for a commercial version – the CJ, short for "civilian Jeep". From then on, all CJ Jeeps consistently had a separate body and frame, rigid live axles with leaf springs both front and rear, a tapering nose design with flared fenders, and a fold-flat windshield, and could be driven without doors. Also, with few exceptions, they had part-time four-wheel drive systems, with the choice of high and low gearing, and open bodies with removable hard or soft tops.
After remaining in production through a range of model numbers, and several corporate parents, the Jeep CJ line was officially ended in 1986. More than 1.5 million CJ Jeeps were built, having continued the same basic body style for 45 years since the Jeep first appeared. Widely regarded as "America's workhorse", the CJs have been described as "probably the most successful utility vehicle ever made." American Motors VP Joseph Cappy said the end of "CJ production will signal an end of a very important era in Jeep history." The Jeep CJ-7 was replaced in 1986 by the similar-looking Jeep Wrangler. The Jeep CJ-8 and CJ-10s were succeeded by the Jeep Comanche pickup.
The similar model, the DJ "Dispatcher" was introduced in 1956 as a two-wheel drive version with open, fabric, or a closed steel body in both left- and right-hand drives for hotel, resort, police, and later United States Postal Service markets.Jeep Cherokee (XJ)
The Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is a compact sport utility vehicle manufactured and marketed across a single generation by Jeep in the United States from 1983 to 2001 — and globally through 2014. Available in three- or five-door, five passenger, front engine, rear- or four-wheel drive configurations, the XJ was manufactured in Toledo, Ohio, USA; Beijing, China; Ferreyra, Argentina; Cairo, Egypt; and in Valencia, Venezuela, with production reaching approximately 3 million between 1984 and 2001.Sharing the name of the original full-size Cherokee SJ model, the 1984 XJ Cherokee was Jeep's first all-new vehicle design since the 1963 SJ Wagoneer, was the first American off-roader built with fully integrated body-and-frame (unibody) design, and became the mechanical basis for the MJ-series Jeep Comanche pickup truck (1985–1992).
Jeep marketed XJs as Sportwagons, leading them to become precursors to the modern sport utility vehicle (SUV) before the term came into wide usage. The XJ spawned competitors as other automakers noticed the design cannibalizing sales from regular cars, supplanting the role of the station wagon and transforming the vehicle type "from truck to limousine in the eyes of countless suburban owners."The 2007 book Jeep Off-Road called the XJ a "significant link in the evolution of the 4x4." In 2011 Kiplinger selected the XJ as one of "10 cars that refuse to die." Automotive journalist Robert Cumberford, writing for Automobile, called the Jeep XJ one of the 20 greatest cars of all time — for its design, and "possibly the best SUV shape of all time, it is the paradigmatic model to which other designers have since aspired."Jeep Compass
The Jeep Compass is a four-door compact crossover SUV introduced for the 2007 model year, and is now in its second generation. The first generation Compass and Patriot, its rebadged variant, were among Jeep's first crossover SUVs. The second-generation Compass debuted in September 2016 in Brazil and at the Los Angeles International Auto Show in November 2016, sharing a modified platform with the Renegade.Jeep Grand Cherokee
The Jeep Grand Cherokee is a range of mid-size SUVs produced by the American manufacturer Jeep. While some other SUVs were manufactured with body-on-frame construction, the Jeep Grand Cherokee has always used a unibody chassis.Jeep Renegade (BU)
The Jeep Renegade (BU/520) is a subcompact crossover SUV (mini SUV in Europe) produced by Jeep. The off-road vehicle was first shown to the public in March 2014 at the Geneva Motor Show and production started in late August of that year. Standard Renegade models come with front-wheel drive. The vehicle offers the four-wheel drive systems Active Drive I and Active Drive Low, both of which are paired with Jeep's Selec-Terrain System.Jeep Wrangler
The Jeep Wrangler is a series of compact and mid-size (Wrangler Unlimited and Wrangler 2-door JL) four-wheel drive off-road SUVs, manufactured by Jeep since 1986, and currently in its fourth generation. The Wrangler JL, the most recent generation, was unveiled in late 2017 and is produced at Jeep's Toledo Complex.
The Wrangler is arguably an indirect progression from the World War II Jeep, through the CJ (Civilian Jeeps) produced by Willys, Kaiser-Jeep and American Motors Corporation (AMC) from the mid-1940s through 1980s. Although neither AMC nor Chrysler (after its purchase of AMC in 1987) have claimed that the Wrangler was a direct descendant of the original military model — both the CJ Jeeps and the conceptually consistent Wrangler, with their solid axles and open top, have been called the Jeep model as central to Jeep's brand identity as the rear-engined 911 is to Porsche.Similar to the Willys MB and the CJ Jeeps before it, all Wrangler models continue to use a separate body and frame, rigid live axles both front and rear, a tapering nose design with flared fenders, a fold-flat windshield, and can be driven without doors. Also, with few exceptions, they have part-time four-wheel drive systems, with the choice of high and low gearing, and standard are open bodies with removable hard- or soft-tops. However, the Wrangler series was specifically redesigned to be safer and more comfortable on-road, to attract more daily drivers, by upgrading its suspension, drivetrain, and interior, compared to the CJ line. The suspension on all Wranglers included trackbars and anti-roll bars, and, from the 1997 TJ onwards, front and rear coil springs instead of the previous leaf-springs.From 2004 on, the Wrangler has been complemented with long-wheelbase versions, called Wrangler Unlimited (until the release of the JK generation). 2004-2006 models were longer versions with 2 doors. In 2004 only automatic transmission equipped “Unlimited” versions were sold. In 2005 both an automatic and manual 6-speed (NSG-370) were offered. Since 2007, the long-wheelbase Wranglers were four-door models, offering over 20 in (508 mm) more room. By mid 2017 the four-door models represented three quarters of all new Wranglers on the market.Jeepney
Jeepneys (Filipino: Dyipne), sometimes called simply jeeps (Filipino: dyip), are buses and the most popular means of public transportation ubiquitous in the Philippines. They are known for their crowded seating and kitsch decorations, which have become a wide spread symbol of Philippine culture and art. A Sarao jeepney was exhibited at the Philippine pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair as a national image for the Filipinos.Jeepneys were originally made from U.S. military jeeps left over from World War II. The word jeepney is likely a portmanteau word – a combination of "jeep" and "jitney", both words common slang in the popular vernacular of the era: "jitney" being a popular term for an American taxicab, and a "jeep" a newly coined term to describe a type of military vehicle (origin from General Purpose, or GP, hence Jeep). Other sources favor the far less likely explanation that it is a portmanteau of "jeep" and "knee", because the passengers sit very close to each other. Most jeepneys are used as public utility vehicles. Some are used as personal vehicles. Jeepneys are used less often for commercial or institutional use.LNB Pro A
The LNB Pro A, commonly known as Pro A and for sponsorship reasons named the Jeep Élite, is the top-tier men's professional basketball league in France. The competition has existed since 1921. Since 1987, the Ligue Nationale de Basket has organized the league. The bottom two placed teams from each season are relegated to the second tier level Pro B. The winner of the play-offs of the Pro A is crowned the French national champion.Pilonidal disease
Pilonidal disease is a type of skin infection which typically occurs as a cyst between the cheeks of the buttocks and often at the upper end. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, and redness. There may also be drainage of fluid, but rarely a fever.Risk factors include obesity, family history, prolonged sitting, greater amounts of hair, and not enough exercise. The underlying mechanism is believed to involve a mechanical process. The lesions may contain hair and skin debris. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and examination.If there is infection, treatment is generally by incision and drainage just off the midline. Shaving the area may prevent recurrence. More extensive surgery may be required if the disease recurs. Antibiotics are usually not needed. Without treatment the condition may remain long term.About 3 per 10,000 people per year are affected, and it occurs more often in males than females. Young adults are most commonly affected. The term "pilonidal" means "nest of hair". The condition was first described in 1833.Sport utility vehicle
Sport utility vehicle (SUV) is a category of motor vehicles that combine elements of road-going passenger cars with features from off-road vehicles, such as raised ground clearance and four-wheel drive.
There is no commonly agreed definition of an SUV, and usage varies between countries. Some definitions claim that an SUV must be built on a light truck chassis; however, broader definitions consider any vehicle with off-road design features to be an SUV. A crossover SUV is defined as an SUV built with a unibody construction (as per passenger cars), however in many cases crossovers are simply referred to as SUVs. In some countries—such as the United States—SUVs have been classified as "light trucks", resulting in more lenient regulations compared to passenger cars.
The predecessors to SUVs date back to military and low-volume models from the late 1930s, and the four-wheel drive station wagons and carryalls that began to be introduced in 1949. The 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is considered to be the first SUV in the modern style. Most SUVs produced today use unibody construction (as per passenger cars); however, in the past many SUVs used body-on-frame construction.
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the popularity of SUVs greatly increased, often at the expense of the popularity of large sedans and station wagons. More recently, smaller SUVs, mid-size and crossovers have become increasingly popular. SUVs are currently the world's largest automotive segment and accounted for 36.8% of the world's passenger car market in 2017.Willys
Willys () was a brand name used by Willys–Overland Motors, an American automobile company best known for its design and production of military Jeeps (MBs) and civilian versions (CJs) during the 20th century.Willys MB
The Willys MB and the Ford GPW, both formally called the U.S. Army Truck, 1⁄4-ton, 4×4, Command Reconnaissance, commonly known as Jeep or jeep, and sometimes referred to as G503, were highly successful off-road capable, light, military utility vehicles, built in large numbers to a standardized design, from 1941 to 1945, for the Allied forces in World War II.
The jeep became the primary light wheeled transport vehicle of the United States Military and its Allies in World War II, as well as the postwar period, with President Eisenhower once calling it, "one of three decisive weapons the U.S. had during WWII." It was also the world's first mass-produced four-wheel drive car, manufactured in six-figure numbers. About 650,000 units were built, constituting a quarter of the total U.S. non-combat motor vehicles produced during the war, and almost two-thirds of the 988,000 light vehicle class produced, together with the Dodge WC series, outnumbering those by almost two to one. Large numbers of jeeps were provided to the U.S.' allies, including Russia at the time — aside from large amounts of 11⁄2- and 21⁄2-ton trucks, some 50,000 jeeps and 25,000 3⁄4-tons were provided to Russia during WW II — more than Nazi Germany's combined total production of their Volkswagen vehicles, the Kübelwagen and the Schwimmwagen.Author Charles K. Hyde wrote: "In many respects, the jeep became the iconic vehicle of World War II, with an almost mythological reputation of toughness, durability, and versatility." Not only did it become the workhorse of the American military, as it replaced the use of horses and other draft animals (still heavily used in World War I) in every role, from cavalry units to supply trains, but improvised field modifications also made the jeep capable of just about any other function GIs could think of.The jeep was considered such a valuable piece of equipment that General Eisenhower wrote that most senior officers regarded it as "one of the six most vital" U.S. vehicles to win the war. Moreover, General George Marshall called the squared-off little car "America's greatest contribution to modern warfare." In 1991, the MB Jeep was designated an "International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark" by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.After WWII, the original jeep continued to serve, in the Korean War and other conflicts, until it was updated in the form of the M38 Willys MC and M38A1 Willys MD (in 1949 and 1952 respectively), and received a complete redesign by Ford in the form of the 1960-introduced M151 jeep. Its influence, however, was much greater than that—manufacturers around the world began building jeeps and similar designs, either under license or not—at first primarily for military purposes, but later also for the civilian market. Willys trademarked the "Jeep" name, turned the MB into the civilian Jeep CJ models, and Jeep became its own brand. The 1945 Willys Jeep was the world's first mass-produced civilian four-wheel drive car.
The success of the jeep inspired both an entire category of recreational 4WDs and SUVs, making "four-wheel drive" a household term, and numerous incarnations of military light utility vehicles. In 2010, the American Enterprise Institute called the jeep "one of the most influential designs in automotive history", and its "sardine tin on wheels" silhouette perhaps even more instantly recognizable than the VW Beetle.
Jeep road vehicle timeline, 1945–1970s — next »
|Compact SUV||Jeepster (VJ)||Jeepster Commando||Commando|
|SUV||Willys Jeep Station Wagon||Cherokee (SJ)|
|Compact pickup||Jeepster Commando||Commando|
|Full-size pickup||Willys Jeep Truck|
« previous — Jeep road vehicle timeline, 1980s–present
|CJ-7||Wrangler (YJ)||Wrangler (TJ)||Wrangler (JK)||Wrangler (JL)|
|Wrangler Unlimited (LJ)||Wrangler Unlimited (JKU)||Wrangler Unlimited (JLU)|
|Subcompact crossover||Renegade (BU)|
|Compact crossover||Compass (MK49)||Compass (MP)|
|Compact SUV||Cherokee/Wagoneer (XJ)||Liberty/Cherokee (KJ)||Liberty/Cherokee (KK)|
|Mid-size crossover||Grand Commander|
|Mid-size SUV||Grand Cherokee/Grand Wagoneer (ZJ)||Grand Cherokee (WJ)||Grand Cherokee (WK)||Grand Cherokee (WK2)|
|Full-size SUV||Cherokee (SJ)|
|Wagoneer/Grand Wagoneer (SJ)|
|Compact pickup||CJ-8 (Scrambler)||Comanche (MJ)|
|Midsize pickup||CJ-10||Gladiator (JT)|
|Notes||Available only in China|
|Joint ventures and|
with US operations
|Concept and pre-production|
|Auto component makers and |
performance car modders
|Defunct and former (2)|