Jediism

Jediism (or Jedism[1]) is a philosophy[2] mainly based on the depiction of the Jedi characters in Star Wars media.[3] Jediism attracted public attention in 2001 when a number of people recorded their religion as "Jedi" on national censuses.

Jediism is inspired by certain elements of Star Wars, namely the fictional religion of the Jedi. Early websites dedicated to bringing up a belief system from the Star Wars films were "The Jedi Religion and regulations" and "Jediism". These websites cited the Jedi code, consisting of 21 maxims, as the starting point for a "real Jedi" belief system.[4] The real-world Jediism movement has no founder or central structure.[5]

Beliefs

Although followers of Jediism acknowledge the influence of Star Wars on their religion, by following the moral and spiritual codes demonstrated by the fictional Jedi,[6] they also insist their path is different from that of the fictional characters and that Jediism does not focus on the myth and fiction found in Star Wars.[7] While there is some variation in teaching, the Jedi of the Temple of the Jedi Order follows the "16 teachings" based on the presentation of the fictional Jedi, such as "Jedi are mindful of the negative emotions which lead to the Dark Side" and "Jedi are guardians of peace and justice".[8] Adherents also follow "21 maxims".[4][9]

Census phenomenon

Jediism received press coverage following a worldwide email campaign in 2001 urging people to write "Jedi" as their answer to the religion classification question in their country's census, resulting in the Jedi census phenomenon. The majority of such respondents are assumed to have claimed the faith as a joke.[10][11][12]

Legal recognition

United States

In 2007, the Temple of the Jedi Order was registered in Texas. It was granted IRS tax exemption in 2015. [13]

United Kingdom

During the drafting of the UK Racial and Religious Hatred Act, an amendment was proposed that excluded Jedi Knights from any protection, along with Satanists and believers in animal sacrifice. The amendment was subsequently withdrawn, the proposer explaining that it was "a bit of a joke" to illustrate a point that defining religious belief in legislation is difficult.[14]

In 2007,[15] 23-year-old Daniel Jones founded The Church of Jediism with his brother Barney, believing that the 2001 UK census recognised Jediism as a religion, and that there were "more Jedi than Scientologists in Britain".[11] In 2009, Jones was removed from a Tesco supermarket in Bangor, North Wales, for refusing to remove his hood on a religious basis. The owner justified Jones's ejection by saying, "He hasn't been banned. Jedis are very welcome to shop in our stores although we would ask them to remove their hoods. Obi-Wan Kenobi, Yoda and Luke Skywalker all appeared hoodless without ever going over to the Dark Side and we are only aware of the Emperor as one who never removed his hood."[16]

In 2010, a man who described himself as a "Star Wars follower" and "Jedi Knight" was thrown out of a Jobcentre in Southend, Essex, for refusing to remove his hood, and later received an apology. The man said that "The main reason is I want to wear my hood up, and I have got a religion which allows me to do that."[17]

In 2013, the Free Church of Scotland expressed concern that a proposed Marriage and Civil Partnership bill would "lead to Star Wars Jedi marrying couples". Patrick Day-Childs of The Church of Jediism, and Rev Michael Kitchen of Temple of the Jedi Order, both defended the right of Jedi to perform marriage ceremonies.[18][19]

In December 2016, the Charity Commission for England and Wales rejected an application to grant charitable organization status to The Temple of the Jedi Order, ruling that the group did not "promote moral or ethical improvement" for charity law purposes.[20]

Turkey

In April 2015, the students of Dokuz Eylül University in Turkey started a petition on Change.org demanding a Jedi temple be built on the campus. The petition was in response to a previous petition which had demanded a mosque on the campus of Istanbul Technical University (İTÜ). The petition demanding the mosque reached 180,000 signatures falling short of its 200,000 target and invoked a response from Mehmet Karaca, the rector of Istanbul Technical University (İTÜ), promising "a landmark mosque". Soon after, students from other universities started petitions demanding Jedi and Buddhist temples on their campuses.[21][22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lamonthe, Dan (18 November 2014). "The Pentagon's Pugnacious Critic on Religion Gets his Day in Congress". Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  2. ^ "Jedi is not a religion, Charity Commission rules". BBC News. 2016-12-19. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
  3. ^ Hume, Lynne; McPhillips, Kathleen (2006). Popular spiritualities: the politics of contemporary enchantment. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7546-3999-2.
  4. ^ a b Matthew Wilhelm Kapell; John Shelton Lawrence (2006). Finding the Force in the Star Wars Franchise: Fans, Merchandise, and Critics. Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-6333-7.
  5. ^ Nancy K. Grant Ph. D.; Ph. D. Diana J.; Mansell R. N. (30 October 2008). A Guidebook to Religious and Spiritual Practices for People Who Work With People. iUniverse. pp. 249–251. ISBN 978-0-595-50527-2. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  6. ^ Deacy, Christopher; Arweck, Elisabeth (2009). Exploring religion and the sacred in a media age. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7546-6527-4.
  7. ^ Matthew Kapell; John Shelton Lawrence (1 August 2006). Finding the Force of the Star Wars Franchise: Fans, Merchandise, & Critics. Peter Lang. pp. 105–112. ISBN 978-0-8204-6333-9. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  8. ^ Beyer, Catherine. "Basic teachings of the Jedi". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  9. ^ "Doctrine of the Temple of the Jedi Order". Temple of the Jedi Order. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  10. ^ Taylor, Henry (2012-12-11). "'Jedi' religion most popular alternative faith". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
  11. ^ a b Carole M. Cusack (15 September 2010). Invented Religions: Faith, Fiction, Imagination. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-7546-6780-3. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  12. ^ Perrott, Alan (August 31, 2002). "Jedi Order lures 53,000 disciples". The New Zealand Herald. APN News & Media. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
  13. ^ "IRS Determination Letter" (PDF).
  14. ^ "Racial and Religious Hatred Bill". 2005-06-29. Retrieved 2010-02-22.
  15. ^ Wells, Jonathan (2015-12-15). "Inside the Church of Jediism: what it's like to follow The Force". Telegraph. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  16. ^ Carter, Helen (18 September 2009). "Jedi religion founder accuses Tesco of discrimination over rules on hoods". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  17. ^ Levy, Andrew (2010-03-17). "Political correctness strikes back: Jedi believer wins apology after being kicked out of Jobcentre for wearing a hood". London: The Daily Mail. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  18. ^ McKenzie, Steven "Star chores: Do Jedi want to marry people?", BBC News, London, 20 March 2013. Retrieved on 14 June 2014.
  19. ^ Hudson, Tony "Marry you, I will: Jedi strike back over weddings criticism", Politics UK, 25 March 2013. Retrieved on 14 June 2014.
  20. ^ "Jediism not a religion, Charity Commission rules". BBC News. 19 December 2016.
  21. ^ "Thousands of Turkish students sign petition to build Jedi Temple on university campus". The Independent. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  22. ^ "Turkish University students demand Jedi, Buddhist temples amid mosque frenzy". Hurriyet Daily News. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.

External links

2001 Canadian Census

The 2001 Canadian Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 15, 2001. On that day, Statistics Canada attempted to count every person in Canada. The total population count of Canada was 30,007,094. This was a 4% increase over 1996 Census of 28,846,761. In contrast, the official Statistics Canada population estimate for 2001 was 31,021,300. This is considered a more accurate population number than the actual count.The following census was the 2006 Census.

Ali-Illahism

Ali Illahism (Persian: علی‌اللّهی‎) is a syncretic religion which has been practiced in parts of Iranian Luristan which combines elements of Shia Islam with older religions. It centers on the belief that there have been successive incarnations of the Deity throughout history, and Ali Ilahees reserve particular reverence for Ali, the son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who is considered one such incarnation. Various rites have been attributed as Ali Ilahian, similarly to the Yezidis, Ansaris, and all sects whose doctrine is unknown to the surrounding Muslim and Christian population. Observers have described it as an agglomeration of the customs and rites of several earlier religions, including Zoroastrianism, historically because travelogues were "evident that there is no definite code which can be described as Ali Illahism".Sometimes Ali-Illahism is used as a general term for the several denominations that venerate or deify Ali, like the Kaysanites, the Alawis or the Ahl-e Haqq/Yarsanis, others to mean the Ahl-e Haqq.

Battle of the Heroes

"Battle of the Heroes" is a musical theme from the film Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith that was written by John Williams.

Biff Byford

Peter Rodney "Biff" Byford (born 15 January 1951) is an English singer best known as the lead singer of the heavy metal band Saxon.

Cultural impact of Star Wars

George Lucas's science fiction multi-film Star Wars saga has had a significant impact on modern popular culture. Star Wars references are deeply embedded in popular culture; references to the main characters and themes of Star Wars are casually made in many English-speaking countries with the assumption that others will understand the reference. Darth Vader has become an iconic villain, while characters such as Luke Skywalker, Han Solo, Princess Leia, C-3PO, R2-D2, and Chewbacca have all become widely recognised characters around the world. Phrases such as "evil empire", "May the Force be with you", and "I am your father" have become part of the popular lexicon. The first Star Wars film in 1977 was a cultural unifier, enjoyed by a wide spectrum of people.Many efforts produced in the science fiction genre (particularly in film) can now be seen to draw heavy influence and inspiration from the original Star Wars trilogy, as well as the magnitude of sequels, spin-offs, series, games, and texts that it spawned. Sounds, visuals, and even the iconic score of the films have become integral components in American society. The film helped launch the science fiction boom of the late 1970s and early 1980s, making science fiction films a blockbuster genre. This impact also made it a prime target for parody works and homages, with popular examples including Spaceballs, Family Guy's "Blue Harvest" special, Seth Green's "Robot Chicken: Star Wars", and Lucas's self-proclaimed favorite parody, Hardware Wars by Ernie Fosselius.

Ewok Celebration

"Ewok Celebration", known commonly as "Yub Nub", is the title of a 1983 song that appears in the end of the Star Wars film Return of the Jedi during the celebration of the Ewoks on Endor with the Rebel Alliance pilots after the destruction of the second Death Star.

Ewoks (soundtrack)

Ewoks – Original Soundtrack is the film score to the television films Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure and Ewoks: The Battle for Endor composed by Peter Bernstein. The score also includes brief reprisals of John Williams' Ewok theme from Return of the Jedi. A soundtrack album containing Bernstein's music from both films was officially released as a 12-inch LP record by Varèse Sarabande on December 8, 1986.

Indigo children

Indigo children, according to a pseudoscientific New Age concept, are children who are believed to possess special, unusual, and sometimes supernatural traits or abilities. The idea is based on concepts developed in the 1970s by Nancy Ann Tappe and further developed by Lee Carroll and Jan Tober. The concept of indigo children gained popular interest with the publication of a series of books in the late 1990s and the release of several films in the following decade. A variety of books, conferences and related materials have been created surrounding belief in the idea of indigo children and their nature and abilities. The interpretations of these beliefs range from their being the next stage in human evolution, in some cases possessing paranormal abilities such as telepathy, to the belief that they are more empathetic and creative than their peers.

No scientific studies give credibility to the existence of indigo children or their traits. Some parents choose to label their children who have been diagnosed with learning disabilities as an indigo child to alternatively diagnose them. Critics view this as a way for parents to avoid considering pediatric treatment or a psychiatric diagnosis. Some lists of traits used to describe indigo children have also been criticized for being vague enough to be applied to most people, a form of the Forer effect.

Jedi

The Jedi are the main protagonists in the Star Wars universe. They are depicted as an ancient monastic, academic, meritocratic and paramilitary organization whose origin dates back approximately 25,000 years before the events of the first film released in the franchise.

The Jedi Order mostly consists of polymaths; teachers, philosophers, scientists, engineers, physicians, diplomats, and warriors. The Jedi moral value system viewed purity of thought and detachment of emotions as essential to enlightenment. Jedi philosophy emphasized self-improvement through knowledge and wisdom, adherence to slave morality, and selfless service through acts of charity, citizenship, and volunteerism; this ideology is a recurring theme in the Star Wars universe. The Jedi denounce emotions as the root of mortal suffering; they believe fear, anger and love cause sentient beings to lash out in conflict and impede rational action to do what is right. Their traditional weapon is the lightsaber, a device which generates a blade-like plasma powered by a Kyber crystal or other focusing item, ex. Krayt Pearl. The fictional organization has inspired a real-world new religious movement, Jediism.

Jedi census phenomenon

The Jedi census phenomenon is a grassroots movement that was initiated in 2001 for residents of a number of English-speaking countries, urging them to record their religion as "Jedi" or "Jedi Knight" (after the quasi-religious order of Jedi Knights in the fictional Star Wars universe) on the national census.

List of Star Wars artists

This lists visual artists and illustrators who are associated with the Star Wars film franchise and derivative works.

List of fictional religions

Fictional religions are religions that exist only in works of fiction.

Organized religion

Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established. Organized religion is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices.

Parody religion

A parody religion or mock religion is a belief system that challenges spiritual convictions of others, often through humor, satire, or burlesque (literary ridicule). Often created to achieve a specific purpose related to another belief system, a parody religion can be a parody of several religions, sects, gurus, cults, or new religious movements at the same time or even a parody of no particular religion, instead parodying the concept of religious belief itself. In some parody religions, the emphasis is on having fun; the faith may be a convenient excuse for pleasant social interaction among the like-minded.

One approach to parody religion aims to highlight deficiencies in particular pro-religious arguments — the thinking being that if a given argument can also be used to support a clear parody, then the original argument is clearly flawed. An example of this is the Flying Spaghetti Monster, which parodies the equal time argument employed by intelligent design and creationism.Occasionally, a parody religion may offer ordination by mail or on-line at a nominal fee, seeking equal recognition for this clergy under freedom of religion provisions, including the 1st and 14th amendments to the United States Constitution. officiants to legally solemnise marriage. Parody religions also have sought the same reasonable accommodation legally afforded to mainstream religions, including religious-specific garb or headgear. A U.S. federal court ruled in 2016 that Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster ("Pastafarianism") is not a religion, but Pastafarianism or The Church of the Latter-Day Dude have been accommodated to some extent by a few US States and some other countries.Several religions that are considered as parody religions have a number of relatively serious followers who embrace the perceived absurdity of these religions as spiritually significant, a decidedly post-modern approach to religion. For instance, in Discordianism, it can be hard to tell whether even these "serious" followers are not just taking part in an even bigger joke.

Religion in Sussex

Religion in Sussex has been dominated over the last 1,400 years by Christianity. Like the rest of England, the established church in Sussex is the Church of England, although other Christian traditions exist. After Christianity, the religion with the most adherents is Islam, followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism and Sikhism.

Sussex is sometimes referred to as 'Silly Sussex', for silly is a corruption of Old Saxon saelig meaning 'holy'.The historic county has been a single diocese after St Wilfrid converted the kingdom of Sussex in the seventh century. Historically, the west of the county has had a tendency towards Catholicism while the east of the county has had a tendency towards non-conformism. The county has been home to several pilgrimage sites, including the shrine (at Chichester Cathedral) to St Richard of Chichester which was destroyed during the Reformation, and the more recent Catholic shrine at West Grinstead. During the Marian persecutions, several Sussex men were martyred for their Protestant faith, including 17 men at Lewes. The Society of Dependants (nicknamed the Cokelers) were a non-conformist sect formed in Loxwood. The Quaker and founding father of Pennsylvania, William Penn worshipped near Thakeham; his UK home from 1677 to 1702 was at nearby Warminghurst.Sussex is connected with several saints, including St Wilfrid, sometimes known as the 'Apostle of Sussex'; St Cuthman of Steyning; St Cuthflæd of Lyminster; St Lewina; St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron saint; St Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel; and James Hannington. In folklore, Mayfield and Devil's Dyke are linked with St Dunstan, while West Tarring has links with St Thomas a Becket.

Religious text

Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal identity, and guide individual and communal religious practice. Religious texts often communicate the practices or values of a religious traditions and can be looked to as a set of guiding principles which dictate physical, mental, spiritual, or historical elements considered important to a specific religion. The terms 'sacred' text and 'religious' text are not necessarily interchangeable in that some religious texts are believed to be sacred because of their nature as divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired, whereas some religious texts are simply narratives pertaining to the general themes, practices, or important figures of the specific religion, and not necessarily considered sacred by itself. A core function of a religious text making it sacred is its ceremonial and liturgical role, particularly in relation to sacred time, the liturgical year, the divine efficacy and subsequent holy service; in a more general sense, its performance.

It is not possible to create an exhaustive list of religious texts, because there is no single definition of which texts are recognized as religious.

Star Wars (Main Title)

"Star Wars (Main Title)" is a 1977 instrumental hit single composed and conducted by John Williams. It is the main musical theme of Star Wars. It was performed by the London Symphony Orchestra. The track became a hit in the United States (#10) and Canada (#13) during the fall of that year. The composition draws influence from Erich Wolfgang Korngold's score for the 1942 film “Kings Row".The B side featured the original movie score of Cantina Band.

"Star Wars (Main Title)" was the lesser of two hits featuring music from Star Wars. Meco's disco version of "Star Wars Theme/Cantina Band" reached number one concurrently with the chart run of Williams' original movie score version.

Star Wars religion

Star Wars religion may refer to:

Jediism

Philosophy and religion in Star Wars

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