Jean Pucelle (c. 1300 – 1355), active c. 1320-1350, was a Parisian Gothic-era manuscript illuminator who excelled in the invention of drolleries as well as traditional iconography. He is considered one of the best miniaturists of the early 14th century. He worked primarily under the patronage of the royal court and is believed to have been responsible for the introduction of the arte nuovo of Giotto and Duccio to Northern Gothic art. His work shows a distinct influence of the Italian trecento art Duccio is credited with creating. His style is characterized by delicate figures rendered in grisaille, accented with touches of color.
Pucelle's most famous works include The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, a private prayer book done as a royal commission for the queen of France, Jeanne d'Évreux (c. 1324–28), which reflects the Maestà (c. 1325) by Duccio in the Belleville Breviary. He is also credited with the Franciscan breviary believed to have once been owned by Blanche of France. His earliest documented work is believed to be the design for the great seal of the Confraternity of the Hospital of St. Jacques-aux-Pelerins in Paris, indicating that Pucelle worked and designed in a variety of media ranging from enamels to stained glass.
Pucelle's proto-Renaissance style is evident in The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, the Belleville Breviary and the Bible of Robert de Billyng, which all displayed such features as sculpturally modeled figures, three-dimensional treatment of space and a new form of psychological expression.
Media related to Jean Pucelle at Wikimedia Commons
The decade of the 1300s in art involved some significant events.1350s in art
The decade of the 1350s in art involved some significant events.Belleville Breviary
The Belleville Breviary (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS lat. 10484, 2 volumes) is an illuminated breviary. It was produced in Paris some time between 1323 and 1326 by the artist known as Jean Pucelle, probably for Jeanne de Belleville, the wife of Olivier de Clisson. The breviary is divided into two volumes of 446 and 430 folios. Volume 1 contains the prayers used during the summer, while volume 2 contains those used during the winter.
The manuscript was owned by Jeanne de Belleville. It was later owned by Charles V of France and his son Charles VI. Charles VI gave the manuscript to his son-in-law Richard II of England. Henry IV of England gave it to Jean, Duc de Berry. Jean gave it to his niece Marie, who was a nun at Poissy. It was purchased in 1454 by another nun at Poissy, Marie Jouvenal des Ursins.Blanche of France (nun)
Blanche of France (1313 – 26 April 1358), nun at Longchamp Abbey, was the fourth and youngest daughter of King Philip V of France and Countess Joan II of Burgundy.
Blanche was born in 1313, before either of her parents ascended their respective thrones, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King Philip IV of France. She was named after her mother's ill-fated sister, Blanche of Burgundy. A year after Blanche's birth, her mother and both paternal aunts, Blanche and Margaret of Burgundy, were implicated in the Tour de Nesle Affair. The marriage of her parents was successful enough for her father to insist on her mother's acquittal, but her aunts were imprisoned.By the time Blanche was seven years old, her parents had become king and queen of France and Navarre and count and countess palatine of Burgundy. Queen Joan decided that her youngest daughter should join the Order of Saint Francis, probably wishing that the girl's cloistered life could compensate for the sins of her imprisoned namesake aunt. Blanche's mother did not make the decision easily, however, and not before procuring several papal dispensations that would serve to alleviate the harshness of monastic life. The Queen secured a special dispensation that allowed her and the King to visit their daughter frequently, but was later cautioned by the pope against visiting Blanche too often.Despite her religious vows, Blanche is more often mentioned as daughter of a French king by primary sources than any of her titled sisters - Countess Joan III of Burgundy, Countess Margaret I of Burgundy and Dauphine Isabella of Viennois. She is presumed to have at some point owned a richly decorated Franciscan breviary, the earliest known work of Jean Pucelle. Blanche died as a Poor Clare on 26 April 1358, outliving all her siblings except Margaret.Bourgot Le Noir
Bourgot Le Noir was a female illuminator in the mid-fourteenth century who assisted her father, Jean Le Noir, with his work.
While it is impossible to discern which hands created each individual work, it is very plausible that Bourgot's work is interspersed with her father's. The collaboration of father and daughter is significant and marks the beginning of an increase of women in the Bruges painter's guild records, which was found to be 12 percent female in 1454, and continued to grow to 25 percent by the later 1400's.Gothic art
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture. It spread to all of Western Europe, and much of Southern and Central Europe, never quite effacing more classical styles in Italy. In the late 14th century, the sophisticated court style of International Gothic developed, which continued to evolve until the late 15th century. In many areas, especially Germany, Late Gothic art continued well into the 16th century, before being subsumed into Renaissance art. Primary media in the Gothic period included sculpture, panel painting, stained glass, fresco and illuminated manuscripts. The easily recognizable shifts in architecture from Romanesque to Gothic, and Gothic to Renaissance styles, are typically used to define the periods in art in all media, although in many ways figurative art developed at a different pace.
The earliest Gothic art was monumental sculpture, on the walls of Cathedrals and abbeys. Christian art was often typological in nature (see Medieval allegory), showing the stories of the New Testament and the Old Testament side by side. Saints' lives were often depicted. Images of the Virgin Mary changed from the Byzantine iconic form to a more human and affectionate mother, cuddling her infant, swaying from her hip, and showing the refined manners of a well-born aristocratic courtly lady.
Secular art came into its own during this period with the rise of cities, foundation of universities, increase in trade, the establishment of a money-based economy and the creation of a bourgeois class who could afford to patronize the arts and commission works resulting in a proliferation of paintings and illuminated manuscripts. Increased literacy and a growing body of secular vernacular literature encouraged the representation of secular themes in art. With the growth of cities, trade guilds were formed and artists were often required to be members of a painters' guild—as a result, because of better record keeping, more artists are known to us by name in this period than any previous; some artists were even so bold as to sign their names.Grisaille
A grisaille ( or ; French: gris [ɡʁizaj] 'grey') is a painting executed entirely in shades of grey or of another neutral greyish colour. It is particularly used in large decorative schemes in imitation of sculpture. Many grisailles include a slightly wider colour range, like the Andrea del Sarto fresco illustrated. Paintings executed in brown are referred to as brunaille, and paintings executed in green are called verdaille.A grisaille may be executed for its own sake, as underpainting for an oil painting (in preparation for glazing layers of colour over it), or as a model for an engraver to work from. "Rubens and his school sometimes use monochrome techniques in sketching compositions for engravers." Full colouring of a subject makes many more demands of an artist, and working in grisaille was often chosen as being quicker and cheaper, although the effect was sometimes deliberately chosen for aesthetic reasons. Grisaille paintings resemble the drawings, normally in monochrome, that artists from the Renaissance on were trained to produce; like drawings they can also betray the hand of a less talented assistant more easily than a fully coloured painting.Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux
The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux is an illuminated book of hours in the Gothic style. According to the usual account, it was created between 1324 and 1328 by Jean Pucelle for Jeanne d'Evreux, the third wife of Charles IV of France. It was sold in 1954 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York where it is now part of the collection held at The Cloisters (accession number 54.1.2), and usually on display. The book is very lavishly decorated, mostly in grisaille drawings, and is a highly important example of an early royal book of hours, a type of book designed for the personal devotions of a wealthy lay-person, which was then less than a century old. It has been described as "the high point of Parisian court painting", showing "the unprecedentedly refined artistic tastes of the time".Jacquemart de Hesdin
Jacquemart de Hesdin (c. 1355 – c. 1414) was a French miniature painter working in the International Gothic style. In English, he is also called Jacquemart of Hesdin. During his lifetime, his name was spelt in a number of ways, including as Jacquemart de Odin.Jean Le Noir (illuminator)
Jean Le Noir was a French manuscript illuminator active in Paris between 1335 and 1380. He was a pupil of Jean Pucelle. His main work is the Psalter of Bonne de Luxembourg (c. 1348–1349, New York, The Cloisters, Inv. 69.86).
Jean le Noir's daughter Bourgot (fr) assisted with much of his work.In 1331 he was in service to Yolande of Flanders, Countess of Bar, Duchess of Bar, and later to the King. As reward for their services, Jean and Bourgot were given a house in Paris in 1358 by the King's son, the future Charles V, for whom they also worked after he ascended the throne in 1364. During the early 1370s Jean and Bourgot worked at Bourges for the Duke of Berry, who also held them in high esteem.Jeanne d'Évreux
Jeanne d'Évreux (1310 – 4 March 1371) was Queen of France and Navarre as the third wife of King Charles IV of France. She was the daughter of his uncle Louis, Count of Évreux and Margaret of Artois. Their lack of sons caused the end of the direct line of the Capetian dynasty. Because she was his first cousin, the couple required papal permission to marry from Pope John XXII. They had three daughters, Jeanne, Marie and Blanche.
Jeanne died on 4 March 1371 in her château at Brie-Comte-Robert, in the Île-de-France region, some twenty miles southeast of Paris. She was buried at the Basilica of St Denis, the necropolis of the Kings of France.
Two of Jeanne's remarkable possessions survive: her book of hours and a statue of the Virgin and Child. The Book of Hours, known as the Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, is in The Cloisters collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. It was commissioned from the artist Jean Pucelle between 1324 and 1328, probably as a gift from her husband. The book contains the usual prayers of the canonical hours as arranged for the laity along with the notable inclusion of the office dedicated to St Louis, her great-grandfather. The small statue of the Virgin and Child (gilded silver and enamel, 69 cm high), which Jeanne left to the monastery of St Denis outside Paris, is in the Louvre Museum.List of French artists
The following is a chronological list of French artists working in visual or plastic media (plus, for some artists of the 20th century, performance art). For alphabetical lists, see the various subcategories of Category:French artists. See other articles for information on French literature, French music, French cinema and French culture.List of Gothic artists
This is a list of Gothic artists.
Mastro Guglielmo 12th Century Italian Sculptor
Maestro Esiguo 13th Century
Master of the Franciscan Crucifixes 13th Century Italian
Benedetto Antelami 1178–1196 Italian Sculptor
Bonaventura Berlinghieri 1215–1242 Italian Painter
Nicola Pisano 1220–1284 Italian Sculptor
Fra Guglielmo 1235–1310 Italian Sculptor
Guido Bigarelli 1238–1257 Italian Sculptor
Giovanni Pisano 1250–1314 Italian Sculptor
Duccio di Buoninsegna 1255–1318 Italian Painter
Lorenzo Maitani 1255–1330 Italian Sculptor/Architect
Arnolfo di Cambio 1264–1302 Italian Sculptor
Arnau Bassa 14th Century Spanish Painter
Master of San Francesco Bardi 14th Century Italian Painter
Master of San Jacopo a Mucciana 14th Century Italian
Ferrer Bassa 1285–1348 Spanish Painter
Simone Martini 1285–1344 Italian Painter
Tino da Camaino 1285–1337 Italian Sculptor
Evrard d'Orleans 1292–1357 French Sculptor
Andrea Pisano 1295–1348 Italian Sculptor
Jacopo del Casentino 1297–1358 Italian Painter
Segna di Buonaventure 1298–1331 Italian Painter
Giovanni da Balduccio 1300–1360 Italian Sculptor
Jean Pucelle 1300–1355 French Manuscript Illuminator
Goro di Gregorio 1300–1334 Italian Sculptor
Gano di Fazio 1302–1318 Italian Sculptor
Vitale da Bologna 1309–1360 Italian Painter
Agostino di Giovanni 1310–1347 Italian Sculptor
Allegretto Nuzi 1315–1373 Italian Painter
Giottino 1320–1369 Italian Painter
Giusto de Menabuoi 1320–1397 Italian Painter
Puccio Capanna 1325–1350 Italian Painter
Theodoric of Prague ?–1381 Czech Painter
Altichiero 1330–1384 Italian Painter
Bartolo di Fredi 1330–1410 Italian Painter
Peter Parler 1330–1399 German Sculptor
André Beauneveu 1335–1400 Netherlandish Painter/Sculptor
Master of the Dominican Effigies 1336–1345 Italian Painter
Niccolo di Pietro Gerini c. 1340–1414 Italian Painter
Guariento di Arpo 1338–1377 Italian Painter
Jacobello Dalle Masegne ?–1409 Italian Sculptor
Giovanni da Campione 1340–1360 Italian Sculptor
Master of the Rebel Angels 1340–1345 Italian Painter
Andrea da Firenze 1343–1377 Italian Painter
Nino Pisano 1343–1368 Italian Painter/Sculptor
Puccio di Simone 1345–1365 Italian Painter
Nicolo da Bologna 1348–1399 Italian
Bonino da Campione 1350–1390 Italian Sculptor
Lluís Borrassà 1350–1424 Spanish Painter
Jacquemart de Hesdin 1350–1410 French Miniaturist
Giovanni da Milano 1350–1369 Italian Painter
Master of the Rinuccini Chapel 1350–1375 Italian
Claus Sluter 1350–1406 Flemish Sculptor
Giovanni Bon 1355–1443 Italian Sculptor/Architect
Melchior Broederlam 1355–1411 Netherlandish Painter
Giovanni del Biondo 1356–1399 Italian Painter
Pere Serra 1357–1406 Spanish Painter
Gherardo Starnina 1360–1413 Italian Painter
Jean de Liege 1361–1382 Flemish Sculptor
Taddeo di Bartolo 1362–1422 Italian Painter
Jean Malouel 1365–1415 Netherlandish Painter
Gentile da Fabriano 1370–1427 Italian Painter
Lorenzo Monaco 1370–1425 Italian Painter
Stefano da Verona 1375–1438 Italian Painter
Pere Oller 1394–1442 Spanish Sculptor
Master of Saint Veronica 1395–1420 German Painter
Bernat Martorell Died 1452 Spanish Painter
Fra Angelico 1395–1455 Italian Painter
Jacopo Bellini 1400–1470 Italian Painter
Pere Johan c. 1400 Spanish Sculptor
Hermann Jean and Paul Limbourg 1400 Netherlandish Manuscript Illuminator
Master of the Passion of Christ 15th-century Swedish Painter
Master of the Berswordt Altar 1400 German Painter
Upper Rhenish Master fl. c. 1410–1420 German Painter
Jacomart 1410–1461 Spanish Painter
Meister Hartmann fl. c. 1417–1428 German Sculptor
Jaume Huguet 1412–1492 Spanish Painter
Henri Bellechose 1415–1440 Flemish Painter
Jörg Syrlin the Elder c. 1425–1491 German Sculptor
Jörg Syrlin the Younger c. 1455–152 German Sculptor
Master of Schloss Lichtenstein fl. c. 1430–1450 Austrian Painter
Bernt Notke c. 1435–1508 German Sculptor and Painter
Albertus Pictor c. 1440–1507 German Painter (active in Sweden)
Niklaus Weckmann c. 1481–1526 German Sculptor
Daniel Mauch c. 1477–1540 German Sculptor
Michel Erhart c. 1440-45–after 1522 German Sculptor
Jan Polack Polish-German Painter
Nicolaus Haberschrack Polish Painter
Jan Goraj Polish Painter
Jordan Painter fl. c. 1470–1480 Swedish Painter
Master of the Drapery Studies fl. c. 1470−1500 German Draughtsman and Painter
Gil de Siloé c. 1450–1501 Spanish Sculptor
Veit Stoss c. 1450–1533 German Sculptor
Hermen Rode fl. c. 1468–1504 German Painter
Henning von der Heide c. 1460–1521 German Sculptor
Cola Petruccioli 1362–1408 Tryptich PainterMaster of the Parement
The Master of the Parement of Narbonne, often referred to more briefly as the Master of the Parement or Parement Master is the name given to an artist of uncertain identity who flourished in France in the late 14th century and early 15th century. He belongs to the period of medieval painting sometimes referred to as International Gothic. The Master is named after the Parement de Narbonne, a unique painted silk altar frontal or parament found in the former Cathedral of Saint Just at Narbonne and now in the Louvre in Paris.
The Parement of Narbonne is 2.86 m long and 77.5 cm high, and is painted in black ink (strictly, grisaille) on silk. It includes scenes from the Passion and Resurrection of Christ, including the Kiss of Judas, the Flagellation, the Carrying of the Cross, the Entombment, the Descent into Limbo and the Noli Me Tangere. The then king of France, Charles V and his queen, Jeanne de Bourbon, are shown kneeling at either side of the cross in the central Crucifixion scene. Their presence suggests that the altarcloth was commissioned between 1364, the date of Charles's accession, and 1378, when the queen died. Its colour suggests that it was made for use during Lent, when it was conventional for richly coloured altarpieces to be covered by more simple drapes.
Some illuminated manuscripts are attributed to the same artist or his circle, including some of the illustrations in the Book of Hours of René d'Anjou which is now in the British Library, and the important manuscript, now in different parts in several museums known as the Très Belles Heures de Notre Dame (BnF), and the Milan-Turin Hours. According to the British Library, the Parement Master may have been Jean d'Orleans, an artist who is known to have been employed by Charles V between 1340 and 1407.
The style of the workshop of the Parement Master is distinctive. The figures are graceful and relatively realistic and three-dimensional in appearance, with expressive faces, but their heads tend to be disproportionate and heavy. Meiss (1967) suggests that the artists were influenced by earlier Italian painting, though others have drawn parallels with contemporary Bohemian style, or have seen northern (perhaps Flemish) influence in the realism of the faces. Both the handling of the grisaille technique and the box-like architectural frames in which some of the scenes are set indicate a keen awareness of the earlier work of Jean Pucelle (active in Paris in the 1320s).Petites Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry
The Petites Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry is an illuminated book of hours commissioned by John, Duke of Berry between 1375 and 1385–90. It is known for its ornate miniature leaves and border decorations.
Several artists were employed in the production. It was completed in two separate stages, each with a distinctive style. The earlier leaves were painted by artists influenced by Jean Pucelle, the later by artists working in the vanguard of the International Gothic period of Gothic art. Because of this, the Petites Heures exemplifies the "rupture in style" that occurred in French illumination in the final two decades of the fourteenth century.A high-resolution facsimile was published in 1988, with monographs by Avril, Dunlop and Yapp.Pseudo-Jacquemart
The Pseudo-Jacquemart (or Pseudo-Jacquemart de Hesdin) was an anonymous master illuminator active in Paris and Bourges between 1380 and 1415. He owed his name to his close collaboration with painter Jacquemart de Hesdin.School of Paris (Middle Ages)
School of Paris refers to the many manuscript illuminators, whose identities are mostly unknown, who made Paris an internationally important centre of illumination throughout the Romanesque and Gothic periods of the Middle Ages, and for some time into the Renaissance. Among the most famous of these artists were Master Honoré, Jean Pucelle and Jean Fouquet.The Limbourg brothers, originally from the Netherlands, also spent time in Paris, as well as Burgundy and Bourges, but their style is not typical of the School of Paris of the day.
Many of the painters in Parisian workshops were women. Gradually, especially from 1440 onwards, Parisian illuminators lost international customers, such as the English elites, to their Flemish competitors, based in particular in Bruges and Ghent. Around the same time Tours became for a time the most important French centre.The Cloisters
The Cloisters museum in Fort Tryon Park in Washington Heights, Manhattan, New York City, specializes in European medieval architecture, sculpture and decorative arts, with a focus on the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Governed by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, it contains a large collection of medieval artworks shown in the architectural settings of French monasteries and abbeys. Its buildings are centered around four cloisters—the Cuxa, Saint-Guilhem, Bonnefont and Trie—which were purchased by American sculptor and art dealer George Grey Barnard, dismantled in Europe between 1934 and 1939, and moved to New York. They were acquired for the museum by financier and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Other major sources of objects were the collections of J. P. Morgan and Joseph Brummer.
The museum's building was designed by architect Charles Collens, on a site on a steep hill, with upper and lower levels. It contains medieval gardens and a series of chapels and themed galleries, including the Romanesque, Fuentidueña, Unicorn, Spanish and Gothic rooms. The design, layout, and ambiance of the building is intended to evoke a sense of medieval European monastic life.It holds about 5,000 works of art and architecture, all European and mostly dating from the Byzantine to the early Renaissance periods, mainly during the 12th through 15th centuries. The varied objects include stone and wood sculptures, tapestries, illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings, of which the best known include the c. 1422 Early Netherlandish Mérode Altarpiece and the c. 1495–1505 Flemish Hunt of the Unicorn tapestries.
Rockefeller purchased the museum site in Washington Heights in 1930, and donated it and the Bayard collection to the Metropolitan in 1931. Upon its opening on May 10, 1938, the Cloisters was described as a collection "shown informally in a picturesque setting, which stimulates imagination and creates a receptive mood for enjoyment".Virgin of Jeanne d'Evreux
The Virgin of Jeanne d'Evreux, is a Gothic sculpture created sometime between the years 1324 and 1339. This figure stands at 68 cm tall and is made from gilded silver, stones, pearls, and the earliest dated French translucent enamels. The piece itself was donated to the abbey of Saint-Denis by Jeanne d'Evreux in 1339 as inscribed in the pedestal. Currently, this sculpture is on display within the Louvre in France.