Jean Hey

Jean Hey (or Jean Hay) (fl. c. 1475 – c. 1505),[1] now generally identified with the artist formerly known as the Master of Moulins, was an Early Netherlandish painter working in France and the Duchy of Burgundy, and associated with the court of the Dukes of Bourbon.

Meister von Moulins 005
Meister von Moulins 006
Meister von Moulins 007

Life and works

Master of Moulins - Madonna Enthroned with Saints (detail) - WGA14457
The Moulins Triptych (detail of central panel)

Little is known about Hey, whose style has led to speculation that he may have studied under Hugo van der Goes. It is possible that he spent his last years in Paris.[1][2]

Hey's most well-known work, the triptych in Moulins Cathedral, dates from the end of 15th century. The central panel shows the Madonna and Child adored by angels, and is flanked by portraits of the duke Pierre II and the duchess Anne de Beaujeu with their daughter Suzanne. The triptych's state of preservation is generally excellent, although at some time before the 1830s the top and bottom of the wings were trimmed (the left wing more at the bottom and the right wing more at the top).[3]

Identifying the Master of Moulins

Until the 1902 Exposition des primitifs flamands à Bruges, the name of the painter of the Moulins Triptych was unknown, although art historians identified a number of other works that were evidently by the same hand. Georges Hulin de Loo first made the connection between this artist and a Jehan Pérreal de Paris when he compared the drapery and sleeves of the Mary Magdalene lent from the Léon de Somzee collection, to the Moulins triptych.[4]

Meister von Moulins 002

Mary Magdalene from the Somzee collection in the 1902 exhibition


Portrait of Francis de Chateaubriand, also on loan from Glasgow to the 1902 exhibition

Georges Hulin de Loo - Titlepage Maitres Anonymes 1902

Extract of Hulin de Loo's critical catalog with his anonymous master identifications

The first monograph on the Master of Moulins, written in 1961 by Madeleine Huillet d'Istria, argued that this artist did not actually exist, and that more than 12 different artists were responsible for the corpus of works traditionally ascribed to him.[5] The Master's identity was established after an inscription was found on the reverse of a damaged painting, Christ with Crown of Thorns (1494) in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels, identifying the artist as Jean Hey, teutonicus and pictor egregius ("the famous painter"), and identifying the patron as Jean Cueillette, who was secretary to the King and an associate of the Bourbon family.[1][6] Stylistic similarities link this painting to the works attributed to the Master of Moulins.[6] The Master of Moulins appears to have been the court painter for the Bourbons,[7] and from a surviving account for 1502–03, it is clear that the court painter's name was Jean; other candidates once considered plausible, such as Jean Perréal and Jean Prévost (an artist from Lyon who worked in stained glass), have proven untenable in the light of subsequent research.[7] The term "Teutonicus", or "German" included Flemings at this date.

The Annunciation, 1490-1495, by Jean Hey (Master of Moulins) - Art Institute of Chicago - DSC09637

The Annunciation, 1490–1495, Art Institute of Chicago

Meister von Moulins 004

Portrait of Charles II of Bourbon

Meister von Moulins 003

The Virgin and the Child

Master of Moulins - Pierre II, Duc de Bourbon, Presented by St Peter - WGA14464

Pierre II, Duc de Bourbon, Presented by St Peter

Hey Anne of France presented by Saint John the Evangelist

Anne of France presented by Saint John the Evangelist


  1. ^ a b c Brigstocke 2001, p. 338
  2. ^ "Master of Moulins,".
  3. ^ Reynolds 1996 p. 732
  4. ^ Maitres Anonymes, extract of Hulin de Loo's critical catalog of the Bruges 1902 art exhibition
  5. ^ Châtelet, p. 517
  6. ^ a b Reynolds 1996, p. 733
  7. ^ a b Reynolds 1996, p. 734


  • Brigstocke, H. (2001). The Oxford companion to Western art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866203-3
  • Châtelet, Albert (1962). "A Plea for the Master of Moulins". The Burlington Magazine 104 (717): 517–524.
  • Gowing, Lawrence (1987). Paintings in the Louvre. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. ISBN 1-55670-007-5
  • Reynolds, Catherine (1996). "Master of Moulins", The Dictionary of Art xx. 731–734.
  • Zerner, Henri (2003). Renaissance Art in France: the invention of classicism. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 2-08-011144-2

External links

15th century

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.

In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period.

Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. In religious history, the Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century.

Constantinople, in what is today Turkey, then the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire, falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages. The event forced Western Europeans to find a new trade route, adding further momentum to what was the beginning of the Age of Discovery, which would lead to the global mapping of the world. Explorations by the Portuguese and Spanish led to European sightings of the Americas (the New World) and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope to India, in the last decade of the century. These expeditions ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires.

The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the Printing Press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance.The Spanish Reconquista leads to the final fall of the Emirate of Granada by the end of the century, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule and returning Spain back to Christian rulers.

The Hundred Years' War end with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.

In Asia, under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle.

Tamerlane established a major empire in the Middle East and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongol Empire.

In Africa, the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.

In the Americas, both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence.

Annunciation in Christian art

The Annunciation has been one of the most frequent subjects of Christian art. Depictions of the Annunciation go back to early Christianity, with the Priscilla catacomb in Rome including the oldest known fresco of the Annunciation, dating to the 4th century.Scenes depicting the Annunciation represent the perpetual virginity of Mary via the announcement by the angel Gabriel that Mary would conceive a child to be born the son of God.

The scene is an invariable one in cycles of the Life of the Virgin, and often included as the initial scene in those of the Life of Christ. Frescos depicting this scene have appeared in Roman Catholic Marian churches for centuries, and it has been a topic addressed by many artists in multiple media, ranging from stained glass to mosaic, to relief, to sculpture to oil painting.

ArcTanGent Festival

ArcTanGent Festival (also known as 'ATG') is a three-day British rock festival held annually at Fernhill Farm in Somerset, England since 2013. It is the most popular British summer festival for math rock, post rock, progressive metal and experimental music. Previous performers include Explosions In The Sky, Glassjaw, Godspeed You! Black Emperor, Shellac of North America, The Dillinger Escape Plan, Converge, Russian Circles, Deafheaven, Cult of Luna, American Football, Public Service Broadcasting, And So I Watch You From Afar, 65daysofstatic, Fuck Buttons, La Dispute, TesseracT and Mono.

The festival features 4 stages, silent disco on Friday and Saturday nights after the live performances have finished, a selection of bars and food vendors and weekend camping and VIP options..

Catalogue of paintings in the National Gallery, London

The Catalogue of paintings in the National Gallery, London lists the named painters of the collection of the National Gallery, London, as they were catalogued in 2010 by the Public Catalogue Foundation. The collection contains roughly 2,300 paintings by 750 artists, and only attributed artists are listed here. Painters with more than twenty works in the collection are Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Carlo Crivelli, Anthony van Dyck, Francesco Guardi, Rembrandt van Rijn, Peter Paul Rubens, Jacob van Ruisdael, and David Teniers II. The only women artists with works in the collection are Artemisia Gentileschi, Marie Blancour, Rosa Bonheur, Rosalba Giovanna Carriera, Catharina van Hemessen, Judith Leyster, Rachel Ruysch, and Elisabeth Louise Vigée-LeBrun. The only British artists with works in the collection are William Boxall, John Constable, Thomas Gainsborough, William Hogarth, John Hoppner, John Callcott Horsley, John Jackson, Thomas Jones, Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen, Thomas Lawrence, John Linnell, Henry Raeburn, Joshua Reynolds, Martin Archer Shee, George Stubbs, Joseph Mallord William Turner, Richard Wilson, and Joseph Wright of Derby. However, because of the historical links between the National Gallery and its offshoot in the 19th century, Tate Britain, the National has in the past transferred and recalled works by British artists to and from its collection.

Some artists are represented in the collection with more than six artworks, but only a maximum of six per name are listed here.

Charles II, Duke of Bourbon

Charles II, Duke of Bourbon (Château de Moulins, 1434–September 13, 1488, Lyon), was Archbishop of Lyon from an early age and a French diplomat under the rule of Louis XI of France. He had a 2-week tenure as Duke of Bourbon in 1488, being ousted afterward by his younger brother and successor, Peter II, Duke of Bourbon.

Charles Orlando, Dauphin of France

Charles Orlando, Dauphin of France (French: Charles Orland, Dauphin de France) (11 October 1492 – 16 December 1495) was the eldest son and heir of Charles VIII of France and Anne of Brittany.

Exposition des primitifs flamands à Bruges

The Exposition des primitifs flamands à Bruges (Exhibition of Flemish Primitives at Bruges) was an art exhibition of paintings by the so-called Flemish Primitives (nowadays usually called Early Netherlandish painters) held in the Provinciaal Hof in Bruges between 15 June and 5 October 1902.

It was the largest exhibition of c 15th c Flemish art to date, consisted of 413 official catalogue entries, and drew some 35,000 visitors. The exposition was highly influential, leading to at least five contemporary books as well as numerous scholarly articles, and initiated deeper study of the Flemish Primitives by a new generation of connoisseurs. It also inspired Johan Huizinga to research and write his The Autumn of the Middle Ages. The change in attribution of many important works (in table below) reflects progress in understanding the era by art historians since then, although it is an ongoing process.

History of Catholic Mariology

The history of Catholic Mariology traces theological developments and views regarding Mary from the early Church to the 21st century. Mariology is a mainly Catholic ecclesiological study within theology, which centers on the relation of Mary and the Church. Catholic Mariology is the encyclopedic area of theology concerned with Mary, the Mother of God. Theologically, it not only deals with her life, but her veneration in daily life, prayer, art, music, architecture, in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages.

Throughout history, Catholics have continued to build churches to honor the Blessed Virgin. Today, a large number of Catholic churches dedicated to the Blessed Virgin exist on all continents, and in a sense, their evolving architecture tells the unfolding story of the development of Catholic Mariology. Throughout Catholic history, the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary has led to the creation of numerous items of Roman Catholic Marian art. Today, these items may be viewed from an artistic perspective, but also they are part of the fabric of Catholic Mariology.

Jean Rolin (cardinal)

Jean (Jehan) Rolin (1408–1483) was a Burgundian bishop and Cardinal.

His father, Nicolas Rolin, was ducal Chancellor of Burgundy, and lord of Authumes. Jean became a Cardinal in 1448, created by Pope Nicholas V, as part of diplomatic engagement between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Papacy, tending against France.He was bishop of Chalon-sur-Saône in 1431, and bishop of Autun in 1436. He was a patron of the arts, supporting the work of an anonymous illustrator known as the Master of Jean Rolin.

List of Early Netherlandish painters

This is an incomplete list of Early Netherlandish painters.

List of artists in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide

The List of artists in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide is a list of the artists indexed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art museum guide. The guide, with a forward by the museum director Philippe de Montebello, was first produced in 1983 and the edition from 1994 has been digitized.

This guide was a new pocketbook version of the magazine-format guidebook published in 1972 as Guide to The Metropolitan Museum of Art, edited by Nora Beeson during Thomas Hoving's tenure. That guidebook was the first to include fold-out museum maps of the collection wings. This guide, with color illustrations followed by concise descriptions, was updated in 1983 and 1994 as The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide (edited by Kathleen Howard during Philippe de Montebello tenure), and under the same name in 2012 (edited by Harriet Whelchel, Margaret Aspinwall and Elisa Urbanelli during Thomas P. Campbell tenure).

List of painters by name beginning with "H"

Please add names of notable painters in alphabetical order.

Joris van der Haagen

Cornelis van Haarlem (1562–1638)

John Haberle (1858–1933)

Jan Hackaert (1628–1685)

Jacob Philipp Hackert (1737–1807)

Johannes van Haensbergen (1642–1705)

Karl Hagedopoorn (1922–2005)

Sally Haley (1908–2007)

Adélaïde Victoire Hall (1772–1844)

Patrick Hall (1906–1992), English landscape painter

Thomas Symington Halliday (1902–1998), Scottish painter and sculptor

Hallsteinn Sigurðsson (born 1944)

Dirck Hals (1591–1656)

Frans Hals (1580–1666)

Elaine Hamilton (1920–2010)

Richard Hamilton (born 1922)

Doc Hammer (born 1978)

Wilhelm Hammershoi (1864–1916)

Frederick Hammersley (1919–2009)

Hermione Hammond 1910–2005

Nina Hamnett (1890–1956)

Han Gan (706–783)

Hanabusa Itchō (1652–1724)

Hanabusa Itchō II (1677–1737)

Raymond Han (born 1931), American

Jakob Emanuel Handmann (1718–1781)

Jakob Häne (1913–1978)

Adriaen Hanneman (1603–1671)

Armin Hansen (1886–1957)

Constantin Hansen (1804–1880)

William Harnett (1848–1892)

Henri Harpignies (1819–1916), French

Lawren Harris (1885–1970)

Lawrence Harris (born 1937)

Tracy Harris (born 1958)

Marsden Hartley (1877–1943)

Archibald Standish Hartrick (1864–1950), Scottish painter and printmaker

Hans Hartung (1904–1992)

Gertrude Harvey (1879–1966), English painter

Paul Harvey (born 1960)

Hasegawa Settan (????–1843)

Hasegawa Tōhaku (1539–1610)

Maryam Hashemi

Hashimoto Gahō (1835–1908)

Childe Hassam (1859–1935)

Fathi Hassan (born 1597)

Julius Hatofsky (1922–2006), American Abstract Expressionist artist

Julian Hatton (born 1956)

Haukur Halldórsson (born 1937)

Lars Jonson Haukaness (1863–1929)

Rudolf Hausner (1914–1995)

Sam Havadtoy (born 1952)

Karel Havlíček (1907–1988)

Jane Hawkins (1841–1904)

Hayami Gyoshū (1894–1935)

Colin Hayes (1919–2003), English painter and teacher

Francesco Hayez (1791–1882)

Martin Johnson Heade (1818–1904)

Isobel Heath (1908–1989), English painter and poet

Ernest Hébert (1817–1908)

Jeanne Hébuterne (1898–1920)

Erich Heckel (1883–1970)

Willem Claeszoon Heda (1594–1680)

Cornelis de Heem (1631–1695)

Jan Davidsz. de Heem (1606–1683)

Egbert van Heemskerck (1610–1680)

Henry Heerup (1907–1993)

Franz Hegi (1774–1850)

François Joseph Heim (1787–1865), French

Johannes Heisig (born 1953)

Joseph Heintz the Elder (1564–1609)

Jean Hélion (1904–1987)

Dirk Helmbreker (1633–1696)

Gottfried Helnwein (born 1948)

Francis Helps (1890–1972), English painter

Bartholomeus van der Helst (1613–1670)

Jan Davidsz de Hem (1606–1683)

Elsie Henderson (1880–1967), English painter and sculptor

Jeremy Henderson (1952–2009)

Keith Henderson (1883–1982), Scottish painter and illustrator

Jean-Jacques Henner (1829–1905)

Joseph Morgan Henninger (1906–1999)

Robert Henri (1865–1929)

Rose Henriques (1889–1972), British artist

David Eugene Henry (born 1946)

Edward Lamson Henry (1841–1919)

Paul Henry (1877–1958)

Norman Hepple (1908–1994), English portrait painter

Auguste Herbin (1882–1960)

John Frederick Herring, Jr. (1820–1907), English

John Frederick Herring, Sr. (1795–1865), English

Louis Hersent (1777–1860)

Heinrich Herzig (1887–1964)

F. Scott Hess (born 1955)

Carle Hessay (1911–1978)

Magnus Colcord Heurlin (1895–1986)

Jacob de Heusch (1657–1701)

Prudence Heward (1896–1947)

Elsie Dalton Hewland (1901–1979), British artist

Cicely Hey (1896–1980), English painter and sculptor

Jean Hey (fl. 1475–1505)

Jan van der Heyden (1637–1712)

Hugo Heyrman (born 1942)

Edward Hicks (1780–1849)

Hidari Jingorō

Higashiyama Kaii (1908–1999)

Derek Hill (1916–2000)

Thomas Hill (1829–1908)

Nicholas Hilliard (ca.1547–1619)

Charles Hinman (born 1932)

Hirasawa Sadamichi (1892–1987)

Hiratsuka Unichi (1895–1997)

Hirayama Ikuo (1930–2009)

Hirosada II

Hiroshige (1797–1858)

Damien Hirst (born 1965)

Hishida Shunsō (1874–1911)

Hishikawa Moronobu (1618–1694)

D. Howard Hitchcock (1861–1943)

Adolf Hitler (1889–1945)

Sigrid Hjertén (1885–1948)

Prince Hoare (1755–1834)

William Hoare (ca.1707–1792)

Meindert Hobbema (1638–1709)

David Hockney (born 1937)

Eliot Hodgkin (1905–1987)

Howard Hodgkin (born 1932)

Frances Hodgkins (1869–1947)

Ferdinand Hodler (1853–1918)

Karl Hofer (1878–1955)

Margo Hoff (1910–2008), American

Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (1776–1822)

Vlastimil Hofman (1881–1970)

Hans Hofmann (1880–1866), German born American Abstract Expressionist artist

Heinrich Hofmann (1824–1911)

William Hogarth (1697–1764)

Hokusai (1760–1849)

Ambrosius Holbein (1494–1519)

Hans Holbein the Elder (ca.1465–1524)

Hans Holbein the Younger (ca.1497–1543)

Wenceslas Hollar (1607–1677)

Ruth Hollingsworth (1880–1945)

Itshak Holtz (born 1925)

Winslow Homer (1836–1910)

Homura Jin (born 1948)

Hiroshi Honda (1910–1970)

Gijsbert Gillisz de Hondecoeter (1604–1653)

Gillis Claesz. d'Hondecoeter (1575–1638)

Melchior d'Hondecoeter (1636–1695)

Abraham Hondius (1625–1691)

Henricus Hondius II (1597–1651)

Willem Hondius (1598–1658)

Nathaniel Hone (1718–1784), portrait/miniature painter

Hong Ren (1610–1664)

Villard de Honnecourt (13th century)

Gerald van Honthorst (1590–1656)

Pieter de Hooch (1629–1684)

Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten (1627–1678)

Charles Hopkinson (1869–1962)

Carl Hoppe (1897–1981)

Edward Hopper (1882–1967)

Oluf Høst (1884–1966)

Gerard Houckgeest (1600–1661)

Ken Howard (born 1932)

Ray Howard-Jones (1903–1996), British painter

Youssef Howayek (1883–1962)

Adolf Hölzel (1853–1934)

Hristofor Zhefarovich (18th century)

Hu Jieqing (1905–2001)

Hu Zao

Hu Zaobin (1897–1942)

Hua Yan (1682–1756)

Huang Binhong (1865–1955)

Huang Ding (1650–1730)

Huang Gongwang (1269–1354)

Huang Ji

Huang Shen (1687–1772)

Huang Tingjian (1045–1105)

Jean Huber Voltaire (1721–1786)

Wolf Huber (c.1485–1553)

Erlund Hudson (1912–2011), English watercolour painter

Juergen von Huendeberg (1922–1996), German abstract painter

Arthur Hughes (1832–1915)

Edward Robert Hughes (1851–1914)

Eleanor Hughes (1882–1952), New Zealand landscape painter

Emperor Huizong of Song (1082–1135)

Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928–2000)

Georgina Hunt (1922–2012), English abstract painter

William Holman Hunt (1827–1910), English painter, and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

M. F. Husain (1915–2011)

Jakub Husnik (1837–1916)

Vasile Hutopila (born 1953)

John Hutton (born 1948)

Pieter Huys (1519–1584)

Jan van Huysum (1682–1749)

List of painters in the Art Institute of Chicago

The List of painters in the Art Institute of Chicago is a list of the artists indexed in the Art Institute of Chicago website whose works in their collection were painted. The museum's collections are spread throughout eight buildings in Chicago, and not all works are on display. The entire collection houses over 300,000 objects, thousands of which are on view at any given time, and only 2,382 of these are paintings. In the following list, the painter's name is followed by the number of their paintings in the collection, with a link to all of their works available on the Artic website. For artists with more than one type of work in the collection, or for works by artists not listed here, see the Artic website or the corresponding Wikimedia Commons category. Of artists listed, less than 10% are women.

For the complete list of artists and their artworks in the collection, see the website.

Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy

Archduchess Margaret of Austria (German: Margarete von Österreich; French: Marguerite d'Autriche; Dutch: Margaretha van Oostenrijk; Spanish: Margarita de Austria) (10 January 1480 – 1 December 1530), Princess of Asturias and Duchess of Savoy by her two marriages, was Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1507 to 1515 and again from 1519 to 1530.

Master of Saint Giles

The Master of Saint Giles (French: Maître de Saint-Gilles) was a Franco-Flemish painter active, probably in Paris, about 1500, working in a delicate Late Gothic manner, with rendering of textures and light and faithful depictions of actual interiors that show his affinities with Netherlandish painting. It is not clear whether the Master of Saint Giles was a French painter who trained in the Low Countries (perhaps more likely), or a Netherlander who emigrated to France.

His pseudonym was given him by Max Friedländer, who reconstructed part of the anonymous painter's oeuvre, starting from two panels devoted to Saint Giles (a Miracle and a Mass) in the National Gallery, London, that were part of the lefthand shutter of an altarpiece, and two further panels now in Washington from the same altarpiece. The hand of an assistant can be discerned in the Baptism of Clovis at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, who also have a panel with Episodes from the Life of a Bishop-Saint - perhaps Saint Leu, Saint Denis or Saint Remy. All four panels have, or had, single grisaille figures of saints (Saints Peter, Giles, Denis and an unidentified bishop-saint) in niches, imitating sculpture, on the reverse. The Washington pair, which were in poor condition, have been separated and are lost, although photographs exist. Undoubtedly there were further panels, whose subjects cannot be guessed, as the combination of scenes is original.

Peter II, Duke of Bourbon

Peter II, Duke of Bourbon (1 December 1438 – 10 October 1503 in Moulins), was the son of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, and Agnes of Burgundy, and a member of the House of Bourbon. He and his wife Anne of France ruled as regents during the minority of Charles VIII of France.

Renaissance art

Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of the period of European history, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music, and science. Renaissance art, perceived as the noblest of ancient traditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by absorbing recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance art, with Renaissance Humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities. Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from the medieval period to the Early Modern age.

In many parts of Europe, Early Renaissance art was created in parallel with Late Medieval art.

Renaissance art, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, and literature produced during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries in Europe under the combined influences of an increased awareness of nature, a revival of classical learning, and a more individualistic view of man. Scholars no longer believe that the Renaissance marked an abrupt break with medieval values, as is suggested by the French word renaissance, literally “rebirth.” Rather, historical sources suggest that interest in nature, humanistic learning, and individualism were already present in the late medieval period and became dominant in 15th- and 16th-century Italy concurrently with social and economic changes such as the secularization of daily life, the rise of a rational money-credit economy, and greatly increased social mobility.

The influences upon the development of Renaissance men and women in the early 15th century are those that also affected Philosophy, Literature, Architecture, Theology, Science, Government, and other aspects of society. The following list presents a summary, dealt with more fully in the main articles that are cited above.

Classical texts, lost to European scholars for centuries, became available. These included Philosophy, Prose, Poetry, Drama, Science, a thesis on the Arts, and Early Christian Theology.

Simultaneously, Europe gained access to advanced mathematics which had its provenance in the works of Islamic scholars.

The advent of movable type printing in the 15th century meant that ideas could be disseminated easily, and an increasing number of books were written for a broad public.

The establishment of the Medici Bank and the subsequent trade it generated brought unprecedented wealth to a single Italian city, Florence.

Cosimo de' Medici set a new standard for patronage of the arts, not associated with the church or monarchy.

Humanist philosophy meant that man's relationship with humanity, the universe and with God was no longer the exclusive province of the Church.

A revived interest in the Classics brought about the first archaeological study of Roman remains by the architect Brunelleschi and sculptor Donatello. The revival of a style of architecture based on classical precedents inspired a corresponding classicism in painting and sculpture, which manifested itself as early as the 1420s in the paintings of Masaccio and Uccello.

The improvement of oil paint and developments in oil-painting technique by Dutch artists such as Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden and Hugo van der Goes led to its adoption in Italy from about 1475 and had ultimately lasting effects on painting practices, worldwide.

The serendipitous presence within the region of Florence in the early 15th century of certain individuals of artistic genius, most notably Masaccio, Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Piero della Francesca, Donatello and Michelozzo formed an ethos out of which sprang the great masters of the High Renaissance, as well as supporting and encouraging many lesser artists to achieve work of extraordinary quality.

A similar heritage of artistic achievement occurred in Venice through the talented Bellini family, their influential in-law Mantegna, Giorgione, Titian and Tintoretto.

The publication of two treatises by Leone Battista Alberti, De Pitura (On Painting), 1435, and De re aedificatoria (Ten Books on Architecture), 1452.

Saint Maurice

Saint Maurice (also Moritz, Morris, or Mauritius; Coptic: Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲙⲱⲣⲓⲥ) was the leader of the legendary Roman Theban Legion in the 3rd century, and one of the favorite and most widely venerated saints of that group. He was the patron saint of several professions, locales, and kingdoms. He is also a highly revered saint in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and other churches of Oriental Orthodoxy.

X (Chris Brown album)

X is the sixth studio album by American singer Chris Brown. It was released on September 12, 2014, by CBE Entertainment and RCA Records. The album serves as the follow-up to his fifth album Fortune (2012).

X was preceded by five singles: "Fine China", "Don't Think They Know", "Love More", "Loyal" and "New Flame". The album's fourth single "Loyal" became its most successful, by peaking at number nine on the US Billboard Hot 100 and at number 10 in the United Kingdom. Pushing the promotion for the album further, Brown performed and appeared at several televised music events and music festivals across the United States.

The album received generally positive reviews from critics, who celebrated the record's diverse sound, but were ambivalent towards its lyrical content. The album was considered a big improvement compared to its critically panned predecessor Fortune.

Commercially, the album debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200 selling 146,000 copies in its first week, becoming his first album to miss the summit of the chart since Graffiti (2009) and his third album to go to number two on the chart overall following Exclusive (2007). It also became his sixth consecutive top ten debut in the United States. By the end of 2015, the album had sold 404,000 copies in the United States. It has been certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

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