Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier (French: [ʒɑ̃ kazimiʁ pɛʁje]; 8 November 1847 – 11 March 1907) was a French politician who served as President of the French Third Republic.
|President of France|
27 June 1894 – 16 January 1895
|Prime Minister||Charles Dupuy|
|Preceded by||Marie François Sadi Carnot|
|Succeeded by||Félix Faure|
|Prime Minister of France|
3 December 1893 – 30 May 1894
|President||Marie François Sadi Carnot|
|Preceded by||Charles Dupuy|
|Succeeded by||Charles Dupuy|
|Born||8 November 1847|
|Died||11 March 1907 (aged 59)|
|Political party||Left Republican|
|Alma mater||University of Paris|
He was born in Paris, the son of Auguste Casimir-Perier, the grandson of Casimir Pierre Perier, premier of Louis Philippe, and the great grandson of Claude Périer, one of the founders of the Bank of France. He entered public life as secretary to his father, who was Minister of the Interior under the presidency of Thiers.
In 1874 he was elected General Councillor of the Aube département, and was sent by the same département to the Chamber of Deputies in the general elections of 1876, and he was always re-elected until his presidency. In spite of the traditions of his family, Casimir-Perier joined the group of Republicans on the Left, and was one of the 363 on the Seize-Mai (1877). He refused to vote the “expulsion of the Princes” in 1883, and resigned as Deputy upon the enactment of the law (26th of June,1886) because of his personal connections with the family of Orléans.
On 17 August 1883 he became Under-Secretary of State for War, a post he retained until 7 January 1885. From 1890 to 1892 he was Vice President of the Chamber, then in 1893 President. On 3 December he became President of the Council, holding the department of Foreign Affairs, resigned in May 1894, and was re-elected President of the Chamber.
On 24 June 1894, after the assassination of President Carnot, he was elected President of the Republic by 451 votes against 195 for Henri Brisson and 97 for Charles Dupuy. His presidency lasted only six months. The resignation of the Dupuy ministry on 14 January 1895 was followed the next day by that of the President. Casimir-Perier explained his action by the fact that he found himself ignored by the ministers, who did not consult him before taking decisions, and did not keep him informed upon political events, especially in foreign affairs.
As of 2016, of all Presidents of France through its history, Casimir-Perier had the shortest presidency.
From that time he completely abandoned politics, and devoted himself to business — especially mining. At the trial of Alfred Dreyfus at Rennes, Casimir-Perier's evidence, as opposed to that of General Mercier, was of great value to the cause of Dreyfus.
| President of the Chamber of Deputies
| Prime Minister of France|
| Minister of Foreign Affairs
| President of the Chamber of Deputies
| President of France
Events from the year 1847 in France.1893 French legislative election
The 1893 general election was held on 20 August and 3 September 1893.
The Republicans were victorious and gained an increased majority, and President Sadi Carnot invited Jean Casimir-Perier to form a government. However, there was increasing tension between the Radicals and the Moderates in the ruling coalition, which had manifested itself in the passage of a protectionist tariff law with right-wing support in January 1892.
After the election, following the bombing of the Chamber of Deputies by the anarchist Auguste Vaillant on 9 December 1893, Casimir-Perier rushed through the lois scélérates with the support of the Right.
Casimir-Perier was elected to the presidency on 24 June 1894, following the assassination of President Carnot by the Italian anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio. In January 1895, however, he resigned, and was replaced by Félix Faure, again with the support of the Right.
Casimir-Perier's government was followed by a series of moderate governments with right-wing support under Charles Dupuy, Alexandre Ribot and Jules Méline - with the short-lived exception of the government of Radical Léon Bourgeois (November 1895-April 1896).1893 in France
Events from the year 1893 in France.1894 in France
Events from the year 1894 in France.1895 in France
Events from the year 1895 in France.Albert Viger
Albert Viger (19 October 1843 – 8 July 1926) was a French politician of the Third French Republic. He served three times as minister of agriculture in the governments of Alexandre Ribot, Charles Dupuy, Jean Casimir-Perier, Léon Bourgeois and Henri Brisson. He served in the Senate of France and was a member of the Legion of Honour.Alfred Léon Gérault-Richard
Alfred Léon Gérault (1860 – 6 December 1911), known as Gérault-Richard, was a French journalist and socialist politician, born at Bonnétable (in the départment of Sarthe) of a peasant family.
Gérault-Richard began life as a working upholsterer, first at Le Mans, and then at Paris (1880), where his peasant and socialist songs won him fame in the Montmartre quarter. Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray, the communard, offered him a position on La Bataille, and he became a regular contributor to the progressive journals, especially to La Petite République, of which he became editor-in-chief in 1897.In 1893 he founded Le Chambard, and was imprisoned for a year (1894) for a personal attack upon the president, Jean Casimir-Perier. In January 1895 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a member of the Socialist Party for the 13th arrondissement of Paris. Gérault-Richard was defeated at the elections of 1898 at Paris, but was twice re-elected (1902–1906, 1906–1911) by the colony of Guadeloupe. He died in Fréjus.Auguste Alfred Lefèvre
Auguste Lefèvre (20 December 1828, Brest – 6 January 1907, Paris) was a French vice admiral, aide de camp and politician. He was French Naval Minister from 3 December 1893 to 29 May 1894 in the ministries of Jean Casimir-Perier and Charles Dupuis.Auguste Casimir-Perier
Auguste Victor Laurent Casimir-Perier (20 August 1811, Paris – 6 June 1876) was a French diplomat and political leader. He was the son of Casimir Pierre Perier and the father of President Jean Casimir-Perier.
He entered the diplomatic service, being attached successively to the London, Brussels and St Petersburg embassies and in 1843 became minister plenipotentiary at Hanover.
In 1846 he resigned from the service to enter the legislature as deputy for the département of Seine, a constituency which he exchanged for another one in the département of Aube after the Revolution of 1848.
On the establishment of the Second Empire he retired temporarily from public life, and devoted himself to economic questions of which he published a series of works, notably Les Finances et la politique (1863), dealing with the interaction of political institutions and finance. He contested Grenoble unsuccessfully in 1863 against the imperial candidate, Casimir Royer; and failed again for Aube in 1869.
In 1871 he was returned by three départements to the National Assembly, and elected to sit for Aube. He joined the Centre gauche parliamentary group. He was minister of the interior for a few months from 11 October 1871 to 6 February 1872, and his retirement deprived Thiers of one of the strongest elements in his cabinet. He also joined the short-lived ministry of May 1873 (18 to 25 May). He consistently opposed all efforts in the direction of a monarchical restoration, but on the definite constitution of the republic became a senator for life, declining Mac-Mahon's invitation to form the first cabinet under the new constitution. He died in Paris.David Raynal
David Raynal (July 26, 1840 – January 28, 1903) was a French politician of the French Third Republic. He was a member of the Chamber of Deputies of France (1879–1897) and Senate of France (1897–1903). He was twice minister of public works (January 14, 1881 – January 30, 1882; February 21, 1883 – April 6, 1885) in the governments of Léon Gambetta and Jules Ferry. He was minister of the interior (December 3, 1893 – May 30, 1894) in the government of Jean Casimir-Perier.Ernest Boulanger (politician)
Ernest Boulanger (12 October 1831 in Nantillois, Meuse – 19 October 1907 in Paris) was a French politician and economist.
Senator of the Meuse from 1886 to 1907, he participated very actively in the budget discussions. For many years he served as vice-president of the Committee on Finance.
He was Overseas Minister from 20 March to 29 May 1894 in the Government Jean Casimir-Perier and the first President of the Court of Auditors from 1896 to 1900. He was also Chairman of the Board of the General Omnibus Company, from 1890 to 1894 and from 1900 to 1907.Hélène Casimir-Perier
Hélène Casimir-Perier (1854–1912) was a first lady of France in 1894–1895. She was married to President Jean Casimir-Perier.List of Presidents of France
Below is a list of Presidents of France. The first President of France is considered to be Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (later Napoleon III), who was elected in the 1848 election, under the French Second Republic. The current president is Emmanuel Macron, from 14 May 2017. He was elected in the 2017 election.
Jean Casimir-Périer spent the shortest time in office, resigning in 1895 only six months and 20 days after taking office. François Mitterrand served the longest, nearly fourteen years.
Of the individuals elected as president, two died in office of natural causes (Félix Faure and Georges Pompidou), and two were assassinated (Marie François Sadi Carnot and Paul Doumer).List of Presidents of France by tenure
The following is a list of Presidents of France sorted by length of tenure.List of state leaders in 1894
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1894.Marie François Sadi Carnot
Marie François Sadi Carnot (French: [maʁi fʁɑ̃swa sadi kaʁno]; 11 August 1837 – 25 June 1894) was a French statesman, who served as the President of France from 1887 until his assassination in 1894.Opportunist Republicans
The Moderates or Moderate Republicans (French: Républicains modérés), pejoratively labeled Opportunist Republicans (French: Républicains opportunistes), were a French political group active in the late 19th century during the Third French Republic. The leaders of the group included Jules Ferry, Jules Grévy, Henri Wallon and René Waldeck-Rousseau.
Although they were considered leftist at the time, the Opportunists progressively evolved into a centre-right, law and order and vaguely anti-labour political party. During their existence, the Moderate Republicans were present in the French Parliament first under the name of Republican Left (French: Gauche républicaine) and after a fusion with radical republicans as the Democratic Union (French: Union démocratique).
They furthered got divided into the National Republican Association (French: Association nationale républicaine) and the Liberal Republican Union (French: Union libérale républicaine) in 1888 and 1889, respectively.Salvador Casañas y Pagés
Salvador Casañas y Pagés (5 September 1834 – 27 October 1908) was a Spanish cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Barcelona from 1901 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1895.Société des Amis des Universités de Paris
The Société des Amis des Universités de Paris (SAUP; English: the Society of Friends of the Universities of Paris) is a public utility and non-profit association of private status regulated by the French law of 1901 on associations. It has been founded in 1899 for social and humanitarian purposes.
The SAUP has been presided by a number of prestigious chairmen: Jean-Casimir Perier and Raymond Poincaré (former French Presidents), René Cassin (Nobel peace prize-winner), members of the Institute, many famous scholars ...
It is currently presided by Chief Education Officer Jean-Louis Boursin, Professor at the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris, former president of Conference of Chief Education Officer. The two Vice Chairmen are Professor Jean Mesnard, member of the Institut, and Professor Jean-Robert Pitte, President of the Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris IV). According to its statutes, the first Vice-President of the SAUP is the Rector-Chancellor of the Paris University.
This association, intended to develop the French culture around the world, created in 1919 the Cours de Civilisation Française de la Sorbonne, a French as a foreign language school which provides French language and civilisation classes for foreigners.
Recently, the SAUP has created two other programs:
Sorbonne dans la Ville, a series of lectures given by professors of Paris University for the general public.
The FLE Français langue étrangère Collection, performed by the major academic publisher Belin, whose two first books were published in 2007.The Société des Amis des Universités de Paris was dissolved in 2009 to be erected Foundation of Public Utility, the Foundation Robert de Sorbon.