Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy

Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (17 February 1783 in Liège – 15 January 1875 in Brussels) was a Belgian geologist. He also wrote on races.

Omalius d'Halloy
Jean d'Omalius d'Halloy

Early life and education

Born in Liège, he was the only son of an ancient and noble family, and his education was carefully directed. After completing his classical studies in his home town he was sent to Paris in 1801 by his parents to avail himself of the social and literary advantages of the metropolis. A lively interest, however, in geology awakened by the works of Buffon, directed his steps to the museums and the Jardin des Plantes.

He visited Paris again in 1803 and 1805, and during these periods attended the lectures of Fourcroy, Lacépède, and Georges Cuvier. His homeward journeys were usually made the occasion of a geological expedition through northern France. As early as 1808 he communicated to the Journal des Mines a paper entitled Essai sur la géologie du Nord de la France. He thus conceived the project of making a series of surveys throughout the whole country. This was furthered by a commission to execute a geological map of the empire which brought with it exemption from military duty.

Work

He devoted himself energetically to the work and by 1813 had traversed over 15,500 miles in France and portions of Italy. His family had, however, but little sympathy with his geological activity, and persuaded him to give up his expeditions. The map which he had made of France and the neighbouring territories was not published until 1822 and served as a basis for the more detailed surveys of Armand Dufrénoy and Elie de Beaumont. After having served as sous-intendant of the arrondissement of Dinant (1814) and general secretary of the province of Liège (1815), he became in 1815 governor of Namur. He held this office until after the Revolution of 1830. He was elected a member of the Belgian Senate in 1848, became its vice-president in 1851, was made a member of the Academy of Brussels in 1816, and was elected its president in 1850.

Descent with modification

In the third edition of On the Origin of Species published in 1861, Charles Darwin added a Historical Sketch giving due credit to naturalists who had preceded him in publishing the opinion that species undergo modification, and that the existing forms of life have descended by true generation from pre-existing forms. This included d'Halloy –

In 1846 the veteran geologist M. J. d'Omalius d'Halloy published in an excellent, though short paper ('Bulletins de l'Acad. Roy. Bruxelles,' tom. xiii. p. 581), his opinion that it is more probable that new species have been produced by descent with modification, than that they have been separately created: the author first promulgated this opinion in 1831.[1]

Statesman

As a statesman Halloy had at heart the well-being of the people and, though his duties allowed him little opportunity for extended geological research, he retained a lively interest in his favourite science and engaged occasionally in field work. In his later years he gave much attention to questions of ethnology and philosophy. His death was hastened by the exertions of a scientific expedition undertaken alone in his ninety-first year. He died in Brussels on 15 January 1875.

Pioneer

Halloy was one of the pioneers of modern geology, and in particular laid the foundation of geological knowledge over wide areas. He made important studies in the Carboniferous districts of Belgium and the Rhine provinces and in the Tertiary deposits of the Paris basin. He was a practicing Catholic during his long and active life, and was characterized by his loyalty and devotion to the Church. He insisted on the harmony between faith and science, making this the subject of his oration on the occasion of the golden jubilee of the Belgian Academy in 1866. Among his published works are: Description géologique des Pays-Bas (1828); Eléments de Géologie (1831); Introduction à la Géologie (1833); Coup d'oeil sur la géologie de la Belgique (1842); Precis elementaire de Géologie (1843); Abrégé de Géologie (1853); Des Races humaines ou Eléments d' Ethnographie (1845). In this last book, Halloy established a racial classification according to skin colour.

Belgian Academy of Sciences

He was an active member of the Belgian Academy of Sciences from 1816, and served three times as president. He was likewise president of the Geological Society of France in 1852. He studied also in detail the Tertiary deposits of the Paris Basin, and ascertained the extent of the Cretaceous and some of the older strata, which he for the first time clearly depicted on a map (1817). He was distinguished as an ethnologist, and when nearly ninety years of age he was chosen president of the Congress of Pre-historic Archaeology (Brussels, 1872).

References

  1. ^ Darwin 1861, p. xvi
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Omalius d'Halloy, Jean Baptiste Julien d'". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHenry Matthias Brock (1913). "Jean-Baptiste-Julien D'Omalius Halloy" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  • Darwin, Charles (1861), On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (3rd ed.), London: John Murray, retrieved 2008-11-08
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Omalius d'Halloy, Jean Baptiste Julien, Baron d'. New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
1822 in science

The year 1822 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

1875 in Belgium

Events in the year 1875 in Belgium.

Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières

The Bureau de recherches géologiques et minières (BRGM) (literally: Geological and mining research bureau) is the French government geological survey (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose") (EPIC) which aim is the management of resources, and surface and sub-surface risks.

It was established in 1959 as a research and consultancy agency from the merging of the Bureau de recherches géologiques, géophysiques et minières and the Bureau minier de la France d'outre-mer. It is under the supervision of the MESR (Ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, English: Ministry of Higher Education and Research).Its headquarters are located in central Paris and the scientific and technical center is at Orleans. The BRGM employs approximately 1,100 people in its scientific and technical center, including more than 700 engineers and researchers, in 32 regional branches in metropolitan France and overseas territories. The agency is tasked with five functions: scientific research, support for public policies, international cooperation, mining safety, and Higher and continuing education.

Halloy

Halloy may refer to:

Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783-1875), Belgian geologist

Halloy, Oise, a French commune

Halloy, Pas-de-Calais, a French commune

Château de Halloy, a castle in Halloy, Belgium

Halloy, Belgium, a village in Belgium

Julien (given name)

The given name Julien may refer to:

Julien Absalon (born 1980), a French cross-country mountain biker

Julien Alvard (1916–1974), a French art critic

Julien Anfruns (living), a French Director General of the International Council of Museums since 2008

Julien Aklei (born 1975), an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and artist

Julien Arias (born 1983), a French rugby union player

Julien Bahain (born 1986), a French rower

Julien Bailleul (1988–2011), a French football player

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Julien Balbo (born 1979), a French professional squash player

Julien Balkany (born 1981), a French businessman

Julien Bardy (born 1985), a French-born Portuguese rugby union player

Julien Baudet (born 1979), a French former football player and current manager

Julien Belgy (born 1983), a French professional road bicycle racer

Julien Beltoise (born 1974), a French racing driver

Julien Benda (1867–1956), a French philosopher and novelist

Julien Benneteau (born 1981), a French professional tennis player

Julien Bérard (born 1987), a French professional road bicycle racer

Julien Berger (born 1990), a Belgian rugby union player

Julien Bertheau (1910–1995), a French actor

Julien Berthier, a French artist

Julien Berthomier (born 1990), a French football player

Julien Bessières (1777–1840), a French scientist

Julien Billaut (born 1981), a French slalom canoer

Julien Binford (1909–1997), an American painter

Julien Boisselier (born 1970), a French actor

Julien Bonnaire (born 1978), a French rugby union player

Julien Bontemps (born 1979), a French sailor

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Julien Brellier (born 1982), a French football player

Julien Brouillette (born 1986), a Canadian professional ice hockey player

Julien Brugnaut (born 1981), a rugby union player

Julien Brulé (1875-after 1920), a French archer who competed in the 1920 Summer Olympics

Julien Bryan (1899–1974), an American photographer and film maker

Julien Cahn (1882–1944), an entrepreneur and philanthropist

Julien Cain (1887–1974), the general administrator of the Bibliothèque nationale de France before the Occupation of France by Nazi Germany

Julien Canal (born 1982), a French racing driver

Julien Candelon (born 1980), a French professional rugby player

Julien Cardy (born 1981), a French football player

Julien Carette (1897–1966), a French film actor

Julien Cartron (born 1989), a French Grand Prix motorcycle racer

Julien Casoli (born 1982), a French Paralympian athlete

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Julien Chouinard (1929–1987), a Canadian lawyer and civil servant

Julien Civange (living), a French musician, composer, lyricist and producer

Julien Clerc (born 1947), a French singer

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Julien Cordonnier (born 1980), a French professional football player

Julien Cosmao (1761–1825), a French Navy officer and admiral

Julien Coupat (born 1974), a French political activist

Julien Courbey (born 1976), a French actor

Julien Cousineau (born 1981), a Canadian alpine skier

Julien Darui (1916–1987), a French football player

Julién Davenport (born 1995), American football player

Julien Davies Cornell (1910–1994), an American lawyer

Julien de Lallande Poydras (1746–1824), a French-American politician

Julien Delonglée (born 1983), a French professional football player

Julien De Smedt (born 1975), a Belgian-Danish architect

Julien Desprès (born 1983), a French rower

Julien Desrosiers (born 1980), an ice hockey player

Julien De Wilde (born 1944), a Belgian businessman

Julien Dillens (1849–1904), a Belgian sculptor

Julien Doré (born 1982), a French singer

Julien Dray (born 1955), a member of the National Assembly of France

Julien Dubuque (1762–1810), a French Canadian settler

Julien Dunkley (born 1975), a Jamaican track and field athlete

Julien Dupré (1851–1910), a French painter

Julien Dupuy (born 1983), a French rugby union player

Julien Durand (footballer) (born 1983), French association footballer

Julien Durand (politician) (1874–1973), French politician

Julien Duvivier (1896–1967), French film director

Julien El Fares (born 1985), French road bicycle racer

Julien Escudé (born 1979), French football player

Julien Falk (1902–1987), French composer

Julien Faubert (born 1983), French football player

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Julien Favier (born 1980), French professional football player

Julien Félix, French early aviator

Julien Féret (born 1982), a French football player

Julien Fernandes (born 1985), a French-Portuguese football player

Julien Fivaz (born 1979), a Swiss long jumper

Julien Foret (born 1982), a French professional golfer

Julien Fountain (born 1970), an English professional cricket coach

Julien Fournié (living), a French fashion designer

Julien François (born 1979), a French football player

Julien Friedler (born 1950), a Belgian writer and contemporary artist

Julien Frier (born 1974), a French rugby union player

Julien Garnier (1642–1730), a French Jesuit missionary to Canada

Julien Gerbi (born 1985), a French-Algerian race car driver

Julien Gibert (disambiguation)

Julien Girard (born 1984), a French professional football player

Julien Gorius (born 1985), a French football player

Julien Gouyet, a French priest credited with discovering the House of the Virgin Mary in 1881

Julien Gracq (1910–2007), a French writer

Julien Green (1900–1998), an American writer

Julien Guadet (1834–1908), a French architect

Julien Guerrier (born 1985), a French professional golfer

Julien Guertiau (1885–1954), a French flying ace during World War I

Julien Guiomar (1928–2010), a French film director

Julien Havet (1853–1893), a French historian

Julien Hébert (1917–1994), a Québécois industrial designer

Julien Hoffman (born 1924), a South African-American pediatric cardiologist

Julien Hoffmann (1924–2007), a Luxembourgian composer and professor of music

Julien Hornuss (born 1986), a French football player

Julien Hudson (1811–1844), a free man of color who lived in New Orleans, United States

Julien Humbert (born 1984), a French football player

Julien Ictoi (born 1978), a French football player

Julien Ielsch (born 1983), a French professional football player

Julien Ingrassia (born 1979), a French rally co-driver

Julien Jeanpierre (born 1980), a French former professional tennis player

Julien Josephson (1881–1959), an American motion picture screenwriter

Julien Jousse (born 1986), a French professional racing driver

Julien Kapek (born 1979), a French triple jumper

Julien Kerneur (born 1991), a French professional kite surfer

Julien Klener (born 1939), a Belgian linguist

Julien Lachuer (born 1976), a French football player

Julien Laharrague (born 1978), a French rugby union player

Julien Lahaut (1884–1950), a Belgian politician

Julien Laubscher (born 1987), a South African pop artist

Julien Le Blant (1851–1936), a French painter of military subjects

Julien J. LeBourgeois (born 1923), a retired vice admiral of the United States Navy

Julien Leclercq (1865–1901), a French poet and art critic

Julien Leparoux (born 1983), a Champion jockey

Julien Lepers (born 1949), a French television and radio host

Julien Le Roy (1686–1759), a Parisian clockmaker and watchmaker

Julien Levy (1906–1981), an art dealer in New York City, United States

Julien Lizeroux (born 1979), a French World Cup alpine ski racer

Julien Lootens (1876–1942), a Belgian cyclist

Julien Loubet (born 1985), a French professional road bicycle racer

Julien Lorcy (born 1972), a professional boxer

Julien Loriot (1633–1715), a French theologian

Julien Lorthioir (born 1983), a French professional football player

Julien Lourau (born 1970), a French jazz saxophonist

Julien Lowe, a fictional character in the television drama series The Shield

Julien Loy (born 1976), a French triathlete

Julien Lutz (born 1975), a Canadian music video director

Julien Macdonald (born 1971), a Welsh fashion designer

Julien Magnat (living), a French film and television screenwriter and director

Julien Maitron (1881–1972), a French professional road bicycle racer

Julien Malzieu (born 1983), a French rugby union and sevens player

Julien Martinelli (born 1980), a French football player

Julien Maurin (living), a French rally driver

Julien Maury (born 1978), a French filmmaker

Julien Mayfair, a fictional character in Anne Rice 's Mayfair Witches trilogy

Julien Mazet (born 1981), a French professional road bicycle racer

Julien Médecin (1894-?), a Monegasque architect

Julien Moineau (1903–1980), a French professional road bicycle racer

Julien Mory Sidibé (1927–2003), a bishop of Mali

Julien Musafia, an American musicologist

Julien N'Da (born 1985), an Ivorian football player

Julien Nitzberg (born 1966), an American film director, script writer and theatre director

Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709–1751), a French physician and philosopher

Julien of Toulouse (1750–1828), a French deputy to the National Convention

Julien Outrebon (born 1983), a French professional football player

Julien Paluku Kahongya (born 1968), a politician of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Julien Peridier (1882–1967), a French electrical engineer and amateur astronomer

Julien Perrichon (1566 – c. 1600), a French composer and lutenist of the late Renaissance

Julien Perrin (born 1985), a French professional football player

Julien Peyrelongue (born 1981), a French rugby union player

Julien Pierre (born 1981), a French rugby union player

Julien Pillet (born 1977), a French sabre fencer

Julien Poueys (born 1979), a French football player

Julien Poulin (born 1946), a Canadian actor, film director, screenwriter, film producer and composer

Julien Prosser (born 1972), an Australian beach volleyball player

Julien Puricelli (born 1981), a French rugby union player

Julien Quercia (born 1986), a French football player

Julien Quesne (born 1980), a French professional golfer

Julien Raimond (1744–1801), an indigo planter in the French colony of Saint-Domingue

Julien Rantier (born 1983), a French football player

Julien Rassam (1968–2002), a French actor

Julien Reverchon (1837–1905), a French botanist

Julien Ries (born 1920), a Belgian religious historian

Julien Rinaldi (born 1979), a French rugby league player

Julien Robert (born 1974), a French biathlete

Julien Rodriguez (born 1978), a French professional football player

Julien Sablé (born 1980), a French football player

Julien Saubade (born 1983), a French rugby union player

Julien Schepens (1935–2006), a Belgian former professional road bicycle racer

Julien Senderos (born 1980), a Swiss basketball player

Julien Simon (born 1985), a French road bicycle racer

Julien Sicot (born 1978), a French Olympic freestyle swimmer

Julien Sola (born 1984), a French professional football player

Julien Sprunger (born 1986), a Swiss professional ice hockey player

Julien Stevens (born 1943), a Belgian retired cyclist

Julien Temple (born 1953), an English film, documentary and music video director

Julien Tiersot (1857–1936), a French musicologist and composer

Julien Tomas (born 1985), a French rugby union player

Julien Torma (1902–1933), a French writer, playwright and poet

Julien Toudic (born 1985), a French football player

Julien Tournut (born 1982), a French football player

Julien Touxagas (born 1984), a professional rugby league footballer

Julien Valero (born 1984), a French-Spanish football player

Julien van Zeebroeck (born 1946), a Belgian Grand Prix motorcycle road racer

Julien Varlet (born 1977), a French former professional tennis player

Julien Vauclair (born 1979), a Swiss professional ice hockey player

Julien Viale (born 1982), a French football player

Julien Viaud (1850–1923), a French novelist and naval officer

Julien Vidot (born 1982), a French racing driver

Julien Vermote (born 1989), a Belgian professional cyclist

Julien Vervaecke (1899–1940), a Belgian professional road bicycle racer

Julien Wartelle (1889–1943), a French gymnast

Julien Wiener (born 1955), an Australian former cricket player

King Julien, a character in Madagascarand also:

Julien Augustin Joseph Mermet (1772–1837), a French general who fought in the Napoleonic Wars

Julien-Désiré Schmaltz (1771–1826), a French colonial administrator

Julien Edmund Victor Gaujot (1874–1938), an American Army Medal of Honor recipient

Julien François Desjardins (1799–1840), a French zoologist

Julien Joseph Vesque (1848–1895), a French naturalist

Julien Léon Loizillon (1829–1899), a French general

Julien Louis Geoffroy (1743–1814), a French literary critic

Julien Noël Costantin (1857–1936), a French botanist and mycologist

Julien Paul Blitz (1885–1951), an American cellist, conductor and teacher

Algirdas Julien Greimas (1917–1992), a French semiotician

André Julien Chainat (1892–1961), a French World War I flying ace

Charles Julien Brianchon (1783–1864), a French mathematician and chemist

Gabriel-Julien Ouvrard (1770–1846), a French financier

Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783–1875), a Belgian geologist

Jean-Julien (given name)

Louis Julien Demers (1848–1905), a merchant and political figure in Quebec

Luc-Julien-Joseph Casabianca (1762–1798), a French Navy officer

Maxime Julien Émeriau de Beauverger (1762–1845), a French Navy officer and admiral

List of fellows of the Royal Society M, N, O

About 8,000 fellows have been elected to the Royal Society of London since its inception in 1660.

Below is a list of people who are or were Fellow or Foreign Member of the Royal Society.

The date of election to the fellowship follows the name.

Dates in brackets relate to an award or event associated with the person.

The Society maintains complete online list. This list is complete up to and including 2019.

List of lay Catholic scientists

Many Catholics have made significant contributions to the development of science and mathematics from the Middle Ages to today. These scientists include Galileo Galilei, René Descartes, Louis Pasteur, Blaise Pascal, André-Marie Ampère, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, Pierre de Fermat, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Alessandro Volta, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Pierre Duhem, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Alois Alzheimer, Georgius Agricola, and Christian Doppler.

For additional Catholic scientists, see the List of Catholic churchmen-scientists.

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