Jean Arp

Jean Arp or Hans Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, poet, and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper.

Jean Arp
Hans Arp
Photograph of Jean Arp, published in De Stijl, vol. 7, nr. 73/74 (January 1926)
Born16 September 1886
Died7 June 1966 (aged 79)
Basel, Switzerland
NationalityFrench, German
EducationAcadémie Julian
Known forSculpture, painting
MovementAbstraction-Création, Surrealism, Dada
Spouse(s)Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Marguerite Arp-Hagenbach

Early life

Arp was born in Strasbourg, the son of a French mother and a German father, during the period following the Franco-Prussian War when the area was known as Alsace-Lorraine (Elsass-Lothringen in German) after France had ceded it to Germany in 1871. Following the return of Alsace to France at the end of World War I, French law determined that his name become "Jean". Arp would continue referring to himself as "Hans" when he spoke German.[1]

In 1904, after leaving the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg, he went to Paris where he published his poetry for the first time. From 1905 to 1907, Arp studied at the Kunstschule in Weimar, Germany, and in 1908 went back to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. Arp was a founder-member of the Moderne Bund in Lucerne, participating in their exhibitions from 1911 to 1913.[2]

In 1912, he went to Munich, called on Wassily Kandinsky, the influential Russian painter and art theorist, was encouraged by him in his researches and exhibited with the Der Blaue Reiter group.[3] Later that year, he took part in a major exhibition in Zürich, along with Henri Matisse, Robert Delaunay and Kandinsky.[3] In Berlin in 1913, he was taken up by Herwarth Walden, the dealer and magazine editor who was at that time one of the most powerful figures in the European avant-garde.[3]

In 1915, he moved to Switzerland to take advantage of Swiss neutrality. Arp later told the story of how, when he was notified to report to the German consulate in Zurich,[4] he pretended to be mentally ill in order to avoid being drafted into the German Army: after crossing himself whenever he saw a portrait of Paul von Hindenburg,[3] Arp was given paperwork on which he was told to write his date of birth on the first blank line. Accordingly, he wrote "16/9/87"; he then wrote "16/9/87" on every other line as well,[4] then drew one final line beneath them and, "without worrying too much about accuracy", calculated their sum.[5] Hans Richter, describing this story, noted that "they [the German authorities] believed him."[4]


Shirt Front and Fork
Shirt Front and Fork, painted wood, 1922, National Gallery of Art

In 1916, Hugo Ball opened the Cabaret Voltaire, which was to become the center of Dada activities in Zurich for a group that included Arp, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, and others.[6] In 1920, as Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst and the social activist Alfred Grünwald, he set up the Cologne Dada group. However, in 1925, his work also appeared in the first exhibition of the surrealist group at the Galérie Pierre in Paris.[1]

In 1926, Arp moved to the Paris suburb of Meudon. In 1931, he broke with the Surrealist movement to found Abstraction-Création, working with the Paris-based group Abstraction-Création and the periodical, Transition. Beginning in the 1930s, the artist expanded his efforts from collage and bas-relief to include bronze and stone sculptures.[7] He produced several small works made of multiple elements that the viewer could pick up, separate, and rearrange into new configurations.[8]

Pastor de Nubes o Formes de Lutin
Cloud Shepherd, Jean Arp (1953), Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas

Throughout the 1930s and until the end of his life, he wrote and published essays and poetry. In 1942, he fled from his home in Meudon to escape German occupation and lived in Zürich until the war ended.

Arp visited New York City in 1949 for a solo exhibition at the Buchholz Gallery. In 1950, he was invited to execute a relief for the Harvard University Graduate Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts and would also be commissioned to do a mural at the UNESCO building in Paris.


Scrutant l'horizon (The Hague, 1967)

In 1958, a retrospective of Arp's work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, followed by an exhibition at the Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris, France, in 1962. Organized by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Wurttembergischer Kunstverein of Stuttgart, a 150-piece exhibition titled "The Universe of Jean Arp" concluded an international six-city tour at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1986.[9]

The Musée d'art moderne et contemporain of Strasbourg houses many of his paintings and sculptures.


Arp's career was distinguished with many awards including the Grand Prize for sculpture at the 1954 Venice Biennale, a sculpture prizes at the 1964 Pittsburgh International, the 1963 Grand Prix National des Arts, the 1964 Carnegie Prize, the 1965 Goethe Prize from the University of Hamburg, and then the Order of Merit with a Star of the German Republic.[10]

Personal life and death

Arp and his first wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp, became French nationals in 1926.[2] In the 1930s, they bought a piece of land in Clamart and built a house at the edge of a forest. Influenced by the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, Taeuber designed it.[11] She died in Zürich in 1943. After living in Zürich, Arp was to make Meudon his primary residence again in 1946.[12]

Arp married the collector Marguerite Hagenbach (1902–1994), his long-time companion, in 1959.[13] He died in 1966, in Basel, Switzerland.


  • "I hereby declare that on February 8th, 1916, Tristan Tzara discovered the word Dada. I was present with my twelve children.. .and I wore a brioche in my left nostril. I am convinced that this word has no importance and that only imbeciles and Spanish professors can be interested in dates. What interests us is the Dada spirit and we were all Dada before the existence of Dada.." [from Arp's 'Declaration', October 1921]
  • "Art is fruit growing out of man like the fruit out of a plant like the child out of the mother.. .Reason tells man to stand above nature and to be the measure of all things.. ..through reason man became a tragic and ugly figure.." [c. 1932]
  • "These paintings, these sculptures – these objects – should remain anonymous, in the great workshop of nature, like the clouds, the mountains, the seas, the animals, and man himself. Yes! Man should go back to nature! Artists should work together like the artists of the Middle Ages." [c. 1941–42]
  • "Sculpture should walk on the tips of its toes, unostentatious, unpretentious, and light as the spoor of an animal in snow. Art should melt into and even merge with nature itself. This is obviously contrary to painting and sculpture based on nature. By so doing, art will rid itself more and more of self-centredness, virtuosity and absurdity." [in 'Arp on Arp', 1958]
  • "I allow myself to be guided by the work which is in the process of being born, I have confidence in it [Arp refers to automatic creation]. I do not think about it. The forms arrive pleasant, or strange, hostile, inexplicable, mute, or drowsy. They are born from themselves. It seems to me as if all I do is move my hands. [1960s]


There are three Arp foundations in Europe: The Fondation Arp in Clamart preserves the atelier where Arp lived and worked for most of his life; about 2,000 visitors tour the house each year. The Fondazione Marguerite Arp-Hagenbach in Locarno, Switzerland, was founded by Arp's second wife, Marguerite Arp-Hagenbach.[11] A foundation dedicated to Arp, named Stiftung Hans Arp und Sophie Taeuber-Arp e.V., was established in 1977 by the dealer Johannes Wasmuth in consultation with Marguerite Arp-Hagenbach and owns the largest collection of works by Arp and holds the copyright of all his works. It has research centre and office in Berlin, and an office in Rolandseck, Germany.[14]


Jean Arp, 391, No. 8, Zurich, February 1919

Jean Arp, reproduced in 391, No. 8, Zurich, February 1919

Hottingen Hans Arp 1915

A wall-painting of Hans Arp, he made in Zürich in 1916

Dada 4-5 Zurich-1919-Collage et bois gravé de Arp en couverture LB.4-0531 mb

Print for the cover of Dada 4, Hans Arp, 1919

L'escalier de l'Aubette en 1928 (musées de Strasbourg) (29056943916)

Stained glass-windows in the Aubette, 1928

'Constellation According to the Laws of Chance' by Jean Arp (Hans Arp), Tate Modern

Constellation According to the Laws of Chance, Jean Arp; c. 1930

Jean Arp Configuration

Configuration, 1931, by Has Arp; in wood

Impish Fruit' by Jean Arp (Hans Arp), Tate Modern

Impish Fruit, by Jean Arp, 1943

Schalenboom, Jean Arp, Middelheimmuseum 01

Tree of shells, bronze sculpture by Hans Arp, 1947-53


Cloud-shepherd / Berger de nuages, bronze sculpture of Arp, 1953

Marl Arp 01

Feuille se reposant, bronze sculpture, 1959

Evocation of a Form Human Lunar Spectral

Evocation of a Form: Human, Lunar, Spectral, bronze sculpture by Hans Arp, 1950


Schlüssel des Stundenschlägers, bronze sculpture of Arp, 1962


Moving dance jewelry, bronze sculpture of Arp, c. 1960-70


  1. ^ a b Robertson, Eric (2006). Arp: Painter, Poet, Sculptor. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  2. ^ a b Jean Arp Museum of Modern Art, New York
  3. ^ a b c d Russell, John (10 August 1986). "Jean Arp – A Pioneer Worthy of Honor". The New York Times.
  4. ^ a b c Hans Richter", quoted in Dada XYZ, 1948; archived in the Dada Painters & Poets: Anthology (2nd edition, 1981), edited by Robert Motherwell
  5. ^ "Hans Arp", by André Breton, in Anthology of Black Humor; originally published 1940
  6. ^ Jean Arp, Guggenheim Museum
  7. ^ Michael Kimmelman (4 May 1990), The Power of Whimsy: Jean Arp's Later Work The New York Times.
  8. ^ Jean Arp, Head and Shell (Tête et coquille) (ca. 1933) Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.
  9. ^ Zan Dubin (27 December 1987), Arp Retrospective in S.F. Los Angeles Times.
  10. ^ Jean Arp National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.
  11. ^ a b Saskia De Rothschild (14 February 2013), Glimpses of Jean Arp’s World The New York Times.
  12. ^ Jean Arp Archived 20 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.
  13. ^ "Hans (Jean) Arp". National Gallery of Art. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  14. ^ Gareth Harris (12 September 2012), Shake up at Arp foundation Archived 20 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Art Newspaper.

Further reading

External links

1886 in France

Events from the year 1886 in France.


Abstraction-Création was a loose association of artists formed in Paris in 1931 to counteract the influence of the Surrealist group led by André Breton.

Founders Theo van Doesburg, Auguste Herbin, Jean Hélion and Georges Vantongerloo started the group to foster abstract art after the trend turned to representation in the 1920s.A non-prescriptive group of artists were involved, whose ideals and practices varied widely: Albert Gleizes, František Kupka, Piet Mondrian, Jean Arp, Marlow Moss, Naum Gabo, Alberto Magnelli, Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, Kurt Schwitters, Wassily Kandinsky, Wolfgang Paalen, Théo Kerg, Taro Okamoto, Paule Vézelay, Hans Erni, Bart van der Leck, Leon Tutundjian and John Wardell Power.Five Cahiers (yearbooks) were published between 1932-36 entitled Abstraction-création: Art non-figuratif; a reprint edition of the Cahiers was published by the Arno Press, New York in 1968. Art exhibitions were also held throughout Europe.

Agustín Cárdenas

Agustín Cárdenas Alfonso (April 10, 1927, Matanzas, Cuba – February 9, 2001, Havana, Cuba) was a Cuban sculptor who was active in the Surrealist movement in Paris. His sculpture was influenced by Brâncuși, Henry Moore, and Jean Arp. Poet André Breton said of his artistic hand that it was "efficient as a dragonfly."

Arturo Schwarz

Arturo Umberto Samuele Schwarz (born 2 February 1924) is an Italian scholar, art historian, poet, writer, lecturer, art consultant and curator of international art exhibitions. He lives in Milan, where he has amassed a large collection of Dada and Surrealist art, including many works by personal friends such as Marcel Duchamp, André Breton, Man Ray, and Jean Arp.

Schwarz was born in Alexandria, Egypt from a German father and an Italian mother. In 1952 he relocated to Milan, where he opened an independent art publishing house. In 1961 Schwartz converted his place into a gallery, organising exhibitions of Dada and Surrealism artists. The gallery officially closed in 1975, and Schwarz started working as curator and writer, writing extensive publications on the work of Marcel Duchamp, as well as books and numerous essays on the Kabbalah, Tantrism, alchemy, prehistoric and tribal art, and Asian art and philosophy. His 1977 book on Man Ray's works and life was the first to reveal Ray's real name (Emmanuel Radnitzky).

In late 1990s he donated his 700-piece collection of Dada and Surrealist art to the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

On 6 March 1998 he was awarded the Diploma of First Class with gold medal for outstanding merits in the fields of culture and the arts by the President of Italian Republic Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, on the recommendation of the Minister of Cultural Heritage Walter Veltroni.

In 2006 he won Italy's Premio Frascati for his collected works of poetry (1946-2007).

In October 2009 Schwarz curated an exhibition of Dada and Surrealism, "Dada e surrealismo riscoperti" (Dada And Surrealism Rediscovered), at the Vittoriano Museum Complex in Rome.

Aubette (building)

Aubette is a historical building on Place Kléber in Strasbourg, France. It was built by Jacques-François Blondel in 1765–1772. Between 1926 and 1928 it was redecorated by Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Jean Arp and De Stijl artist Theo van Doesburg. The work of the three artists had been called "the Sistine Chapel of abstract art".

Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich)

Cabaret Voltaire was the name of an artistic nightclub in Zürich, Switzerland. It was founded by Hugo Ball, with his companion Emmy Hennings, in the back room of Holländische Meierei, Spiegelgasse 1, on February 5, 1916, as a cabaret for artistic and political purposes. Other founding members were Marcel Janco, Richard Huelsenbeck, Tristan Tzara, and Sophie Taeuber-Arp and Jean Arp. Events at the cabaret proved pivotal in the founding of the anarchic art movement known as Dada.

It closed in the summer of 1916.

Di Donna Galleries

Di Donna Galleries is an American art gallery in New York City. It specializes in Modern and Surrealist art.The gallery was initially located on the second floor of The Carlyle Hotel at 981 Madison Avenue, New York City, the former home of Ursus Books. In May 2016, the gallery moved a few blocks south to a new 6,000 square foot space at 744 Madison Avenue at East 64th Street. The gallery was founded in November 2010 and was formerly known as Blain Di Donna. A number of monographic, museum-quality exhibitions were staged there such as René Magritte, Dangerous Liaisons (2011); André Masson, The Mythology of Desire: Masterworks from 1925 to 1945 (2012); Jean Arp: A Collection of Wood Reliefs and Collages (2012), Paul Delvaux (2013), in collaboration with the Paul Delvaux Foundation.

European Prize for Literature

Not to be confused with the European Union Prize for LiteratureEuropean Prize for Literature (Prix Européen de Littérature) is a European-wide literary award sponsored by the city of Strasbourg with support from the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (France). The prize is award by the Jurys des Grands Prix Littéraires, in Strasbourg, at the same time as the Prix de Littérature Francophone Jean Arp and the Prix du Patrimoine Nathan Katz.The award is presented to an author for their entire body of work, which best represents the cultural dimensions of Europe.

Fondation Maeght

The Maeght Foundation or Fondation Maeght (pronounced [mɑɡ]) is a museum of modern art on the Colline des Gardettes, a hill overlooking Saint-Paul de Vence in the southeast of France about 25 km (16 mi) from Nice. It was established by Marguerite and Aimé Maeght in 1964 and houses paintings, sculptures, collages, ceramics and all forms of modern art.The collection includes works by many important 20th-century artists including Jean Arp, Pierre Bonnard, Georges Braque, Alexander Calder, Marc Chagall, Sam Francis, Alberto Giacometti, Wassily Kandinsky, Ellsworth Kelly, Fernand Léger and Joan Miró among others.The building was designed by the Spanish architect Josep Lluís Sert, houses more than 12,000 pieces of art and attracts "on average, 200,000 visitors ... every year". There is a small chapel dedicated to Saint Bernard, in memory of Bernard, the son of Aimé and Marguerite Maeght who died of leukemia, aged eleven. The foundation is entirely independently funded with no reliance on state subsidies. Adrien Maeght is the chairman of the foundation's administrative council, which also includes Isabelle Maeght and her sister Yoyo Maeght.

Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden

The Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden is one of the most comprehensive sculpture gardens in the United States. The garden is located on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles and is run by the Hammer Museum.

The sculpture garden was founded in 1967. It spans more than five acres and currently has more than 70 international sculptures, by figural and abstract artists such as Jean Arp, Deborah Butterfield, Alexander Calder, Barbara Hepworth, Jacques Lipchitz, Henry Moore, Isamu Noguchi, Auguste Rodin, David Smith, Claire Falkenstein, Gaston Lachaise, Henri Matisse, Francisco Zúñiga, and others.

Harvard Graduate Center

The Harvard Graduate Center, also known as "the Gropius Complex" (including Harkness Commons), was commissioned of The Architects Collaborative by Harvard University in 1948. The first modern building on the campus, it was also one of the first endorsements of the modern style by a major university and was seen in the national and architectural presses as a turning point in the acceptance of the aesthetic in the United States.

The Architects Collaborative (TAC), a modernist firm headed by Walter Gropius and seven younger architects, was a bold choice for the typically traditional university. Though it cannot be said that Gropius was the sole designer, those that held strongly to his ideals collaboratively designed Harkness Commons.

Coming from the Bauhaus, Gropius had been a pioneering innovator of educational architecture and many of his hallmarks can be seen years later in Harkness Commons. The physical Gropius hallmarks – large windows, flowing rooms, floating facades on raised pilotis – are all present here.

In justifying the placement of these innovations at Harvard, Gropius reveals his passion, and activism, for the acceptance of modernism on college campuses. Gropius makes clear statements for specific innovations, “…Our contemporary architectural conception of an intensified outdoor-indoor relationship through wide window openings and large undivided window panes has ousted the small, cage-like, “Georgian” window.” But he is also more far reaching and makes what is now a commonplace case for architectural diversity and investment in current styles: “If the college is to be the cultural breeding ground for the coming generation, its attitude should be creative, not imitative”

Gropius advocated pushing architecture forward as the society needs it. He concluded by saying that “There is no finality in architecture – only continuous change.”

The building was completed in 1950, and was one of the first major projects in the Architects Collaborative office. The building is also graced with the works of avant-garde, Surrealist or Bauhaus artists Joan Miró, Josef Albers, Jean Arp and Herbert Bayer, and also has a sculpture by Richard Lippold in the courtyard near it.The buildings are now primarily used as a student center and as a dormitory complex for Harvard Law School.

Hon Chew Hee

Hon Chew Hee (1906 – 1993) was an American muralist, watercolorist and printmaker who was born in Kahului, on the Hawaiian island of Maui in 1906. He grew up in China, where he received his early training in Chinese brush painting. He returned to the United States in 1920 at age 14 in order to further his training at the San Francisco Art Institute, receiving that school's highest academic honor. He then taught in China until moving to Hawaii in 1935. In Hawaii, he worked as a freelance artist and held classes in both Western and Eastern styles of painting. Together with Isami Doi (1903–1965), Hee taught painting classes at the YMCA. At this time, Doi instructed the young artist in woodcarving techniques and Hee, like his master, created wood engravings drawn from the rural life in the Islands. Hee also founded the Hawaii Watercolor and Serigraph Society.Hon Chew Hee also studied in New York at the Art Students League, at Columbia University, and spent three years in Paris in the 1950s studying with Fernand Léger and Andre Lhote. He was especially greatly influenced by the art of Jean Arp.

From 1932 to the beginning of World War II, Hee lived in San Francisco, where he founded the Chinese Art Association. For the remainder of his life, he lived in Kaneohe, on the Hawaiian island of Oahu, where he died in 1993.

Hee completed six murals for the Hawaii State Foundation on Culture and the Arts, the best known of which are The History of Medicine in Hilo Hospital and the murals that greet departing travelers at the Inter-island Terminal of Honolulu International Airport. His other murals were painted for Manoa Library, Enchanted Lake Elementary School, Pukalani Elementary School, and Mililani Library. He also produced entirely abstract works, such as Sunrise Koolau in the collection of the Hawaii State Art Museum. The Hawaii State Art Museum, the Hawaii State Capitol, the Honolulu Museum of Art, the National Taiwan Museum and the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City, Missouri) and are among the public collections holding works by Hon Chew Hee.

Leland Bell

Leland Bell (September 17, 1922 – September 18, 1991) was an American painter.

Leland Bell was a self-taught painter whose passion for the discipline of painting has inspired and influenced many. He was also a fierce advocate for artists that he admired. In the early years of his career these included Karl Knaths, Jean Arp, and Piet Mondrian. In these early years he worked as a guard at the Museum of Non-Objective Art. In the mid-1940s his allegiance to abstract painting receded after he formed a friendship with Jean Hélion, and Bell subsequently became a champion of Hélion, Fernand Léger, Balthus, Alberto Giacometti, and André Derain. Bell was also a jazz aficionado and drummer.In 1944 he married the painter Louisa Matthíasdóttir (1917–2000), whose figurative style influenced his work. In contrast to Matthíasdóttir, who worked quickly, Bell labored over his paintings, sometimes for years. The couple had a daughter, Temma, in 1945. The family divided their time between New York and Matthíasdóttir's native Iceland.

Bell was active as a painter, teacher, and lecturer. In 1987, he had a retrospective exhibition at the Phillips Collection in Washington, DC. He was diagnosed with leukemia in the 1980s, and died September 18, 1991.

Maxime Moses Alexandre

Maxime Moses Alexandre (1899-1976) was a French poet associated with Surrealism.

Musée Cantini

The Musée Cantini is a museum in Marseilles that has been open to the public since 1936. The museum specializes in modern art, especially paintings from the first half of the twentieth century.

Musée de la Sculpture en Plein Air

The Musée de la Sculpture en Plein Air is a collection of outdoor sculpture located on the banks of the Seine in the 5th arrondissement, Paris, France. The museum opens free of charge.

The museum was created in 1980 in the Jardin Tino Rossi to display sculptures from the second half of the twentieth century. It stretches some 600 meters along the Quai Saint-Bernard beside the Jardin des Plantes, between Place Valhubert and Gare d'Austerlitz to just east of Pont de Sully. The museum currently contains over fifty sculptures, including pieces by Alexander Archipenko, Jean Arp, César Baldaccini, and Constantin Brâncuși, as well as the following pieces:

Augustin Cardenas (1927-), La Grande Fenêtre, 1974

Marta Colvin (1915-), Le Grand Signe, 1970

Guy de Rougemont (1935-), Interpénétration des deux espaces, 1975

Reinout d'Haese (Reinhoud) (1928-), Melmoth, 1966

Marino di Teana (1920-2012), Structure architecturale, 1973

Étienne-Martin (Étienne Martin) (1913–1995), Demeurre 1, 1954–1958

Sorel Etrog (1933-), Fiesole, 1965–1967

Albert Feraud (1921-), Sans titre, 1979

Yoshikuni Iida (1923-), Shining Wings, 1981

Jean-Robert Ipoustéguy (1920-), Hydrophage, 1975

Micha Laury (1946-), Mind Accumulation, 1988

Aglae Liberaki (1923-), Abellio, 1971–1973

Liuba (1923-), Animal 82, 1982

Liuba (1923-), Stèle, 1977

Bernard Pagès (1940-), Sans titre, 1988

Marta Pan (1923-), Sculpture, 1969

Ruggero Pazzi (1927-), Sculpture, 1979

Antoine Poncet (1928-), Ochicagogo, 1979

Nicolas Schöffer (1912–1992), Chronos 10, 1978

François Stahly (1911-), Neptune II, 1969

Salon des Réalités Nouvelles

The Salon des Réalités Nouvelles is an association of artists and an art exhibition in Paris, focusing on abstract art.

A first exhibition with the name was held in 1939 in Galerie Charpentier, organised by Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, Nelly van Doesburg and Fredo Sidès.In 1946 the Salon was officially established as a successor to Abstraction-Création by Fredo Sidès, and its first board included Jean Arp, Sonia Delaunay and Albert Gleizes as members. Sidès was chairman until his death in 1953.Over the years the exhibition has been held at several locations. From 2004 it has been held at the Parc Floral de Paris in Vincennes, showing paintings, sculpture and photography by over 350 artists each year.

Surrealist automatism

Surrealist automatism is a method of art-making in which the artist suppresses conscious control over the making process, allowing the unconscious mind to have great sway. Early 20th-century Dadaists, such as Hans Arp, made some use of this method through chance operations. Surrealist artists, most notably André Masson, adapted to art the automatic writing method of André Breton and Philippe Soupault who composed with it Les Champs Magnétiques (The Magnetic Fields) in 1919. The Automatic Message (1933) was one of Breton's significant theoretical works about automatism.

New York Dada
European Dada
Writers and

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