Jean-René Saulière (also René Saulière) (Bordeaux, 6 September 1911 – 2 January 1999) was a French anarcho-pacifist, individualist anarchist and freethought writer and militant who went under the pseudonym André Arru.
Arru was born in Bordeaux on 6 September 1911. In 1914 his family moves to Paris. When he was 20 years old he entered obligatory military service with anti-militarist positions. In 1933 he assists to a conference by prominent French orator and militant Sébastien Faure which he describes in his own words as a "revelation" and afterwards he embraces anarchism and starts to participate in anarchist groups. During 1938 et 1939 he participates in solidarity with anti-fascist sides of the Spanish Civil War and in 1939 he starts his activities as an orator and writer with a conference on Max Stirner and his book The Ego and His Own, an author which will influence his thought profoundly.
When World War II starts Andre Arru went underground, changing his name from Saulière to Arru and moving from Bordeaux to Marseilles. He helped form an anarchist group alongside the prominent exile Russian anarchist Voline and participated inside the French resistance movement. After the war Arru became the general secretary for the French section of International Antifascist Solidarity. In the 1950s he participates in the establishment of the francophone Anarchist Federation.
In addition to his pacifist militancy, he was an active organizer of the publications Libre Pensée and the quarterly review (1969-1980) La libre pensée des Bouches-du-Rhône. During the late 1950s he establishes inside the Fédération des Libres Penseurs des Bouches du Rhône, the Group Francisco Ferrer and in 1959 he joins the Union des Pacifistes de France (Union of Pacifists of France). From 1968 to 1982, Arru alongside the members of the Group Francisco Ferrer publishes La Libre Pensée des Bouches du Rhône. This publication included writings by authors such as Charles-Auguste Bontemps, Giovanni Baldelli, Jean Champagne, Jeanne Humbert, Albert Joël, Imbert-Nergal, Roger Monclin, Alain Kersauze, Albert Potvin, and Francis Ronsin.
Arru was a member, since 1983, of the organization ADMD (Association pour le Droit à Mourir dans la Dignité) (Association for the Right to a Death with Dignity) which campaigned for voluntary euthanasia. He ended his life voluntarily, at age 87.
Anarcho-pacifism (also pacifist anarchism or anarchist pacifism) is a tendency within anarchism that rejects the use of violence in the struggle for social change, the abolition of capitalism and the state. The main early influences were the thought of Henry David Thoreau and Leo Tolstoy while later the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi gained importance. Pacifist anarchism "appeared mostly in the Netherlands, Britain, and the United States, before and after the Second World War and has continued since then in the deep in the anarchist involvement in the protests against nuclear armament.".Deaths in 1999
The following is a list of notable deaths in 1999. Names are listed under the date of death, not the date it was announced. Names under each date are listed in alphabetical order by family name.
A typical entry appears in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship and reason for notability, established cause of death, reference.Georges Fontenis
Georges Fontenis (27 April 1920 – 9 August 2010) was a school teacher who worked in Tours. He is more widely remembered on account of his political involvement, especially during the 1950s and 1960s.
A libertarian communist and trades unionist, he was a leading figure in the anarchist movement.Individualist anarchism in France
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his or her will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems.Individualist anarchism in France has developed a line of thought that starts from the pioneering activism and writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Anselme Bellegarrigue in the mid 19th century. In the early 20th century it produced publications such as L'EnDehors, L'Anarchie and around its principles it found writers and activists such as Emile Armand, Han Ryner, Henri Zisly, Albert Libertad and Zo d'Axa. In the post-war years there appeared the publication L'Unique and activist writers such as Charles-Auguste Bontemps. In contemporary times it has found a new expression in the writings of the prolific philosopher Michel Onfray.
French individualist anarchism was characterized by an eclectic set of currents of thought and practices which included freethought, naturism, free love, anti-militarism and illegalism.List of peace activists
This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods. Peace activists usually work with others in the overall anti-war and peace movements to focus the world's attention on what they perceive to be the irrationality of violent conflicts, decisions, and actions. They thus initiate and facilitate wide public dialogues intended to nonviolently alter long-standing societal agreements directly relating to, and held in place by, the various violent, habitual, and historically fearful thought-processes residing at the core of these conflicts, with the intention of peacefully ending the conflicts themselves.