Jean-Paul Marat

Jean-Paul Marat (French: [ʒɑ̃pɔl maʁa]; 24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist, physician, and scientist.[1] He was a journalist and politician during the French Revolution.

He was a vigorous defender of the sans-culottes and seen as a radical voice. He published his views in pamphlets, placards and newspapers. His periodical L'Ami du peuple (Friend of the People) made him an unofficial link with the radical republican Jacobin group that came to power after June 1793.

Through his journalism, renowned for its fierce tone, advocacy of basic human rights for the poorest members of society, and uncompromising stance towards the new leaders and institutions of the revolution, he called for prisoners of the Revolution to be killed before they could be freed in the September Massacres.[2]

Marat was assassinated by Charlotte Corday, a Girondin sympathizer, while taking a medicinal bath for his debilitating skin condition. Corday was executed four days later for his assassination, on 17 July 1793.

In death, Marat became an icon to the Jacobins as a revolutionary martyr. He is portrayed in Jacques-Louis David's famous painting, The Death of Marat.

Jean-Paul Marat
Jean-Paul Marat portre
Jean-Paul Marat by Joseph Boze, 1793,
Deputy of the National Convention
In office
20 September 1792 – 24 April 1793
ConstituencyParis
Personal details
Born24 May 1743
Boudry, Principality of Neuchâtel, Prussia (now part of Switzerland)
Died13 July 1793 (aged 50)
Paris, France
Cause of deathAssassination
Political partyJacobin Club (1789–1790)
Cordeliers Club (1790–1793)
Spouse(s)fr: Simone Evrard
ParentsJean Mara,
Louise Cabrol
Alma materUniversity of St. Andrews, MD
OccupationJournalist, politician, physician, scientist
Signature
Jean-Paul Marat's signature

Early life, education, early writing

Jean-Paul Marat was born in Boudry, in the Prussian Principality of Neuchâtel (now part of Switzerland) on 24 May 1743.[3] He was the second of nine children born to Jean Mara (Giovanni Mara), a native of Cagliari, Sardinia, and Louise Cabrol, a French Huguenot from Castres. His father was a Mercedarian commendator and religious refugee; he converted to Calvinism in Geneva. Marat left home at the age of sixteen, in search of new opportunities. He was aware of the limited opportunities for those seen as outsiders as his highly educated father had been turned down for several college (secondary) teaching posts.

Education

At the age of seventeen he applied to join the expedition of Jean-Baptiste Chappe d'Auteroche, a journey to Tobolsk to measure the transit of Venus. He was turned down.[4] His first patronage was fulfilled with the wealthy Nairac family in Bordeaux, where he stayed for two years. He then moved to Paris and studied medicine, without gaining any formal qualifications.

He worked, informally, as a doctor after moving to London in 1765 due to a fear of being "drawn into dissipation," In London Marat befriended the Royal Academician artist Angelica Kauffman. His social circle included Italian artists and architects who met in coffee houses around Soho. Highly ambitious, but without patronage or qualifications, he set about inserting himself into the intellectual scene.

Political and Philosophical Writing

Around 1770, Marat moved to Newcastle upon Tyne. His first political work, Chains of Slavery, inspired by the extra-parliamentary activities of the disenfranchised MP and later Mayor of London John Wilkes, was most probably compiled in the central library there. By Marat's own colourful account, he lived on black coffee for three months, during its composition, sleeping only two hours a night, and then, after finishing, sleeping soundly for thirteen days in a row.[5]He gave it the subtitle, "A work in which the clandestine and villainous attempts of Princes to ruin Liberty are pointed out, and the dreadful scenes of Despotism disclosed." This work earned him honorary membership of the patriotic societies of Berwick-upon-Tweed, Carlisle and Newcastle. The Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society Library[6] possesses a copy, and Tyne and Wear Archives Service holds three presented to the various Newcastle guilds.

Marat published "A philosophical Essay on Man," in 1773 and political theory "Chains of Slavery," in 1774.[7] Marat's growing sense of a widening gulf between the philosophes, grouped around Voltaire on one hand, and their "opponents," loosely grouped around Rousseau on the other.[7] Voltaire's sharp critique of "De l'Homme" (an augmented translation, published 1775–76), partly in defence of his protégé Helvétius, reinforced

After a published essay on curing a friend of gleets (gonorrhoea) he secured medical referees for an MD from the University of St Andrews in June 1775.[8]

He published Enquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of a Singular Disease of the Eyes on his return to London.In 1776, Marat moved to Paris following a brief stopover in Geneva to visit his family.

In Paris, his growing reputation as a highly effective doctor along with the patronage of the Marquis de l'Aubespine (the husband of one of his patients) secured his appointment as physician to the bodyguard of the comte d'Artois, Louis XVI's youngest brother who was to become king Charles X in 1824.[9] He began this position in June 1777. The position paid 2,000 livres a year plus allowances.

Scientific writing

Marat set up a laboratory in the marquise de l'Aubespine's house with funds obtained by serving as court doctor among the aristocracy. His method was to describe in detail the meticulous series of experiments he had undertaken on a problem, seeking to explore and then exclude all possible conclusions but the one he reached.

He published works on fire and heat, electricity, and light. He published a summary of his scientific views and discoveries in Découvertes de M. Marat sur le feu, l'électricité et la lumière (English: Mr Marat's Discoveries on Fire, Electricity and Light) in 1779. He published three more detailed and extensive works that expanded on each of his areas of research.

Recherches Physiques sur le Feu

The first of Marat's large-scale publications detailing his experiments and drawing conclusions from them was Recherches Physiques sur le Feu (English: Research into the Physics of Fire), which was published in 1780 with the approval of the official censors.[10]

This publication describes 166 experiments conducted to demonstrate that fire was not, as was widely held, a material element but an "igneous fluid." He asked the Academy of Sciences to appraise his work, and it appointed a commission to do so, which reported in April 1779. The report avoided endorsing Marat's conclusions but did speak of his "new, precise and well-executed experiments, appropriately and ingeniously designed." Marat then published his work, with the claim that the Academy approved of its contents. Since the Academy had endorsed his methods but said nothing to agree with his conclusions, this claim drew the ire of Antoine Lavoisier, who demanded that the Academy repudiate it. When the Academy did so, this marked the beginning of worsening relations between Marat and many of its leading members. A number of them, including Lavoisier himself, as well as Condorcet and Laplace took a strong dislike to Marat. However, Lamarck and Lacépède wrote positively about Marat's experiments and conclusions.[11]

Découvertes sur la Lumière

In Marat's time, Newton's views on light and colour were regarded almost universally as definitive, yet Marat's explicit purpose in his second major work Découvertes sur la Lumière (Discoveries on Light) was to demonstrate that in certain key areas, Newton was wrong.[12]

The focus of Marat's work was the study of how light bends around objects, and his main argument was that while Newton held that white light was broken down into colours by refraction, the colours were actually caused by diffraction. When a beam of sunlight shone through an aperture, passed through a prism and projected colour onto a wall, the splitting of the light into colours took place not in the prism, as Newton maintained, but at the edges of the aperture itself.[13] Marat sought to demonstrate that there are only three primary colours, rather than seven as Newton had argued.[14]

Once again, Marat requested the Academy of Sciences review his work, and it set up a commission to do so. Over a period of seven months, from June 1779 to January 1780, Marat performed his experiments in the presence of the commissioners so that they could appraise his methods and conclusions. The drafting of their final report was assigned to Jean-Baptiste Le Roy. The report was finally produced after many delays in May 1780, and consisted of just three short paragraphs. Significantly, the report concluded that "these experiments are so very numerous...[but]...they do not appear to us to prove what the author believes they establish." [12] The Academy declined to endorse Marat's work.[15] When it was published, Découvertes sur la lumière did not carry the royal approbation. According to the title page it was printed in London, meaning either that Marat could not get the official censor to approve it, or he did not want to spend the time and effort to do so.

Recherches Physiques sur L'Électricité

Marat's third major work, Recherches Physiques sur l'Électricité (English: Research on the Physics of Electricity), outlined 214 experiments. One of his major areas of interest was in electrical attraction and repulsion. Repulsion, he held, was not a basic force of nature. He addressed a number of other areas of enquiry in his work, concluding with a section on lightning rods which argued that those with pointed ends were more effective than those with blunt ends, and denouncing the idea of "earthquake rods" advocated by Pierre Bertholon de Saint-Lazare. This book was published with the censor's stamp of approval, but Marat did not seek the endorsement of the Academy of Sciences.[16]

In April 1783,[9] he resigned his court appointment and devoted his energies full-time to scientific research. Apart from his major works, during this period Marat published shorter essays on the medical use of electricity (Mémoire sur l'électricité médicale (1783)) and on optics (Notions élémentaires d'optique (1784)). He published a well-received translation of Newton's Opticks (1787), which was still in print until recently, and later a collection of essays on his experimental findings, including a study on the effect of light on soap bubbles in his Mémoires académiques, ou nouvelles découvertes sur la lumière (Academic memoirs, or new discoveries on light, 1788). Benjamin Franklin visited him on several occasions and Goethe described his rejection by the Academy as a glaring example of scientific despotism.

Other pre-Revolutionary writing

In 1782, Marat published his "favourite work," a Plan de législation criminelle. It was a polemic for penal reform which had been entered into a competition announced by the Berne economic society in February 1777 and backed by Frederick the Great and Voltaire. Marat was inspired by Rousseau and Cesare Beccaria.

Marat's entry contained many radical ideas, including the argument that society should provide fundamental (natural) needs, such as food and shelter, if it expected all its citizens to follow its (civil) laws, that the king was no more than the "first magistrate" of his people, that there should be a common death penalty regardless of class, and that each town should have a dedicated "avocat des pauvres" and set up independent criminal tribunals with twelve-man juries to ensure a fair trial.

L'Ami du peuple

Marat devoted himself entirely to politics when in 1788, the Assembly of Notables advised Louis XVI to assemble the Estates-General for the first time in 175 years.

On the eve of the French Revolution, Marat placed his career as a scientist and doctor behind him and took up his pen on behalf of the Third Estate.[17] In January 1789, he published his Offrande à la Patrie (Offering to the Nation) which touched on some of the same points as the Abbé Sieyès' famous "Qu'est-ce que le Tiers État?" ("What is the Third Estate?").[17] This was followed by a "Supplément de l'Offrande" in March, followed in July by La Constitution, ou Projet de déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen, intended to influence the drafting of France's new constitution, then being debated in the National Assembly.[17]

On 12 September 1789, Marat began his own newspaper, entitled Publiciste parisien, before changing its name four days later to L'Ami du peuple ("The People's friend").[18]:19 From this position, he often attacked the most influential and powerful groups in Paris, including the Commune, the Constituent Assembly, the ministers, and the Châtelet.[19] In January 1790, he moved to the radical Cordeliers section, then under the leadership of the lawyer Danton,[17] was nearly arrested for his aggressive attacks against Jacques Necker, Louis XVI's popular Finance Minister, and was forced to flee to London.[20] In May, he returned to Paris to continue publication of L'Ami du peuple and briefly ran a second newspaper in June 1790 called Le Junius français named after the notorious English polemicist Junius.[18]:73–76 Marat faced the problem of counterfeiters distributing falsified versions of L'Ami du peuple.[21] This led him to call for police intervention, which resulted in the suppression of the fraudulent issues, leaving Marat the continuing sole author of L'Ami de peuple.[22]:122

During this period, Marat made regular attacks on the more conservative revolutionary leaders. In a pamphlet from 26 July 1790, entitled "C'en est fait de nous" ("We're done for!"), he warned against counter-revolutionaries, advising, "five or six hundred heads cut off would have assured your repose, freedom and happiness."[23]

Between 1790 and 1792, Marat was often forced into hiding, sometimes in the Paris sewers, where he almost certainly aggravated his debilitating chronic skin disease (possibly dermatitis herpetiformis).[24] In January 1792, he married the 26-year-old Simonne Evrard[25] in a common-law ceremony on his return from exile in London, having previously expressed his love for her. She was the sister-in-law of his typographer, Jean-Antoine Corne, and had lent him money and sheltered him on several occasions.

Marat only emerged publicly on the 10 August insurrection, when the Tuileries Palace was invaded and the royal family forced to shelter within the Legislative Assembly. The spark for this uprising was the Brunswick Manifesto, which called for the crushing of the Revolution and helped to inflame popular outrage in Paris.[22]:206[26]

Marat was a leading proponent of the September Massacres (2-7 Sep 1792), which took place out of a fear that foreign and royalist armies would attack Paris and that the inmates of the city's prisons would be freed and join them. He called on draftees to kill the prisoners before they could be freed.[2] The action was undertaken by mobs of National Guardsmen and fédérés[27] and, by 6 September, half the prison population of Paris had been summarily executed: some 1200 to 1400 prisoners. Of these, 233 were nonjuring Catholic priests; most of the remainder were common criminals.[28]

The National Convention

Triomphe de Marat4
"Marat's Triumph": a popular engraving of Marat borne away by a joyous crowd following his acquittal.

Marat was elected to the National Convention in September 1792 as one of 26 Paris deputies, although he belonged to no party. When France was declared a Republic on 22 September, Marat renamed his L'Ami du peuple as Le Journal de la République française ("Journal of the French Republic"). His stance during the trial of the deposed king Louis XVI was unique. He declared it unfair to accuse Louis of anything before his acceptance of the French Constitution of 1791, and although implacably, he said, believing that the monarch's death would be good for the people, defended Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, the King's counsel, as a "sage et respectable vieillard" ("wise and respected old man").

On 21 January 1793, Louis XVI was guillotined, which caused political turmoil. From January to May, Marat fought bitterly with the Girondins, whom he believed to be covert enemies of republicanism. Marat’s hatred of the Girondins became increasingly heated which led him to call for the use of violent tactics against them. The Girondins fought back and demanded that Marat be tried before the Revolutionary Tribunal. After attempting to avoid arrest for several days Marat was finally imprisoned. On 24 April, he was brought before the Tribunal on the charges that he had printed in his paper statements calling for widespread murder as well as the suspension of the Convention. Marat decisively defended his actions, stating that he had no evil intentions directed against the Convention. Marat was acquitted of all charges to the riotous celebrations of his supporters.

Death

The fall of the Girondins on 2 June, helped by the actions of François Hanriot, the new leader of the National Guard, was one of Marat's last achievements. Forced to retire from the Convention as a result of his worsening skin disease, he continued to work from home, where he soaked in a medicinal bath. Now that the Montagnards no longer needed his support in the struggle against the Girondins, Robespierre and other leading Montagnards began to separate themselves from him, while the Convention largely ignored his letters.

MaratMurder
The assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday on 13 July 1793

Marat was in his bathtub on 13 July, when a young woman from Caen, Charlotte Corday, appeared at his flat, claiming to have vital information on the activities of the escaped Girondins who had fled to Normandy. Despite his wife Simonne's protests, Marat asked for her to enter and gave her an audience by his bath, over which a board had been laid to serve as a writing desk. Their interview lasted around fifteen minutes. He asked her what was happening in Caen and she explained, reciting a list of the offending deputies. After he had finished writing out the list, Corday claimed that he told her, "Their heads will fall within a fortnight," a statement she later changed at her trial to, "Soon I shall have them all guillotined in Paris." This was unlikely since Marat did not have the power to have anyone guillotined. At that moment, Corday rose from her chair, drawing out from her corset a five-inch kitchen knife, which she had bought earlier that day, and brought it down hard into Marat’s chest, where it pierced just under his right clavicle, opening the carotid artery, close to the heart. The massive bleeding was fatal within seconds. Slumping backwards, Marat cried out his last words to Simonne, "Aidez-moi, ma chère amie!" ("Help me, my beloved!") and died.

Corday was a Girondin sympathiser who came from an impoverished royalist family; her brothers were émigrés who had left to join the exiled royal princes. From her own account, and those of witnesses, it is clear that she had been inspired by Girondin speeches to a hatred of the Montagnards and their excesses, symbolised most powerfully in the character of Marat.[29] The Book of Days claims the motive was to "avenge the death of her friend Barboroux." Marat's assassination contributed to the mounting suspicion which fed the Terror during which thousands of the Jacobins' adversaries – both royalists and Girondins – were executed on charges of treason. Charlotte Corday was guillotined on 17 July 1793 for the murder. During her four-day trial, she testified that she had carried out the assassination alone, saying "I killed one man to save 100,000."

Memory in the Revolution

Marat's assassination led to his apotheosis. The painter Jacques-Louis David, a member of one of the two "Great Committees" (the Committee of General Security), was asked to organise a grand funeral.[30] David was also asked to paint Marat's death, and took up the task of immortalising him in the painting The Death of Marat. The extreme decomposition of Marat's body made any realistic depiction impossible, and David's work beautified the skin that was discoloured and scabbed from his chronic skin disease in an attempt to create antique virtue. The resulting painting is thus not an accurate representation of Marat's death.[31] As a result of this work, David was later criticised as glorifying the Jacobin's death.

The entire National Convention attended Marat's funeral, and he was buried under a weeping willow in the garden of the former Club des Cordeliers (former Couvent des Cordeliers).[32] After Marat’s death, he was viewed by many as a martyr for the revolution, and was immortalized in various ways in order to preserve the values he stood for. His heart was embalmed separately and placed in an urn in an altar erected to his memory at the Cordeliers in order to inspire speeches that were similar in style to Marat’s eloquent journalism.[33] On his tomb, the inscription on a plaque read, "Unité, Indivisibilité de la République, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité ou la mort." His remains were transferred to the Panthéon on 21 September 1794[34] and his near messianic role in the Revolution was confirmed with the elegy: Like Jesus, Marat loved ardently the people, and only them. Like Jesus, Marat hated kings, nobles, priests, rogues and, like Jesus, he never stopped fighting against these plagues of the people. The eulogy was given by the Marquis de Sade, delegate of the Section Piques and an ally of Marat's faction in the National Convention.[35]

On 19 November, the port city of Le Havre-de-Grâce changed its name to Le Havre-de-Marat and then Le Havre-Marat.[36] When the Jacobins started their dechristianisation campaign to set up the Cult of Reason of Hébert and Chaumette and Cult of the Supreme Being of Robespierre, Marat was made a quasi-saint, and his bust often replaced crucifixes in the former churches of Paris.[37]

After the Thermidorian Reaction, Marat's memory became tarnished. On 13 January 1795, Le Havre-Marat became simply Le Havre, the name it bears today. In February, his coffin was removed from the Panthéon and his busts and sculptures were destroyed. The 4 February 1795 (16 Pluviôse) issue of Le Moniteur Universel reported how, two days earlier, "his busts had been knocked off their pedestals in several theatres and that some children had carried one of these busts about the streets, insulting it [before] dumping it in the rue Montmartre sewer to shouts of 'Marat, voilà ton Panthéon!' [Marat, here is your Panthéon][38] His final resting place is the cemetery of the church of Saint-Étienne-du-Mont.[39]

A bronze sculpture of Marat was removed from Parc des Buttes Chaumont and was melted down during the Nazi occupation of Paris.[40]

His memory lived on in the Soviet Union. Marat became a common name, and Marat Fjord in Severnaya Zemlya was named after him. Russian battleship Petropavlovsk (Russian: Петропавловск) was renamed Marat in 1921.[41] A street in the centre of Sevastopol was named after Marat (Russian: Улица Марата) on 3 January 1921, shortly after the Bolsheviks took over the city.[42]

Skin disease

Described during his time as a man "short in stature, deformed in person, and hideous in face,"[43] Marat has long been noted for physical irregularities. The nature of Marat's debilitating skin disease, in particular, has been an object of ongoing medical interest. Dr. Josef E. Jelinek noted that his skin disease was intensely itchy, blistering, began in the perianal region, and was associated with weight loss leading to emaciation. He was sick with it for the three years prior to his assassination, and spent most of this time in his bathtub. There were various minerals and medicines that were present in his bath while he soaked to help ease the pain caused by the disease. The bandana that is seen wrapped around his head was soaked in vinegar to reduce the severity of his discomfort.[44] Jelinek's diagnosis is dermatitis herpetiformis.[24]

Tub

After Marat's death, his wife may have sold his bathtub to her journalist neighbour, as it was included in an inventory of his possessions. The royalist de Saint-Hilaire bought the tub, taking it to Sarzeau, Morbihan in Brittany. His daughter, Capriole de Saint-Hilaire inherited it when he died in 1805 and she passed it on to the Sarzeau curé when she died in 1862. A journalist for Le Figaro tracked down the tub in 1885. The curé then discovered that selling the tub could earn money for the parish, yet the Musée Carnavalet turned it down because of its lack of provenance as well as its high price. The curé approached Madame Tussaud's waxworks, who agreed to purchase Marat's bathtub for 100,000 francs, but the curé's acceptance was lost in the mail. After rejecting other offers, including one from Phineas Barnum, the curé sold the tub for 5,000 francs to the Musée Grévin, where it remains today.[45] The tub was in the shape of an old-fashioned high-buttoned shoe and had a copper lining.[44]

Works

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Isaac Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology – Second Revised Edition, 1982, p. 334.
  2. ^ a b Clifford D. Conner, Jean-Paul Marat: Tribune of the French Revolution (2012) ch 4
  3. ^ Belfort Bax 2008, p. 5.
  4. ^ Charles Coulston Gillispie (2009). Science and Polity in France: The End of the Old Regime. Princeton University Press. p. 292. ISBN 1-4008-2461-3.
  5. ^ Les Chaines de l’Esclavage, 1793 (ed. Goetz et de Cock) p. 4167 (6). Numbers in brackets refer to the original version.
  6. ^ "Lit & Phil Home – Independent Library Newcastle". Litandphil.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
  7. ^ a b de Cock, J. & Goetz, C., Œuvres de Jean-Paul Marat, 10 volumes, Éditions Pôle Nord, Brussels, 1995.
  8. ^ Conner 1999, p. 33.
  9. ^ a b Conner 1999, p. 35.
  10. ^ Conner 1999, p. 71.
  11. ^ Conner 1999, pp. 77–79.
  12. ^ a b Baillon, Jean-François (2009). "Two Eighteenth-Century Translators of Newton's Opticks: Pierre Coste and Jean-Paul Marat" (PDF). Enlightenment and Dissent. 25: 1–28. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  13. ^ Conner 1999, pp. 89–95.
  14. ^ Conner 1999, pp. 105–106.
  15. ^ Conner 1999, pp. 94–95.
  16. ^ Conner 1999, p. 132.
  17. ^ a b c d Serge Bianchi (2017). Marat. "L'Ami du peuple". Humensis. ISBN 978-2-410-00662-9.
  18. ^ a b De Cock Jacques (2013). Un journal dans la Révolution : "L'Ami du Peuple". fantasques éditions. ISBN 978-2-913846-30-2.
  19. ^ Albert, Pierre. "Ami du Peuple l'". universalis.fr. Encyclopædia Universalis. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  20. ^ Gérard Walter (19 September 2012). Marat. Albin Michel. pp. 56–59. ISBN 978-2-226-26096-3.
  21. ^ E. Belfort Bax (22 December 2015). Jean-Paul Marat: The People’s Friend. Krill Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-5183-4369-8.
  22. ^ a b Massin, Jean. Marat. Aix en Provence: Éditions Alinéa. ISBN 2-904631-58-5.
  23. ^ Gregory Fremont-Barnes (2007). Encyclopedia of the age of political revolutions and new ideologies, 1760–1815: vol 1. Greenwood. pp. 1:450.
  24. ^ a b Jelinek, J.E. (1979). "Jean-Paul Marat: The differential diagnosis of his skin disease". American Journal of Dermatopathology. 1 (3): 251–52. doi:10.1097/00000372-197900130-00010. PMID 396805.
  25. ^ Belfort Bax 2008, p. 191.
  26. ^ William Simpson; Martin Jones (13 September 2013). Europe 1783–1914. Taylor & Francis. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-134-72088-0.
  27. ^ François Furet and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989), pp. 521–22.
  28. ^ Gwynne Lewis (2002). The French Revolution: Rethinking the Debate. Routledge. p. 38.
  29. ^ Andress 2005, p. 189.
  30. ^ Citizens, Simon Schama, Penguin 1989, p. 742.
  31. ^ "The Death of Marat - Jacques-Louis David". www.bc.edu. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  32. ^ Citizens, Simon Schama, Penguin 1989, p. 744.
  33. ^ Andress, 2005, p. 191.
  34. ^ Clifford D. Conner, Jean Paul Marat: Tribune of the French Revolution, 2012, p. 149
  35. ^ At Home With The Marquis De Sade, Francine Du Plessix Gray, Random House,2013
  36. ^ The French Revolution, David E. A. Coles, FriesenPress, 2014, p. 134.
  37. ^ Three Deaths and Enlightenment Thought: Hume, Johnson, Marat; Stephen Miller, Bucknell University Press, 2001, p. 125.
  38. ^ Buchez, Philippe-Joseph-Benjamin, Histoire Parlementaire de la Révolution française, ou Journal des Assemblées Nationales, depuis 1789 jusqu'en 1815, Vol. 36, Paulin, Paris, 1838, p. 230.
  39. ^ Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760–1815, Gregory Fremont-Barnes Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, p. 451.
  40. ^ "Where the Statues of Paris were sent to Die". messynessychic.com. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  41. ^ McLaughlin, Stephen (2003). Russian & Soviet Battleships. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, p. 321.
  42. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Streets of Sevastopol – Marat Street
  43. ^ Adolphus, John. Biographical Anecdotes of the Founders of the French Republic. London: R. Phillips, 1799. p 232.
  44. ^ a b Stanley Loomis, Paris in the Terror; J.B. Lippincott Company, 1964), 42.
  45. ^ Ransom, Teresa, Madame Tussaud: A Life and a Time, (2003), pp. 252–253.

References

  • Andress, David (2005). The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France, New York: SFG Books.
  • Belfort Bax, Ernest (1901). Jean-Paul Marat; The People's Friend, A Biographical Sketch. Vogt Press; Read Books (2008). ISBN 978-1-4437-2362-6.
  • Conner, Clifford D. (1999). Jean Paul Marat: scientist and revolutionary. Amherst, New York: Humanity Books. ISBN 9781573926072.
  • Furet, Francois, and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989) pp. 244–51.
  • Gottschalk, Louis Reichenthal. Jean Paul Marat: a study in radicalism (University of Chicago Press, 1927)
  • Schama, Simon. Citizens: A chronicle of the French Revolution (1989)
Attribution
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Marat, Jean Paul" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Conner, Clifford D. Jean-Paul Marat: Tribune of the French Revolution (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Conner, Clifford D. Jean Paul Marat: Scientist and Revolutionary (2nd ed. 2012) online review from H-FRANCE 2013; excerpt and text search
  • Fishman, W. J. "Jean-Paul Marat", History Today (1971) 21#5, pp. 329–337; his life before 1789
  • Furet, François and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989), pp. 244–51
  • Gottschalk, Louis R. Jean Paul Marat – Study In Radicalism (1927)
  • Palmer, R.R. Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution (1941) excerpt and text search
  • 1989–1995: Jean-Paul Marat, Œuvres Politiques (ten volumes 1789–1793 – Text: 6.600 p. – Guide: 2.200 p.)
  • 2001: Marat en famille – La saga des Mara(t) (2 volumes) – New approach of Marat's family.
  • 2006: Plume de Marat – Plumes sur Marat (2 volumes) : Bibliography (3.000 references of books and articles of and on Marat)
  • The Correspondance de Marat has been edited with notes by Charles Vellay (1908)

External links

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Events from the year 1793 in France.

Angela Salloker

Angela Salloker (1913-2006) was an Austrian actress. She appeared in a number of 1930s films, notably in the title role in the 1935 film Joan of Arc. Following the Second World War she appeared largely in television.

In 1936 she played the major role of Charlotte Corday in a play about her assassination of Jean-Paul Marat at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin.

Charlotte Corday

Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known as Charlotte Corday (French: [kɔʁdɛ]), was a figure of the French Revolution. In 1793, she was executed by guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible for the more radical course the Revolution had taken through his role as a politician and journalist. Marat had played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was depicted in the painting The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David, which shows Marat's dead body after Corday had stabbed him in his medicinal bath. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave Corday the posthumous nickname l'ange de l'assassinat (the Angel of Assassination).

Charlotte Corday (opera)

Charlotte Corday is an opera in three acts by Lorenzo Ferrero to an Italian-language libretto by Giuseppe Di Leva, written on commission from the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma for the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution which was commemorated in 1989.

The fundamental theme of the opera is the individual terrorist action committed by anyone who believes that he or she is eliminating an evil by eliminating a person, in most cases the wrong person. The work describes three encounters of the Girondin sympathizer Charlotte Corday with Jean-Paul Marat, leading figure of the radical Jacobin faction, two attempts and finally the assassination itself.

Jean-Baptiste Boyer-Fonfrède

Jean-Baptiste Boyer-Fonfrède (1760 - 31 October 1793) was a French Girondin politician.

A deputy to the National Convention from his native city, Bordeaux, he voted for the death of Louis XVI, denounced the September Massacres and accused Jean-Paul Marat. He was tried, condemned, and guillotined in Paris with the leading Girondin deputies on 31 October 1793.

His son Henri Fonfrède (1788–1841) made his name as a publicist defending liberal ideas in Bordeaux's main newspaper under the Bourbon Restoration.

Jean-Paul

Jean-Paul is a French given name. Notable people with the name include:

Jean-Paul Belmondo, a famous French actor

Jean-Paul Marat, a French journalist and physician

Jean-Paul Duminy

Jean-Paul de Marigny, Australian football coach

Jean-Paul Fouchécourt, a French tenor

Jean-Paul Gaster, the American drummer for rock band Clutch

Jean-Paul Valley, The first Azrael from DC Comics

Jean-Paul Gaultier

Jean-Paul Lakafia

Jean-Paul Maunick, 'Bluey', a British guitarist and producer

Jean-Paul Samputu, a Rwandan singer

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980), a French existentialist philosopher, writer, and political activist

Jean-Paul Savoie, a social worker and former politician in New Brunswick, Canada

Jean-Paul Vondenburg, a former Swedish football player

Jean Théophile Victor Leclerc

Jean Théophile Victor Leclerc, a.k.a. Jean-Theophilus Leclerc and Theophilus Leclerc d'Oze (1771 in La Cotte, Loire, near Montbrison, France – ???), was a radical French revolutionist and publicist. After Jean-Paul Marat was assassinated, Leclerc assumed his mantle.

Leclerc was the son of a civil engineer, and as a young man went to Martinique from which he was expelled for revolutionary propaganda in 1791. He returned to metropolitan France and joined the 1st battalion of Morbihan in which he served until February 1792, when he left for Paris to defend seventeen grenadiers accused, in Martinique, of being revolutionaries. He successfully defended them in front of the Jacobin Club and the revolutionary national assembly. On April first that year he made a speech before the Jacobin Club calling for the execution of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.

Leclerc returned to his military duties with the Army of the Rhine, and was sent on an unsuccessful spy mission across the Rhine in southwest Germany. It seems that he betrayed by Dietrich, the mayor of Strasbourg. In November 1792, he fought at the Battle of Jemappes. In February 1793 he was transferred to the General Staff of the newly restructured Army of the Alps, in Lyon. It was there that he joined the Club Central and he was sent to Paris as a special deputy from Lyon.

Leclerc took an extremely radical revolutionary position. He was even expelled from the Jacobin Club for being too radical. He was a founding member of Les Enragés (literally "the Angry Ones") who opposed Jacobian leniency. In 1793, he married Pauline Léon, who together with Claire Lacombe had founded the Société des Républicaines Révolutionnaires a radical & revolutionary feminist organization which was banned the following year. He and his wife published a broadsheet called L'Ami du peuple par Leclerc starting in 1793, which advocated a radical purging of the army, the creation of a revolutionary army only made up of the partisans of the Reign of Terror, and the execution of all the suspected anti-revolutionaries. His publishing activities ceased with his arrest in April, 1794. After his release in August 1794, he and his wife maintained a low profile until his death some time after 1804.

Joseph Boze

Joseph Boze (7 February 1746 – 25 January 1826) was a French portrait and miniature painter born at Les Martigues (Bouches-du-Rhône). He painted the portraits of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, and, being devoted to the court and the royal family, narrowly escaped the guillotine. He was thrown into prison, but the fall of Robespierre set him at liberty, and he came to England, where he remained until the restoration. He died in Paris in 1826. His own portrait is among his drawings in the Louvre.

Work by Joseph Boze

L'Ami du peuple

L'Ami du peuple (French: [lami dy pœpl], The Friend of the People) was a newspaper written by Jean-Paul Marat during the French Revolution. "The most celebrated radical paper of the Revolution", according to historian Jeremy D. Popkin, L’Ami du peuple was a vocal advocate for the rights of the lower classes against those Marat believed to be enemies of the people, which he had no hesitation mentioning in his writings. These papers were considered dangerous because they often ignited violent and rebellious behavior.

La Révolution française (film)

La Révolution française is a two-part film, co-produced by France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Canada. The first part, titled La Révolution française: les Années lumière (The French Revolution: Years of Hope) was directed by Robert Enrico. The second part, La Révolution française: les Années terribles (The French Revolution: Years of Rage), was directed by Richard T. Heffron. The full movie runs at 360 minutes, but the edited-for-television version is slightly longer.

The film was produced in 1989 for the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution. It purports to tell a faithful and neutral story of the Revolution, from the calling of the Estates-General to the death of Maximilien de Robespierre. The film had a large budget (300 million francs) and boasted an international cast. It was shot in French, German and English.

Marat/Sade

The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade (German: Die Verfolgung und Ermordung Jean Paul Marats dargestellt durch die Schauspielgruppe des Hospizes zu Charenton unter Anleitung des Herrn de Sade), usually shortened to Marat/Sade (pronounced [ma.ʁa.sad]), is a 1963 play by Peter Weiss. The work was first published in German.

Incorporating dramatic elements characteristic of both Artaud and Brecht, it is a depiction of class struggle and human suffering that asks whether true revolution comes from changing society or changing oneself.

Marat/Sade (film)

The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade, usually shortened to Marat/Sade (pronounced [ma.ʁa.sad]), is a 1967 British film adaptation of Peter Weiss' play Marat/Sade. The screen adaptation is directed by Peter Brook, and originated in his theatre production for the Royal Shakespeare Company. The English version was written by Adrian Mitchell from a translation by Geoffrey Skelton.

The cast included Ian Richardson, Patrick Magee, Glenda Jackson, Clifford Rose, and Freddie Jones. It was filmed at Pinewood Studios in Buckinghamshire and released by United Artists on 22 February 1967 in the United States, and 8 March 1967 in the United Kingdom. The film's score comprised Richard Peaslee's compositions. David Watkin was the cinematographer. The film uses the full title in the opening credits, though most of the publicity materials use the shortened form.

Napoléon (1927 film)

Napoléon is a 1927 silent French epic film written, produced, and directed by Abel Gance that tells the story of Napoleon's early years. On screen, the title is Napoléon vu par Abel Gance, meaning "Napoleon as seen by Abel Gance". The film is recognised as a masterwork of fluid camera motion, produced in a time when most camera shots were static. Many innovative techniques were used to make the film, including fast cutting, extensive close-ups, a wide variety of hand-held camera shots, location shooting, point of view shots, multiple-camera setups, multiple exposure, superimposition, underwater camera, kaleidoscopic images, film tinting, split screen and mosaic shots, multi-screen projection, and other visual effects. A revival of Napoléon in the mid-1950s influenced the filmmakers of the French New Wave.The film begins in Brienne-le-Château with youthful Napoleon attending military school where he manages a snowball fight like a military campaign, yet he suffers the insults of other boys. It continues a decade later with scenes of the French Revolution and Napoleon's presence at the periphery as a young army lieutenant. He returns to visit his family home in Corsica but politics shift against him and put him in mortal danger. He flees, taking his family to France. Serving as an officer of artillery in the Siege of Toulon, Napoleon's genius for leadership is rewarded with a promotion to brigadier general. Jealous revolutionaries imprison Napoleon but then the political tide turns against the Revolution's own leaders. Napoleon leaves prison, forming plans to invade Italy. He falls in love with the beautiful Joséphine de Beauharnais. The emergency government charges him with the task of protecting the National Assembly. Succeeding in this he is promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Interior, and he marries Joséphine. He takes control of the army which protects the French–Italian border, and propels it to victory in an invasion of Italy.

Gance planned for Napoléon to be the first of six films about Napoleon's career, a chronology of great triumph and defeat ending in Napoleon's death in exile on the island of Saint Helena. After the difficulties encountered in making the first film, Gance realised that the costs involved would make the full project impossible.

Napoléon was first released in a gala at the Palais Garnier (then the home of the Paris Opera) on 7 April 1927. Napoléon had been screened in only eight European cities when Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer bought the rights to it, but after screening it in London, it was cut drastically in length, and only the central panel of the three-screen Polyvision sequences was retained before it was put on limited release in the United States. There, the film was indifferently received at a time when talkies were just starting to appear. The film was restored in 1981 after twenty years' work by silent film historian Kevin Brownlow.

Robespierre Monument

The Robespierre Monument (Russian: Памятник Робеспьеру) was one of the first monuments erected in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (later part of the Soviet Union), raised in Moscow on 3 November 1918 – just ahead of the first anniversary of the October Revolution, which had brought the Bolsheviks to power. It depicted Maximilien de Robespierre, a prominent figure of the French Revolution. Located in Alexander Garden, it had been designed by the sculptor Beatrice Yuryevna Sandomierz (Russian: Беатриса Юрьевна Сандомирская). Created as part of the "monumental propaganda" plan, the monument was commissioned by Vladimir Lenin, who in an edict referred to Robespierre as a "Bolshevik avant la lettre". It was only one of several planned statues depicting French revolutionaries – others were to be made of Georges Danton, François-Noël Babeuf and Jean-Paul Marat, although only the one of Danton was ever completed. Another, also featuring Robespierre, was raised in Petrograd.Created in the context of the ongoing Russian Civil War and with the country in a state of war communism, there were few materials available to make the statue. Lacking bronze or marble, the monument was instead constructed using concrete, with hollow pipes running through it. This design proved frail, lasting only a few days. On the morning of 7 November only a pile of rubble remained. Over the following days different newspapers supplied varying versions as to why it collapsed, with Znamya Trudovoi Kommuny and others saying it was the work of "criminal" (counter-revolutionary) hands, and Izvestia stating the statue's demise was caused by improper construction.

Saint-Étienne-du-Mont

Saint-Étienne-du-Mont is a church in Paris, France, located on the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the 5th arrondissement, near the Panthéon. It contains the shrine of St. Geneviève, the patron saint of Paris.

The church also contains the tombs of Blaise Pascal and Jean Racine. Jean-Paul Marat is buried in the church's cemetery.

The sculpted tympanum, The Stoning of Saint Stephen, is the work of French sculptor Gabriel-Jules Thomas.

Renowned organist, composer, and improviser Maurice Duruflé held the post of Titular Organist at Saint-Étienne-du-Mont from 1929 until his death in 1986.

The Death of Marat

The Death of Marat (French: La Mort de Marat or Marat Assassiné) is a 1793 painting by Jacques-Louis David of the murdered French revolutionary leader Jean-Paul Marat. It is one of the most famous images of the French Revolution. David was the leading French painter, as well as a Montagnard and a member of the revolutionary Committee of General Security. The painting shows the radical journalist lying dead in his bath on July 13, 1793, after his murder by Charlotte Corday. Painted in the months after Marat's murder, it has been described by T. J. Clark as the first modernist painting, for "the way it took the stuff of politics as its material, and did not transmute it".

The Thread of Art

The Thread of Art (French: Au fil de l'Art, Serbian: Nit umetnosti) is a graphic novel created by Serbian artist Gradimir Smudja and his daughter Ivana Smudja. The novel was originally published in French in two volumes, in 2012 and 2015.

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