Jean-Luc Marion

Jean-Luc Marion (born 3 July 1946) is a French philosopher and Roman Catholic theologian. Marion is a former student of Jacques Derrida whose work is informed by patristic and mystical theology, phenomenology, and modern philosophy.[1] Much of his academic work has dealt with Descartes and phenomenologists like Martin Heidegger and Edmund Husserl, but also religion. God Without Being, for example, is concerned predominantly with an analysis of idolatry, a theme strongly linked in Marion's work with love and the gift, which is a concept also explored at length by Derrida.

Jean-Luc Marion
Born3 July 1946 (age 72)
Alma materÉcole Normale Supérieure
Era20th-/21st-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
Main interests
Philosophical theology, Phenomenology, Descartes
Notable ideas
"As much reduction, as much givenness," saturated phenomenon, the intentionality of love


Early years

Marion was born in Meudon, Hauts-de-Seine, on 3 July 1946. He studied at the University of Nanterre (now the University Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense) and the Sorbonne and then did graduate work in philosophy from the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, where he was taught by Jacques Derrida, Louis Althusser and Gilles Deleuze.[2] At the same time, Marion's deep interest in theology was privately cultivated under the personal influence of theologians such as Louis Bouyer, Jean Daniélou, Henri de Lubac, and Hans Urs von Balthasar. From 1972 to 1980 he studied for his doctorate and worked as an assistant lecturer at the Sorbonne. After receiving his doctorate in 1980, he began teaching at the University of Poitiers.[2]


From there he moved to become the Director of Philosophy at the University Paris X – Nanterre, and in 1991 also took up the role of professeur invité at the Institut Catholique de Paris.[3] In 1996 he became Director of Philosophy at the University of Paris IV (Sorbonne), where he still teaches.

Marion became a visiting professor at the University of Chicago Divinity School in 1994. He was then appointed the John Nuveen Professor of the Philosophy of Religion and Theology there in 2004, a position he held until 2010.[4] That year, he was appointed the Andrew Thomas Greeley and Grace McNichols Greeley Professor of Catholic Studies at the Divinity School, a position that had been vacated by the retirement of theologian David Tracy.[5]

On 6 November 2008, Marion was elected as an immortel by the Académie française. Marion now occupies seat 4 an office previously held by Cardinal Lustiger.[6][7]

His awards include:[6][8]

  • the Karl Jaspers Prize of the city and University of Heidelberg (2008).
  • the Grand Prix de philosophie de l'Académie française (1992), for his entire oeuvre
  • the Prix Charles Lambert de l'Académie des sciences morales et politiques (1977)


Marion's phenomenological work is set out in three volumes which together form a triptych[9] or trilogy.[10] Réduction et donation: Etudes sur Husserl, Heidegger et la phénoménologie (1989) is an historical study of the phenomenological method followed by Husserl and Heidegger, with a view towards suggesting future directions for phenomenological research. The unexpected reaction that Réduction et donation provoked called for clarification and full development. This was addressed in Étant donné: Essai d'une phénoménologie de la donation (1997), a more conceptual work investigating phenomenological givenness, the saturated phenomenon and the gifted—a rethinking of the subject. Du surcroît (2001) provides an in-depth description of saturated phenomena.[11]


Marion claims that he has attempted to "radically reduce the whole phenomenological project beginning with the primacy in it of givenness".[12] What he describes as his one and only theme is the givenness that is required before phenomena can show themselves in consciousness—"what shows itself first gives itself.[13] This is based on the argument that any and all attempts to lead phenomena back to immanence in consciousness, that is, to exercise the phenomenological reduction, necessarily results in showing that givenness is the "sole horizon of phenomena"[14]

Marion radicalizes this argument in the formulation, "As much reduction, as much givenness",[15] and offers this as a new first principle of phenomenology, building on and challenging prior formulae of Husserl and Heidegger.[16] The formulation common to both, Marion argues, "So much appearance, so much Being", adopted from Johann Friedrich Herbart,[17] erroneously elevates appearing to the status of the "sole face of Being". In doing so, it leaves appearing itself undetermined, not subject to the reduction, and thus in a "typically metaphysical situation".[18]

The Husserlian formulation, "To the things themselves!", is criticized on the basis that the things in question would remain what they are even without appearing to a subject—again circumventing the reduction or even without becoming phenomena. Appearing becomes merely a mode of access to objects, rendering the formulation inadequate as a first principle of phenomenology.[19] A third formulation, Husserl's "Principle of all Principles", states "that every primordial dator Intuition is a source of authority (Rechtsquelle) for knowledge, that whatever presents itself in 'intuition' simply to be accepted as it gives itself out to be, though only within the limits in which it then presents itself."[20] Marion argues that while the Principle of all Principles places givenness as phenomenality's criterion and achievement, givenness still remains uninterrogated.[21] Whereas it admits limits to intuition ("as it gives itself..., though only within the limits in which it presents itself"), "givenness alone is absolute, free and without condition"[22]

Givenness then is not reducible except to itself, and so is freed from the limits of any other authority, including intuition; a reduced given is either given or not given. "As much reduction, as much givenness" states that givenness is what the reduction accomplishes, and any reduced given is reduced to givenness.[23] The more a phenomenon is reduced, the more it is given. Marion calls the formulation the last principle, equal to the first, that of the appearing itself.[24]

Phenomenological reductions of Husserl, Heidegger and Marion[25]
  To whom are the things in question led back by the reduction? What is given by the reduction? How are the things in question given; what is the horizon? How far does the reduction go, what is excluded?
First reduction – transcendental (Husserl) The intentional and constituting I Constituted objects Through regional ontologies. Through formal ontology, regional ontologies fall within the horizon of objectivity Excludes everything that does not let itself be led back to objectivity
Second reduction – existential (Heidegger) Dasein: an intentionality broadened to Being-in-the-world and led back to its transcendence of beings through anxiety The different ways of Being; the "phenomenon of Being" According to Being as the original and ultimate phenomenon. According to the horizon of time Excludes that which does not have to be, especially the preliminary conditions of the phenomenon of Being, e.g. boredom, the claim
Third reduction – to givenness (Marion) The interloqué: that which is called by the claim of the phenomenon[26] The gift itself; the gift of rendering oneself to or of eluding the claim of the call According to the horizon of the absolutely unconditional call and of the absolutely unconstrained response Absence of conditions and determinations of the claim. Gives all that can call and be called

By describing the structures of phenomena from the basis of givenness, Marion claims to have succeeded in describing certain phenomena that previous metaphysical and phenomenological approaches either ignore or exclude—givens that show themselves but which a thinking that does not go back to the given is powerless to receive.[27] In all, three types of phenomena can be shown, according to the proportionality between what is given in intuition and what is intended:

  • Phenomena where little or nothing is given in intuition.[28] Examples include the Nothing and death,[29] mathematics and logic.[30] Marion claims that metaphysics, in particular Kant (but also Husserl), privileges this type of phenomenon.[31]
  • Phenomena where there is adequation between what is given in intuition and what is intended. This includes any objective phenomena.[32]
  • Phenomena where what is given in intuition fills or surpasses intentionality. These are named saturated phenomena.[33]

The saturated phenomenon

According to John D. Caputo, Marion "is famous for the idea of what he calls the "saturated phenomenon," which is inspired by his study of Christian Neoplatonic mystical theologians....[The idea that] there are phenomena of such overwhelming givenness or overflowing fulfillment that the intentional acts aimed at these phenomena are overrun, flooded—or saturated."[34]

"The Intentionality of Love"

The fourth section of Marion's work Prolegomena to Charity is entitled "The Intentionality of Love" and primarily concerns intentionality and phenomenology. Influenced by (and dedicated to) the French philosopher Emmanuel Levinas, Marion explores the human idea of love and its lack of definition: "We live with love as if we knew what it was about. But as soon as we try to define it, or at least approach it with concepts, it draws away from us."[35] He begins by explaining the essence of consciousness and its "lived experiences." Paradoxically, the consciousness concerns itself with objects transcendent and exterior to itself, objects irreducible to consciousness, but can only comprehend its 'interpretation' of the object; the reality of the object arises from consciousness alone. Thus the problem with love is that to love another is to love one's own idea of another, or the "lived experiences" that arise in the consciousness from the "chance cause" of another: "I must, then, name this love my love, since it would not fascinate me as my idol if, first, it did not render to me, like an unseen mirror, the image of myself. Love, loved for itself, inevitably ends as self-love, in the phenomenological figure of self-idolatry."[35] Marion believes intentionality is the solution to this problem, and explores the difference between the I who intentionally sees objects and the me who is intentionally seen by a counter-consciousness, another, whether the me likes it or not. Marion defines another by its invisibility; one can see objects through intentionality, but in the invisibility of the other, one is seen. Marion explains this invisibility using the pupil: "Even for a gaze aiming objectively, the pupil remains a living refutation of objectivity, an irremediable denial of the object; here for the first time, in the very midst of the visible, there is nothing to see, except an invisible and untargetable gaze, for the first time, sees an invisible gaze that sees it."[35] Love, then, when freed from intentionality, is the weight of this other's invisible gaze upon one's own, the cross of one's own gaze and the other's and the "unsubstitutability" of the other. Love is to "render oneself there in an unconditional other gaze must respond to the ecstasy of this particular other exposed in his gaze." Perhaps in allusion to a theological argument, Marion concludes that this type of surrender "requires faith."[35]


  • God Without Being, University of Chicago Press, 1991. [Dieu sans l'être; Hors-texte, Paris: Librarie Arthème Fayard, (1982)]
  • Reduction and Givenness: Investigations of Husserl, Heidegger and Phenomenology, Northwestern University Press, 1998. [Réduction et donation: recherches sue Husserl, Heidegger et la phénoménologie, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1989)]
  • Cartesian Questions: Method and Metaphysics, University of Chicago Press, 1999. [Questions cartésiennes I: Méthode et métaphysique, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1991)]
  • 'In the Name: How to Avoid Speaking of 'Negative Theology', in JD Caputo and MJ Scanlon, eds, God, the Gift and Postmodernism, (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1999)
  • On Descartes' Metaphysical Prism: The Constitution and the Limits of Onto-theo-logy in Cartesian Thought, University of Chicago Press, 1999. [Sur le prisme métaphysique de Descartes. (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1986)]
  • The Idol and Distance: Five Studies, Fordham University Press, 2001. [L'idole et la distance: cinq études, (Paris: B Grasset, 1977)]
  • Being Given: Toward a Phenomenology of Givenness, Stanford University Press, 2002. [Étant donné. Essai d'une phénoménologie de la donation, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1997)]
  • In Excess: Studies of Saturated Phenomena, Fordham University Press, 2002. [De surcroit: études sur les phénomenes saturés, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2001)]
  • Prolegomena to Charity, Fordham University Press, 2002. [Prolégomènes á la charité, (Paris: E.L.A. La Différence, 1986]
  • The Crossing of the Visible, Stanford University Press, 2004. [La Croisée du visible, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1996)]
  • The Erotic Phenomenon: Six Meditations, University of Chicago Press, 2007. [Le phénomene érotique: Six méditations, (Paris: Grasset, 2003)]
  • On the Ego and on God, Fordham University Press, 2007. [Questions cartésiennes II: Sur l'ego et sur Dieu, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1996)]
  • The Visible and the Revealed, Fordham University Press, 2008. [Le visible et le révélé. (Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 2005)]
  • The Reason of the Gift (Richard Lectures), University of Virginia Press, 2011.
  • In the Self's Place: The Approach of St. Augustine, Stanford University Press, 2012. [Au lieu de soi, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2008)]
  • Givenness & Hermeneutics (Pere Marquette Lectures in Theology), Marquette University Press, 2013.
  • Negative Certainties, University of Chicago Press, 2015. [Certitudes négatives. (Paris: Editions Grasset & Fasquelle, 2009)]
  • Givenness and Revelation (Gifford Lectures), Oxford University Press, 2016.
  • Believing in Order to See: On the Rationality of Revelation and the Irrationality of Some Believers, Fordham University Press, 2017.
  • Descartes' Grey Ontology: Cartesian Science and Aristotelian Thought in the Regulae, St. Augustine's Press, Forthcoming - August 2017.
  • Descartes' White Theology, Saint Augustine's Press, Translation in process.

See also


  1. ^ Horner 2005.
  2. ^ a b Horner 2005, p. 3.
  3. ^ Horner 2005, p. 5.
  4. ^ Horner, Robyn. Jean-Luc Marion: a Theo-Logical Introduction. Burlington: Ashgate, 2005.
  5. ^ University of Chicago 2010.
  6. ^ a b Académie française, 2008.
  7. ^ L’Agence France-Presse 2008.
  8. ^ University of Chicago Divinity School 2015.
  9. ^ Marion 2002a, p.ix.
  10. ^ Marion 2002b, p.ix.
  11. ^ Marion 2002a, pp.ix-x.
  12. ^ Marion 2002b, p.xxi.
  13. ^ Marion 2002a, p.5.
  14. ^ Robyn Horner, translator, in Marion 2002b, p.ix.
  15. ^ Marion 1998, p.203; Marion 2002a, p.16; Marion 2002b, p.17-19; see Marion 2002b, p.x, note 4 for translator's note.
  16. ^ Marion 1998, p.203; Marion 2002a, p.14-19; Marion 2002b, p.16-19.
  17. ^ Marion 2002a, p.329, note 4.
  18. ^ Marion 2002a, p.11.
  19. ^ Marion 2002a, p.12.
  20. ^ Husserl 1969, p.92.
  21. ^ Marion 2002b, p.17.
  22. ^ Husserl, Edmund. Die Idee der Phänomenologie, Husserliania II. pp. 61 and 50 respectively. Cited in Marion 1998, p.33 and Marion 2002b p.17-18.
  23. ^ Marion 2002a, p.17.
  24. ^ Marion 2002b, p.26.
  25. ^ Marion 1998, pp.204-205.
  26. ^ Marion 1998, p.200-202.
  27. ^ Marion 2002a, pp.3-4.
  28. ^ Marion 2002a, pp.222, 308.
  29. ^ Marion 2002a, pp.53-59.
  30. ^ Marion 2002a, pp.191-196.
  31. ^ Marion 2002a, pp.194, 226.
  32. ^ Marion 2002a, pp.222-225.
  33. ^ Marion 2002a, pp.196-221, 225-247 and Marion 2002b.
  34. ^ Caputo 2007 p. 164.
  35. ^ a b c d Marion 2002c


Further reading

  • Rethinking God as Gift: Marion, Derrida, and the Limits of Phenomenology, Robyn Horner, Fordham University Press, 2001
  • Givenness and God: Questions of Jean-Luc Marion, Ian Leask and Eoin G. Cassidy, eds., Fordham University Press, 2005
  • Counter-Experiences: Reading Jean-Luc Marion, edited by Kevin Hart, University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.
  • Reading Jean-Luc Marion:Exceeding Metaphysics, Christina M. Gschwandtner, Indiana University Press, 2007.
  • Interpreting Excess: Jean-Luc Marion, Saturated Phenomena, and Hermeneutics, Fordham University Press, 2010.
  • A Genealogy of Marion's Philosophy of Religion: Apparent Darkness, Tamsin Jones, Indiana University Press, 2011.
  • Degrees of Givenness: On Saturation in Jean-Luc Marion, Christina M. Gschwandtner, Indiana University Press, 2014.
  • Marion and Derrida on the Gift and Desire: Debating the Generosity of Things, Jason W. Alvis, Contributions to Phenomenology Series, Springer Press, 2016.

External links

1946 in philosophy

1946 in philosophy

Agnostic existentialism

Agnostic existentialism is a type of existentialism which makes no claim to know whether there is a "greater picture"; rather, it simply asserts that the greatest truth is that which the individual chooses to act upon. It feels that to know the greater picture, whether there is one or not, is impossible, or impossible so far, or of little value. Like the Christian existentialist, the agnostic existentialist believes existence is subjective.

André Warusfel

André Warusfel (1 December 1936 – 6 June 2016) was a French mathematician and an alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure.

He taught for many years in preparatory classes, mainly in high schools Henri IV and Louis-le-Grand. Inspector General of mathematics from 1994 to 2001, he is Inspector General Emeritus of Mathematics Education.

Editor of the Revue de mathématiques spéciales ("Journal of special mathematics") from 1974 until 2007, André Warusfel is also a writer and science journalist specializing in mathematics. As a science journalist, he was, in 1964, one of the reshapers of the journal Atomes ("Atoms"), future journal La Recherche ("Research").

Also passionate about the history of science, he devoted much of his recent research to the mathematical work of René Descartes. He assured a new edition of the text La Géométrie ("Geometry") which was published in 2009 in the third volume of the complete works of Descartes (TEL collection, ed. Gallimard). On the same subject, he defended a thesis at the University of Paris Sorbonne-Paris IV in June 2010, edited by Jean-Luc Marion.

He also published a 2009 book on the work of Leonhard Euler, which includes an introductory chapter providing a summary of the evolution of the history of mathematics.

He is also the author of several scientific papers on the history and education of mathematics, including a 2005 article on the formation of French mathematicians in the twentieth century, and on the same year on the history of the resolution of algebraic equations.

Briankle Chang

Briankle G. Chang (born 1954) is an American writer, translator, and academic. He was born and raised in Taiwan and did his postgraduate study in the United States. He works primarily in the areas of philosophy of communication, media theory and criticism, and cultural studies. He is considered the first scholar to bring to bear the ideas of Jacques Derrida on the field of communication studies and media studies. In his book, Deconstructing Communication: Representation, Subject, and Economies of Exchange (1996), he demonstrates the limits of phenomenology by showing how it fails to address the question of intersubjectivity and proposes a la Derrida the idea of “postal principle” as fundamental to any theory of communication and mediation. This idea is elaborated in his subsequent writings and forms the perspective behind much of his works after Deconstructing Communication. For the past 15 years, he has been a faculty member in the Department of Communication, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, where he teaches in the areas of cultural studies and philosophy of communication.

Chang writes in both English and Chinese, and some of his essays in English have been translated into Chinese and other languages. He has published in journals such as International Philosophical Quarterly, British Journal of Aesthetics, History of European Ideas, Cultural Critique, differences, Cultural Studies, and others. He is the Chinese translator of Jacques Derrida’s Monolinguisme de l’autre: ou la prothèse d’origin, and he has translated writings by other French theorists into English. While continuing his engagements with writers such as Derrida, Jean Luc Nancy, Jean-Luc Marion, and others, his recent works are influenced visibly by the writings of Werner Hamacher. He recently co-edited an anthology on the philosophy of communication for the MIT Press (2012), which was named Best Edited Book by the Philosophy of Communication Division of the National Communication Association.

Committee on Social Thought

The John U. Nef Committee on Social Thought is one of several PhD-granting committees at the University of Chicago. It was started in 1941 by historian John Ulric Nef along with economist Frank Knight, anthropologist Robert Redfield, and University President Robert Maynard Hutchins.

The committee is interdisciplinary, but it is not centered on any specific topic; rather, the committee has, since its inception, drawn together noted academics and writers to "foster awareness of the permanent questions at the origin of all learned inquiry".Notable past members of the committee have included

writers Saul Bellow, J. M. Coetzee, and T. S. Eliot,

political theorists Hannah Arendt, Allan Bloom, and Mark Lilla,

classicist David Grene,

historians Marc Fumaroli, Marshall G. S. Hodgson and Paul Wheatley,

sociologist Edward Shils,

sinologist Anthony C. Yu,

anthropologist Victor Turner,

poet and philologist A. K. Ramanujan,

philosophers Vincent Descombes, Mircea Eliade, Leszek Kołakowski, Jacques Maritain, Yves Simon, Paul Ricoeur, Stephen Toulmin, and

economists Robert Fogel and Friedrich Hayek.Eliot, Bellow, Coetzee, Hayek, and Fogel have been awarded Nobel prizes.

Current faculty include religion scholar Wendy Doniger, theologian David Tracy, sociologist Hans Joas, literary theorist Thomas Pavel, theorist of German literature David Wellbery, classicist James M. Redfield, philosopher and psychoanalyst Jonathan Lear, philosopher Jean-Luc Marion, medieval historian David Nirenberg, philosopher Robert B. Pippin, classicist Laura M. Slatkin, historian of science Lorraine Daston, physician and philosopher Leon Kass (former chairman of the President's Council on Bioethics), political theorist Nathan Tarcov, art historian Andrei Pop, and poet Adam Zagajewski.


Counter-experience describes a perception of a non-objective (typically spiritual) phenomenon. First coined by French phenomenologist Jean-Luc Marion, it has been elevated to book title status by Marion scholar Kevin Hart.


Jean-Luc may refer to:

In politics:

Jean-Luc Bennahmias, a French politician and Member of the European Parliament

Jean-Luc Dehaene, a Flemish politician

Jean-Luc Mandaba, a former Prime Minister of the Central African Republic

Jean-Luc Pépin, a Canadian academic, politician, and Cabinet memberIn entertainment:

Jean-Luc De Meyer, a Belgian vocalist and lyricist best known as the lead vocalist of Front 242

Jean-Luc Ponty, a French virtuoso violinist and jazz composer

Jean-Luc Picard, a fictional starship captain in the Star Trek universe

Jean-Luc Bilodeau, an actor, played Josh Trager on the television show Kyle XY and Ben Wheeler on Baby DaddyIn other fields:

Jean-Luc Godard, a Franco-Swiss filmmaker

Jean-Luc Grand-Pierre, a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman

Jean-Luc Lagardère, a major French businessman

Jean-Luc Margot, a Belgian astronomer and Professor at UCLA

Jean-Luc Marion, a French philosopher

Jean-Luc Nancy, a French philosopher

Jean-Luc du Plessis, a South African Rugby Union player

Jean-Yves Lacoste

Jean-Yves Lacoste is a French philosopher. Lacoste is associated with what Dominique Janicaud called the "theological turn in phenomenology", along with other influential French phenomenologists like Michel Henry, Jean-Luc Marion and Jean-Louis Chrétien. Lacoste's work straddles philosophy and theology, and displays an interest in what might be called postmodern themes. He works in Paris and Cambridge and has a life membership at Clare Hall, Cambridge.Lacoste's influential 1994 book Experience and the Absolute argues against the modern prizing of "religious experience" and defends the view that God is knowable as lovable but does not give himself by way of experience or feeling.In 2010, Lacoste delivered the James W. Richards lectures at the University of Virginia while he was a Visiting Professor of Religious Studies. His paper, "From Theology to Theological Thinking", called for erasing rigid distinctions between philosophical and theological disciplines.

Joseph Maréchal

Joseph Maréchal (1 July 1878 – 11 December 1944) was a Belgian Jesuit priest, philosopher, theologian and psychologist. He taught at the Higher Institute of Philosophy of the University of Leuven and was the founder of the school of thought called transcendental Thomism, which attempted to merge the theological and philosophical thought of St. Thomas Aquinas with that of Immanuel Kant.

Karl Jaspers Prize

The Karl Jaspers Prize or Karl-Jaspers-Preis is a German philosophy award named after Karl Jaspers and awarded by the city of Heidelberg and the University of Heidelberg. It was first awarded in 1983 "for a scientific work of international significance supported by philosophical spirit". The Karl Jaspers Prize is endowed with 5,000 euros. Next to the Friedrich Nietzsche Prize it is one of the highest awards in Germany awarded exclusively for philosophical achievements.

Kevin Hart (poet)

Kevin John Hart (born 5 July 1954) is an Anglo-Australian theologian, philosopher and poet. He is currently Edwin B. Kyle Professor of Christian Studies and Chair of the Religious Studies Department at the University of Virginia. As a theologian and philosopher, Hart's work epitomizes the "theological turn" in phenomenology, with a focus on figures like Maurice Blanchot, Emmanuel Levinas, Jean-Luc Marion and Jacques Derrida. He has received multiple awards for his poetry, including the Christopher Brennan Award and the Grace Leven Prize for Poetry twice.

List of Catholic philosophers and theologians

This is a list of Catholic philosophers and theologians whose Catholicism is important to their works. The names are ordered by date of birth in order to give a rough sense of influence between thinkers.

Marion (surname)

Marion is the surname of:

Anne Windfohr Marion (born 1938), American rancher and business executive

Brock Marion (born 1970), American retired National Football League player

Francis Marion (c. 1732–1795), army officer during the American Revolutionary War, known as the Swamp Fox

Jean-Luc Marion (born 1946), French historian of philosophy, phenomenologist and Roman Catholic theologian

Jerry Marion (born 1944), American National Football League player

John L. Marion, American auctioneer, philanthropist and Chairman of Sotheby's from 1975 to 1994

J. Paul Marion (born 1927), Canadian politician

Marty Marion (1917–2011), American Major League Baseball player and manager

Paul Marion (actor) (1915–2011), American actor

Paul Marion (politician) (1899–1954), French journalist and Vichy French Minister of Information

Pierre Marion (1921–2010), French secret service chief

Shawn Marion (born 1978), American former National Basketball Association player

Maxence Caron

Maxence Caron (born 1976) is a French writer, poet, philosopher and musicologist.

Natural-law argument

Natural-law argument for the existence of God was especially popular in the eighteenth century as a result of the influence of Sir Isaac Newton. As Bertrand Russell pointed out much later, many of the things we consider to be laws of nature, in fact, are human conventions. Indeed, Albert Einstein has shown that Newton's law of universal gravitation was such a convention, and though elegant and useful, one that did not describe the universe precisely. Most true laws are rather trivial, such as mathematical laws, laws of probability, and so forth, and much less impressive than those that were envisioned by Newton and his followers. Russell wrote:

"If you say, as more orthodox theologians do, that in all the laws which God issues he had a reason for giving those laws rather than others -- the reason, of course, being to create the best universe, although you would never think it to look at it -- if there was a reason for the laws which God gave, then God himself was subject to law, and therefore you do not get any advantage by introducing God as an intermediary. You really have a law outside and anterior to the divine edicts, and God does not serve your purpose, because he is not the ultimate law-giver. In short, this whole argument from natural law no longer has anything like the strength that it used to have."The argument of natural laws as a basis for God was changed by Christian figures such as Thomas Aquinas, in order to fit biblical scripture and establish a Judeo-Christian teleological law.

Nicholas Wolterstorff

Nicholas Wolterstorff (born January 21, 1932) is an American philosopher and a liturgical theologian. He is currently Noah Porter Professor Emeritus Philosophical Theology at Yale University. A prolific writer with wide-ranging philosophical and theological interests, he has written books on aesthetics, epistemology, political philosophy, philosophy of religion, metaphysics, and philosophy of education. In Faith and Rationality, Wolterstorff, Alvin Plantinga, and William Alston developed and expanded upon a view of religious epistemology that has come to be known as Reformed epistemology. He also helped to establish the journal Faith and Philosophy and the Society of Christian Philosophers.

Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness. As a philosophical movement it was founded in the early years of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl and was later expanded upon by a circle of his followers at the universities of Göttingen and Munich in Germany. It then spread to France, the United States, and elsewhere, often in contexts far removed from Husserl's early work.

Phenomenology is not a unitary movement; rather, different authors share a common family resemblance but also with many significant differences. Gabriella Farina states:A unique and final definition of phenomenology is dangerous and perhaps even paradoxical as it lacks a thematic focus. In fact, it is not a doctrine, nor a philosophical school, but rather a style of thought, a method, an open and ever-renewed experience having different results, and this may disorient anyone wishing to define the meaning of phenomenology.Phenomenology, in Husserl's conception, is primarily concerned with the systematic reflection on and study of the structures of consciousness and the phenomena that appear in acts of consciousness. Phenomenology can be clearly differentiated from the Cartesian method of analysis which sees the world as objects, sets of objects, and objects acting and reacting upon one another.

Husserl's conception of phenomenology has been criticized and developed not only by himself but also by students such as Edith Stein and Roman Ingarden, by hermeneutic philosophers such as Martin Heidegger, by existentialists such as Nicolai Hartmann, Gabriel Marcel, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, and by other philosophers such as Max Scheler, Paul Ricoeur, Jean-Luc Marion, Michel Henry, Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Derrida, and sociologists Alfred Schütz and Eric Voegelin.

Postmodern theology

Postmodern theology—also known as the continental philosophy of religion—is a philosophical and theological movement that interprets theology in light of post-Heideggerian continental philosophy, including phenomenology, post-structuralism, and deconstruction.

Theological noncognitivism

Theological noncognitivism is the position that religious language – specifically, words such as "God" – are not cognitively meaningful. It is sometimes considered synonymous with ignosticism.

Concepts in religion
Conceptions of God
Existence of God
Religious language
Problem of evil
Philosophersof religion

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