Jean-Baptiste Debret

Jean-Baptiste Debret (18 April 1768 – 28 June 1848) was a French painter, who produced many valuable lithographs depicting the people of Brazil.

Jean-Baptiste Debret
Self portrait of Jean-Baptiste Debret inVoyage pittoresque et historique au Brésil (1834)
Born18 April 1768
Died28 July 1848 (aged 80)
Alma materAcadémie des Beaux-Arts
Known forPainting, Drawing
AwardsPrix de Rome, Member of the Academie des Beaux Arts.


Debret - Premiere distribution des decorations de la Legion d'honneur
First remittance of the Légion d'Honneur, 15 July 1804, at Saint-Louis des Invalides, by Jean-Baptiste Debret, 1812.

Debret studied at the French Academy of Fine Arts, a pupil of the great Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825) to whom he was related. He accompanied David to Rome in the 1780s. His debut was at the Salon des Beaux Arts of 1798, where he got the second prize.

He travelled to Brazil in March 1816 as a member of the so-called French Artistic Mission, a group of bonapartist French artists and artisans bound to creating in Rio de Janeiro an arts and crafts lyceum (Escola Real de Artes e Ofícios) under the auspices of King D. João VI and the Conde da Barca, which later became the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes (Imperial Academy of Fine Arts) under Emperor Dom Pedro I.

Debret cativos
Debret, A Guaraní family captured by slave hunters.

As a painter favored first by the Portuguese court in exile and later by the imperial court in Rio, Debret was often commissioned to paint portraits of many of its members, such as Portuguese king Dom João VI and the Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria, the first empress of Brazil, who married D. Pedro I (Debret was commissioned to produce a painting of her arrival for the marriage at the Rio port, as well as the public acclaiming of the new Emperor). He established his atelier at the Imperial Academy in December 1822 and became a valued teacher in 1826. In 1829 Debret organized the first arts exhibition ever to take place in Brazil, in which he presented many of his works as well as of his disciples. Emulating David's role during the French Empire, Debret was also involved in the drawing ornaments for many of public ceremonies and official festivities of the court and even some of the courtier's uniforms are credited to him.

He corresponded frequently with his brother in Paris. Noticing After his brother's interest in his depiction of everyday life in Brazil, he started to sketch street scenes, local costumes and relations of the Brazilians in the period between 1816 and 1831. He took a particular interest in slavery of blacks and in the indigenous peoples in Brazil. Together with the German painter Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802–1858), his work is one of the most important graphic documentation of life in Brazil during the early decades of the 19th century.

Debret returned to France in 1831 and became a member of the Academie des Beaux Arts. From 1834 to 1839 he published his monumental series of three volumes of engravings, titled Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Brésil, ou Séjour d'un Artiste Français au Brésil ("A Picturesque and Historic Voyage to Brazil, or the Sojourn of a French Artist in Brazil"). Unfortunately the work was not a commercial success. In order to survive, he made lithographs depicting paintings by his distant cousin David, but the editions were very limited and money was short. Debret died poor in Paris in 1848.



Uruncungo Player


“L’exécution de la Punition du Fouet” (“Execution of the Punishment of the Whip”)

A Brazilian family in Rio de Janeiro by Jean-Baptiste Debret 1839

Family dining

Slavery in Brazil, by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1768-1848)

“Feitors corrigeant des nègres” (“Plantation overseers disciplining blacks”)

E70 p22

Black women (1835)


Indian Warrior

External links

1768 in art

Events from the year 1768 in art.

1848 in France

The year 1848 in France, like in other European countries, is mostly remembered as the year of a revolution that deposed king Louis Philippe and brought Napoleon III to power as president of the second republic.

1848 in art

Events from the year 1848 in art.

Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul

Agudo is a municipality in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil.

Division of Royal Volunteers

The Division of Royal Volunteers (Portuguese: Divisão de Voluntários Reais or Voluntários Reais do Príncipe, later Divisão de Voluntários Reais do Rei following the prince's ascent to kingship) was a detachment of the Portuguese military, formed in 1815 and deployed to Rio de Janeiro on 30 March 1816. The unit was commanded by Carlos Frederico Lecor, Viscount of Laguna.

The unit was formed on order of then-Prince Dom João VI, to consist of 5,000 men, and invaded the Banda Oriental (in modern Uruguay), as part of the Portuguese conquest of the Banda Oriental. The unit occupied the city of Montevideo on 20 January 1817.

Guaraní people

Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America. They are distinguished from the related Tupí by their use of the Guaraní language. The traditional range of the Guaraní people is in present-day Paraguay between the Uruguay River and lower Paraguay River, the Misiones Province of Argentina, southern Brazil once as far north as Rio de Janeiro, and parts of Uruguay and Bolivia. Although their demographic dominance of the region has been reduced by European colonisation and the commensurate rise of mestizos, there are contemporary Guaraní populations in these areas. Most notably, the Guaraní language, still widely spoken across traditional Guaraní homelands, is one of the two official languages in Paraguay, the other one being Spanish. The language was once looked down upon by the upper and middle classes, but it is now often regarded with pride and serves as a symbol of national distinctiveness. The Paraguayan population learns Guaraní both informally from social interaction and formally in public schools. In modern Spanish, Guaraní is also applied to refer to any Paraguayan national in the same way that the French are sometimes called Gauls.

Latin American art

Latin American art is the combined artistic expression of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico, as well as Latin Americans living in other regions.

The art has roots in the many different indigenous cultures that inhabited the Americas before European colonization in the 16th century. The indigenous cultures each developed sophisticated artistic disciplines, which were highly influenced by religious and spiritual concerns. Their work is collectively known and referred to as Pre-columbian art. The blending of Native American, African and European cultures has resulted in a unique mestizo tradition.

List of painters by name beginning with "D"

Please add names of notable painters in alphabetical order.

Richard Dadd (1817–1886), English painter noted for his depictions of fairies, Orientalist scenes, and enigmatic genre scenes

Bernardo Daddi (c.1280–1348), Italian Renaissance painter

Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret (1852–1929), French painter

Michael Dahl (1659–1743), Swedish portrait painter

Helen Dahm (1878–1968)

Dai Jin (1388–1462), founder of the Zhe School of Ming dynasty painting

Dai Xi (1801–1860), Chinese painter of genre subjects

Claire Dalby (born 1944), British botanical artist

Roy Dalgarno (1910–2001), Australian social realist artist

Salvador Dalí (1904–1989), Spanish surrealist

Christen Dalsgaard (1824–1907), Danish painter

Thomas Aquinas Daly (born 1937), American contemporary landscape and still life painter

Dietmar Damerau (1935–2011)

Ken Danby (1940–2007), Canadian artist

Vito D'Ancona (1825–1884), Italian artist of the Macchiaioli group

Josef Dande (1911–1969), Hungarian landscape artist

Leonard Daniels (1909–1998), British painter

Heinrich Danioth (1896–1953)

Nassos Daphnis (1914–2010)

Nils von Dardel (1888–1943), Swedish post-impressionist

Jacques Daret (1404–1470)

William Dargie (1912–2003), Australian painter, especially of portrait paintings

Charles-François Daubigny (1817–1878), French painter of the Barbizon school

Honoré Daumier (1808–1879), French printmaker, caricaturist, painter, and sculptor

Max Dauthendey (1867–1918)

Gerard David (ca.1450–1523), Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator

Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825), French painter in the Neoclassical style

Charles Harold Davis (1856–1933)

Eleanor Layfield Davis (1911–1985), American painter, sculptor

Mary Davis, Lady Davis (1866–1941)

Heinrich Maria Davringhausen (1894–1970), German painter associated with the New Objectivity

Gladys Dawson (1909-1993), English painter

Janet Dawson (born 1935), Australian artist who won the Archibald Prize

Gene Davis (1920–1985), American painter especially of paintings of vertical stripes of color

Ronald Davis (born 1937), American painter associated with Geometric abstraction

Stuart Davis (1892–1964), American modernist

Édouard Debat-Ponsan (1847–1913), French painter

Alison Debenham (1903–1967), British painter

Jean Baptiste Debret (1768–1848), French painter, noted for lithographs depicting the people of Brazil

Joseph DeCamp (1858–1923), American Impressionist

Michel De Caso (born 1956), French visual artist

Ettore "Ted" DeGrazia (1909–1982), American impressionist, western-pop, painter, sculptor, and lithographer

Raoul De Keyser (born 1930), Belgian

Giuseppe De Nittis (1846–1884)

Edgar Degas (1834–1917), French Impressionist painter, sculptor, printmaker and draftsman

Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863), French Romantic artist

Michel Delacroix (born 1933), French

Beauford Delaney (1901–1979), American modernist

Joseph Delaney (1904–1991), American

Robert Delaunay (1885–1941), French artist, cofounder of Orphism

Sonia Delaunay-Terk (1885–1979), Jewish-French artist, cofounder of Orphism movement

Dirck van Delen (1605–1671)

Willem Jacobsz Delff (1580–1638)

Paul Delvaux (1897–1994), Belgian painter, especially of surrealist paintings with female nudes

Roy De Maistre (1894–1968), Australian artist

Jenny Eakin Delony (1866–1949), American

Grillo Demo, Argentine artist especially of jasmine paintings, depicting falling jasmine

Charles Demuth (1883–1935), American watercolorist and oil painter

Maurice Denis (1870–1943), French painter and writer

Roger Wilson Dennis (1902–1966), American plein-air impressionis painter and art conservator

Christabel Dennison (1884-1924), English painter and sculptor

André Derain (1880–1954), French painter and co-founder of Fauvism

Brigid Derham (1943–1980), British abstract painter

Martin Desjardins (1637–1694)

Paul Lucien Dessau (1909–1999), British portrait painter

Yehia Dessouki (born 1978), Egyptian painter

Édouard Detaille (1847–1912), French Academic painter and military artist

Serafino De Tivoli (1826–1892), Italian artist of the Macchiaioli group

Anthony Devas (1911–1958), British portrait painter

Giorgio De Vincenzi (1884–1965), Italian modernist

Thomas Dewing (1851–1938), American painter in a tonalist manner

Alexander Deyneka (1899–1969)

David Diao (born 1943) American

Emiliano Di Cavalcanti (1897–1976), Brazilian

Robert Dickerson (born 1929), Australian figurative painter

Edwin Dickinson (1891–1978), American painter and draftsman especially of self-portraits and landscapes

François Diday (1802–1877)

Porfirio DiDonna (1942–1986)

Richard Diebenkorn (1922–1993), American abstract

Pieter Franciscus Dierckx (1871–1950)

Adolf Dietrich (1877–1957)

Mary Dignam (1860–1938), Canadian painter and pioneer activist for women artists

Sam Dillemans (born 1965), Belgian painter

Meredith Dillman, fantasy artist and illustrator specializing in fairies and fairy tale paintings

Silvia Dimitrova (born 1970), Bulgarian icon

Jim Dine (born 1935), American pop artist

Ding Guanpeng (1708–1771)

Ding Yunpeng (1547–1628)

Abidin Dino (1913–1993), Turkish artist and painter

Dionisius (1440–1502), head of the Moscow school of icon painters

Paul Dirmeikis (born 1954), Francophone poet, composer, performer and painter

Eve Disher (1894–1991), English portrait painter

Alén Diviš (1900–1956), Czech painter known for his melancholic art

Otto Dix (1891–1969), German painter and printmaker

William Dobell (1899–1970), Australian sculptor and painter

William Dobson (1610–1646), portraitist and early English painter

Mstislav Dobuzhinsky (1875–1957)

Lois Dodd (born 1927), American

Isobelle Ann Dods-Withers (1876–1939), Scottish painter

Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931), Dutch artist, practicing in painting, writing, poetry and architecture

Eppo Doeve (1907–1981), Dutch painter and cartoonist

Tommaso Dolabella (1570–1650), Italian Baroque

Domenichino (or Domenico Zampieri) (1581–1641), Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School

Óscar Domínguez (1906–1957), Spanish

Tadeusz Dominik (born 1928)

Inshō Dōmoto (1891–1975)

Dong Qichang (1555–1636), Chinese painter, scholar, calligrapher, and art theorist

Dong Yuan (934–962), Chinese painter of figures and landscapes

Antonio Donghi (1897–1963), Italian painter of scenes of popular life, landscapes, and still life

Lambert Doomer (1624–1700) (see Wikimedia Commons)

Gustave Doré (1832–1883), French artist, engraver, illustrator and sculptor

Kees van Dongen (1877–1968), Dutch painter and one of the Fauves

Dosso Dossi (ca.1490–1542), Italian Renaissance painter who belonged to the Ferrara School of Painting

Gerrit Dou (1613–1675)

Jaroslav Doubrava (1909–1960), Czech composer, painter, and pedagogue

Thomas Doughty (1793–1856), American artist of the Hudson River School

Aaron Douglas (1898–1979), African American painter and a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance

Rackstraw Downes (born 1939), British-born realist painter and author based in America

George Burton Drake (1876–1942), American landscape

Helen Thomas Dranga (1866–1940), British-born based in America

Pamela Drew (1910–1989), English painter of marine and aviation subjects

William Dring (1904–1990), English portrait painter

Willem Drost (1633–1659), Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker

Malcolm Drummond (1880–1945)

Russell Drysdale (1912–1981), Australian artist

Du Jin, Chinese landscape

Du Qiong (1396–1474)

Albert Dubois-Pillet (1846–1890) French neo-impressionist

Nikolay Nikanorovich Dubovskoy (1859–1918)

Jean Dubuffet (1901–1985), French painter and sculptor

Duccio (1255–1319), Italian painter especially of religious subject matter

Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968), French artist associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist movements

Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti (1889–1963), French Dadaist

Jacob Duck (1600–1667)

Jack M. Ducker (fl. 1910–1930), European landscape

Raoul Dufy (1877–1953), French Fauvist

Thomas Cantrell Dugdale (1880–1952), British portrait painter

Edward Dugmore (1915–1996), American

Karel Dujardin (1622–1678)

Frank DuMond (1865–1951)

Henri-Julien Dumont (1859–1921)

Augustus Dunbier (1888–1977)

Brian Dunlop (born 1938), Australian still life and figurative painter

Anne Dunn (born 1929), English artist associated with the second generation of the School of London

Elizabeth Durack (1915–2000), Western Australian artist and writer

Asher Brown Durand (1796–1886), American painter of the Hudson River School

Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), German painter, printmaker and theorist

Cornelis Dusart (1660–1704), Dutch painter, draftsman and printmaker

Willem Cornelisz Duyster (1599–1678)

Geoffrey Dyer (born 1947), Australian artist who won the Archibald Prize in 2003

Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641), Flemish Baroque artist

Floris van Dyck (1575–1651)

Friedel Dzubas (1915–1994), German born American Abstract Expressionist

Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Baron of Santo Ângelo

Manuel José de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Baron of Santo Ângelo (November 29, 1806 – December 30, 1879), was a Brazilian Romantic writer, painter, architect, diplomat and professor, considered to be one of the first Brazilian editorial cartoonists ever. He is the patron of the 32nd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Marc Ferrez (sculptor)

Marc Ferrez (14 October 1788 – 1 April 1850) was a French sculptor and engraver who spent a large part of his career in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Missão Artística Francesa

The French Artistic Mission in Brazil (Portuguese: Missão Artística Francesa) was a group of French artists and architects that came to Rio de Janeiro, then the capital city of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, in March 1816, under the auspices of the royal court of Portugal, which had been transferred to Brazil since 1808 due to Portugal's invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Mission, led by Joachim Lebreton, had the mission of establishing the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios (Royal School of Sciences, Arts and Crafts), which later became the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes (National School of Fine Arts).

The Mission was formed by the following artists:

Jean-Baptiste Debret, painter

Nicolas Antoine Taunay, painter

Auguste Marie Taunay, sculptor

Marc Ferrez, sculptor

Zéphirin Ferrez, sculptor

Charles-Simon Pradier

Grandjean de Montigny, architectIn the 20th century, the French Artistic Mission had continued in São Paulo to the foundation of the University of São Paulo, with the support of the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, in 1934.

National Order of Merit (Brazil)

The National Order of Merit (Portuguese: Ordem Nacional do Mérito) is a decoration created to reward Brazilian citizens over 25 years of age who have rendered services relevant to the Brazilian nation, and foreigners who, according to the government, are worthy of this distinction.

Nicolas-Antoine Taunay

Nicolas-Antoine Taunay (10 February 1755 – 20 March 1830) was a French painter known best for his landscapes with scenes from ancient and modern history, mythology, and religion.

Order of Pedro I

The Imperial Order of Dom Pedro I (Portuguese: Imperial Ordem de Pedro Primeiro or Imperial Ordem de Pedro Primeiro, Fundador do Império do Brasil) is a Brazilian order of chivalry instituted by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil on 16 April 1826. It is considered by many numismatists as the rarest of the Brazilian imperial orders.

On 22 March 1890, the order was cancelled as national order by the interim government of United States of Brazil. Since the deposition in 1889 of the last Brazilian monarch, Emperor Pedro II, the order continues as a house order being awarded by the Heads of the House of Orleans-Braganza, pretenders to the defunct throne of Brazil. The current Brazilian Imperial Family is split into two branches Petrópolis and Vassouras, and the Grand Mastership of the Order is disputed between those two branches.

Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa

The Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa (also known as The Order of Our Lady of Conception of Vila Vicosa) (in Portuguese: Ordem de Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Vila Viçosa) is a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Braganza, the former Portuguese Royal Family. The current Grand Master of the Order is Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the Head of the House of Braganza.

Order of the Rose

The Imperial Order of the Rose (Portuguese: Imperial Ordem da Rosa) was a Brazilian order of chivalry, instituted by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil on 17 October 1829 to commemorate his marriage to Amélie of Leuchtenberg.

On 22 March 1890, the order was cancelled as national order by the interim government of United States of Brazil. Since the deposition in 1889 of the last Brazilian monarch, Emperor Pedro II, the order continues as a house order being awarded by the Heads of the House of Orleans-Braganza, pretenders to the defunct throne of Brazil. The current Brazilian Imperial Family is split into two branches Petrópolis and Vassouras, and as a consequence the Grand Mastership of the Order is disputed between those two branches.

Simplício Rodrigues de Sá

Simplício Rodrigues de Sá (1785, São Nicolau Tolentino, Cape Verde, — 9 March 1839, Rio de Janeiro) was a Portuguese-born painter and art professor who spent most of his career in Brazil.

Teatro João Caetano

Teatro João Caetano is a theatre in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Established in 1813, it was the first official theatre in Rio.

Zepherin Ferrez

Zéphyrin Ferrez (or Zepherin Ferrez; 31 July 1797 – 22 July 1851) was a French sculptor and engraver who spent much of his career in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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