Je suis partout

Je suis partout (French pronunciation: ​[ʒə sɥi paʁtu], lit. I am everywhere) was a French newspaper founded by Jean Fayard, first published on 29 November 1930. It was placed under the direction of Pierre Gaxotte until 1939. Journalists of the paper included Lucien Rebatet, Alain Laubreaux, the illustrator Ralph Soupault, and the Belgian correspondent Pierre Daye.

Je suis partout
TypeWeekly
Founded20 November 1930
LanguageFrench
Ceased publication1944

Interwar

In its very beginning, Je suis partout was centered on covering international topics, without displaying extremism, antisemitism, or even a consistently right-wing approach. However, the group of editors was heavily influenced by the ideas of Charles Maurras and the integralist Action Française, and the ideology quickly spilled into the editorial content, as the more moderate journalists quit in protest.

The paper became a staple of anti-parliamentarianism, nationalism, and criticism of "decadent" Third Republic institutions and culture, becoming close to fascist movements of the era, French and foreign alike. It clearly supported Benito Mussolini as of October 1932, when Italian politics were awarded a special issue. Je suis partout was favorable to the Spanish Falange, the Romanian Iron Guard, the Belgian Léon Degrelle's Rexism, as well as to Oswald Mosley and his British Union of Fascists. From 1936, it also opened to Nazism and Adolf Hitler.

Despite its international connections, Je suis partout did not recommend copying over local origin in establishing a Fascist régime: "We will regard foreign fascism only through French fascism, the only real fascism" (14 April 1939). Thus, it held Jacques Doriot in esteem for his attempts to unite the French far right into a single Front.

The antisemitic rhetoric of the paper exploded after the Stavisky Affair and the attempted coup d'état introduced by the far right rally in front of the Palais Bourbon on 6 February 1934 (see: 6 February 1934 crisis). It turned vitriolic after the forming of the left-wing Popular Front government under the Jewish Léon Blum (1936). From 1938 on, Je suis partout matched the racist propaganda in Nazi Germany by publishing two special issues, Les Juifs ("The Jews") and Les Juifs et la France ("The Jews and France"). The extreme attack caused the publishers Fayard to cut links with the paper, and it was sold to a new board - which included the Argentine Charles Lescat (who was, according to his own depiction, "a fascist as genuine as he is calm"). Shortly before World War II and the German occupation in 1940, the paper was banned.

Collaboration

It was published again from 1941, and its ultra-collaborationist stances attracted the harsh criticism of Maurras, who repudiated the paper. Je suis partout triumphed as the voice of far right forces, and published calls for the murder of Jews and Third Republic political figures: "The death of men to which we owe so many mournings... all French people are demanding it" (6 September 1941). It exercised an influence over an intellectual and young audience, going from 46,000 issues in 1939 to 250,000 in 1942.

Robert Brasillach was its editor-in-chief from June 1937 to September 1943 (he was to be executed for treason in 1945). Brasillach was believed to be too lenient, and was replaced with Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, brother of Jacques Cousteau. Cousteau aligned Je suis partout with the Nazi leadership, went against its roots by adhering to Nazi anti-intellectualism, and opened itself to advertising for the Waffen-SS and the Légion des Volontaires Français. Several of its editors joined either the Parti Populaire Français or the Milice. It continued to be published as late as August 1944 (the moment of the Liberation of Paris).

References

  • P.-M. Dioudonnat, "Je suis partout" (1930-1944). Les maurrassiens devant la tentation fasciste, éd. La Table ronde, 1973
  • Michel Dobry (ed.), Le Mythe de l'allergie française au fascisme, éd. Albin Michel, 2003
  • Pascal Ory, Les Collaborateurs, éd. du Seuil, "Points"-histoire, 1980
  • Eugen Weber, L'Action française, éd. Hachette, 1985
Aujourd'hui

Aujourd'hui (French: [oʒuʁdɥi], Today) was a daily newspaper which styled itself as "independent" and which was created in August 1940 by Henri Jeanson, to replace le Canard enchaîné under agreement with the Germans.

The first issue appeared on 10 September, 1940. In November 1940, the German authorities pressured the director into taking a public position against the Jews and in favour of politics of collaboration with the Vichy regime. Jeanson resigned, and was succeeded by the journalist Georges Suarez.

Aujourd'hui was far from innocent in its pursuit of those responsible for the 1940 defeat of France, resorting to the myth of the "clean sweep of the broom" in its notorious Anglophobia. It began to reflect the narrative of Marshal Philippe Pétain and of German propaganda. The paper was in favour of the Riom trials which were set up to punish the members of the pre-war government who were allegedly responsible for France's defeat in 1940.

Georges Suarez was shot in 1944.

Candide (newspaper)

Candide (French pronunciation: ​[kɑ̃did]) was the name given to various French newspapers of the 19th and 20th century.

Charles Lescat

Charles Lescat (19 February 1887 – 1948) was an Argentine citizen, who studied in France and wrote in Je suis partout, the ultra-Collaborationist review headed by Robert Brasillach.

Born as Carlos Hipólito Saralegui Lesca in Buenos Aires, he was a volunteer during World War I in France. There, Lescat became a personal friend of Charles Maurras, leader of the Action française (AF) monarchist movement. Part of the AF, he presided over the administration council of Je suis partout, and was editor in chief of this review for a time. In 1941 he published an anti-Semitic book titled Quand Israël se venge (When Israel takes revenge), through the Éditions Grasset publishing house.

At the Liberation of Paris, he took refuge in Germany before travelling to Francoist Spain. He arrived in Uruguay in 1946, and later established himself in Juan Peron's Argentina. There, he organized one of the ratlines used by collaborators and Nazi fugitives. Lescat helped Pierre Daye find refuge in Argentina.

Lescat was sentenced to death in May 1947 by the High Court in Paris, but, despite extradition requests from France, was never extradited. He died in Argentina in 1948.

Claude Jeantet

Claude Jeantet (12 July 1902 – 16 May 1982) was a French journalist and far right politician.

Gringoire (newspaper)

Gringoire (French pronunciation: ​[ɡʁɛ̃ɡwaʁ]) was a political and literary weekly newspaper in France, founded in 1928 by Horace de Carbuccia (son-in-law of Jean Chiappe, the prefect of police involved in the Stavisky Affair), Georges Suarez and Joseph Kessel.It was one of the great inter-war weekly French papers, following a formula started by Candide, and taken up not only by Gringoire but also by the left-wing papers Vendredi and Marianne. The style involved according significant space to politics, having a high-quality literature page, having grand reportages and grand feuilletons (in this case with Pierre Drieu La Rochelle and Francis Carco), satirical cartoons (the main illustrator of Gringoire was Roger Roy), and a simple presentation.

Jean-Pierre Maxence

Jean-Pierre Maxence (20 August 1906 – 16 May 1956) was a French writer who was one of the so-called Non-conformists of the 1930s. Maxence was a leading figure within the so-called Jeune Droite tendency and was associated with other Catholic writers such as Jean de Fabrègues and René Vincent.

Jean Fontenoy

Jean Fontenoy (21 March 1899 – April 1945) was a French journalist, communist and fascist politician who was a collaborator with Nazi Germany.

Le Crapouillot

Le Crapouillot was a French magazine started by Jean Galtier-Boissière as a satiric publication in France, during World War I. In the trenches during World War I, the affectionate term for le petit crapaud, "the little toad" was used by French soldiers, the poilus, to designate small trench-mortars.

Le Pays Réel

Le Pays Réel (French; literally "The Real Country") was a Catholic-Fascist newspaper published by the Rexist Party in Belgium. Its first issue appeared on 3 May 1936 and it continued to be published during the Second World War. It was briefly edited by Victor Matthys. While the Pays Réel remained the main paper of Rex, it remained just one of several published by the group, or subsumed under Rexist control, during the war.

The newspaper's title derives from the writings of Charles Maurras, a French nationalist, who distinguished between a pays réel, rooted in the realities of life such as locality, work, trades, the parish and the family, and a pays légal ("legal country") of law, constitutionalism, and liberal political ideals which he cast as artificially imposed on the "real".

List of defunct newspapers of France

This is a list of defunct newspapers of France.

L'Ami du peuple

L'Appel

Aujourd'hui

L'Aurore

La Citoyenne

Combat

Le Constitutionnel

L'Éclipse

L'Étoile du Déséret

La France

La France au travail

France-Soir

La Fronde

Le Gaulois

La Gazette

Le Globe

L'Illustration

L'Intransigeant

Je suis partout

Le Journal

Journal des débats

La Liberté

La Lune

La Marseillaise

Le Matin

Le Matin de Paris

La Nation française

Le National (Paris)

Paris-Soir

Le Pays de France

Le Père Duchesne (18th century)

Le Père Duchesne (19th century)

Le Petit Français illustré

Le Petit Journal

Le Petit Parisien

Au Pilori

Revue Hebdomadaire

Le Soleil

Le Temps

L'Univers

Le Vieux Cordelier

La Voix des Femmes

Die Zukunft

Louis Perceau

Louis Perceau (22 September 1883 – 20 April 1942) was a 20th-century French polygraph. He used several pseudonyms including Helpey bibliographe poitevin, Dr. Ludovico Hernandez, Alexandre de Vérineau, Un vieux journaliste, Radeville et Deschamps, marquis Boniface de Richequeue, sometimes jointly with Fernand Fleuret.

Lucien Rebatet

Lucien Rebatet (15 November 1903 – 24 August 1972) was a French author, journalist, and intellectual. He is known as an exponent of fascism and virulent antisemite but also as the author of Les Deux étendards, regarded by some as one of the greatest novels of the post-war era.

Maurice Bardèche

Maurice Bardèche (1 October 1907 – 30 July 1998) was a French essayist, literary and art critic, journalist, and one of the leading exponents of neo-fascism in post–World War II Europe. Bardèche was also the brother-in-law of the collaborationist Robert Brasillach, executed after the liberation.

Pierre-Antoine Cousteau

Pierre-Antoine Cousteau (18 March 1906 – 17 December 1958) was a French far right polemicist and journalist. He was the brother of the famous explorer Jacques-Yves Cousteau.

Pierre Daye

Pierre Daye (1892, Schaerbeek, Belgium – 1960, Buenos Aires, Argentina) was a Belgian journalist and Nazi collaborator. As supporter of the Rexist Party, Daye exiled himself to Juan Peron's Argentina after World War II.

In World War I Daye served in the Belgian Army on the Yser Front and in East Africa. In 1918 he published a book about his experiences in the Battle of Tabora.

Pierre Daye was in charge of foreign politics in the Nouveau Journal, a newspaper supporting the National Socialist thesis created in October 1940 by Paul Colin and under the direction of Robert Poulet.Daye was a shareholder in the Editions de la Toison d'Or created during the war (out of a total of 150 shares, 135 were owned by the Slovak group Mundus, which was responsible to the Reich Foreign Affairs Minister headed by Joachim von Ribbentrop.) .

Daye was a correspondent of Je suis partout, the ultra-collaborationist French language review headed by Robert Brasillach. He was sentenced to death as a collaborator on 18 December 1946, by the Brussels War Council.After the war, he fled to Argentina with the help of Charles Lescat, who also worked at Je suis partout. There, he took part in the meeting organized by Juan Perón in the Casa Rosada during which a network (colloquially called ratlines) was created, to organize the escape of war criminals and collaborationists. Along with countryman René Lagrou and others such as Jacques de Mahieu, Daye became central to the Nazi escape routes.In Argentina, Daye resumed his writing activities, becoming the editor of an official Peronist review. He returned to Europe where he wrote his memoirs, and died in 1960 in Argentina.

Pierre Gaxotte

Pierre Gaxotte (19 November 1895 – 21 November 1982) was a French historian.

Gaxotte was born in Revigny-sur-Ornain, Meuse. He began his career as a history teacher at the Lycée Charlemagne and later worked as a columnist for Le Figaro. Over the course of his life he authored numerous historical studies, and was elected to the Académie française in 1953.He is famous for his critical vision of the French Revolution, notably in The French Revolution (1928), and for his rehabilitation of the French 18th century (Louis XV's Century, 1933). He is also known as a far-right-wing journalist of the Entre-deux-Guerres period, with links to the Action française and the newspaper Je suis partout.

René Bousquet

René Bousquet (French: [ʁəne buske]; 11 May 1909 – 8 June 1993) was a high-ranking French political appointee who served as secretary general to the Vichy regime police from May 1942 to 31 December 1943. For personal heroism, he had become a protégé of prominent officials before the war and rose rapidly in the government.

In 1949, he was automatically convicted as a Vichy official and sentenced to five years of Indignité nationale, but his sentence was reduced due to beliefs that he also aided the Resistance and attempted to preserve some autonomy for French police during the Nazi Occupation. Excluded from the government, he went into business. After receiving amnesty in 1959, Bousquet became active again in politics, supporting left-wing politicians through the 1970s, and becoming a regular visitor of François Mitterrand after his election as president in the 1980s.

In 1989, after years of increasing accusations about his activities during the war, Bousquet was accused by three groups of crimes against humanity. He was ultimately indicted by the French Ministry of Justice in 1991 for his decisions during the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup in 1942, which led to Jewish children being deported and killed in eastern Europe Nazi extermination camps. Bousquet was assassinated in 1993 by Christian Didier shortly before his trial was to begin.

Robert Brasillach

Robert Brasillach (French pronunciation: [ʁɔbɛʁ bʁazijak] (listen)) (31 March 1909 – 6 February 1945) was a French author and journalist. Brasillach is best known as the editor of Je suis partout, a nationalist newspaper which came to advocate various fascist movements and supported Jacques Doriot. After the liberation of France in 1944 he was executed following a trial and Charles de Gaulle's express refusal to grant him a pardon. Brasillach was executed for advocating collaborationism, denunciation and incitement to murder. The execution remains a subject of some controversy, because Brasillach was executed for "intellectual crimes", rather than military or political actions.

The Outlaws (novel)

The Outlaws is a 1930 novel by the German writer Ernst von Salomon. Its German title is Die Geächteten, which means "the ostracised". Set between 1919 and 1922, the narrative is based on Salomon's experiences from the Freikorps, and includes an account of the 1922 assassination of foreign minister Walther Rathenau, in which the then 19-year-old Salomon was peripherically involved. The Outlaws was Salomon's debut novel. It was published in English in 1931, translated by Ian F. D. Morrow.The novel was a commercial success. It was followed by two sequels, It Cannot Be Stormed from 1932 and Die Kadetten/The Cadets from 1933.

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