Jayapura is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of Papua. It is situated on the island of New Guinea, on Yos Sudarso Bay (formerly known as Humboldt Bay). It covers an area of 935.92 km2 (361.36 sq mi), and borders Jayapura Regency to the west, Keerom Regency to the south, the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the north. It is the most populous city in the Indonesian part of New Guinea with a population of 256,705 at the 2010 census;[1] the latest official estimate (as of January 2014) is 315,872.

Jayapura is the fourth largest city by economy in Eastern Indonesia—after Makassar, Denpasar, and Manado—with an estimated 2016 GDP at Rp19.48 trillion.[2] It is also the second-most expensive Indonesian city to live in, after Jakarta.[3] The city is served by Sentani Airport, located near Lake Sentani. A highway connects the city to Skow, a village the border with Papua New Guinea and continues beyond the border to Vanimo. The government is currently planning to build a railway from Jayapura to Sarmi. Further plans could connect Jayapura with Manokwari and Sorong. The project is planned for completion by 2030.[4]

City of Jayapura
Kota Jayapura
From top, left to right: Jayapura is viewed from the top of the hill, Jayapura City sign, Coral beach, Love Lake (Danau Cinta) is a heart-shaped-lake located in Emfote (near Jayapura), the biggest mall in Jayapura (Mal Jayapura), Papua Trade Center (PTC), and Jayapura at night.
From top, left to right:
Jayapura is viewed from the top of the hill, Jayapura City sign, Coral beach, Love Lake (Danau Cinta) is a heart-shaped-lake located in Emfote (near Jayapura), the biggest mall in Jayapura (Mal Jayapura), Papua Trade Center (PTC), and Jayapura at night.
Official seal of Jayapura

Prasetya Adi Karya
Location within Papua
Location within Papua
Jayapura is located in Western New Guinea
Jayapura is located in Indonesia
Jayapura (Indonesia)
Jayapura is located in Asia
Jayapura (Asia)
Coordinates: 2°31′58.8″S 140°43′1.2″E / 2.533000°S 140.717000°ECoordinates: 2°31′58.8″S 140°43′1.2″E / 2.533000°S 140.717000°E
Country Indonesia
RegionWestern New Guinea
ProvincePapua (province) Papua
 • MayorBenhur Tomi Mano
 • Vice MayorRustan Saru
 • Total935.92 km2 (361.36 sq mi)
287 m (942 ft)
 • Total315,872
Time zoneUTC+9 (Indonesia Eastern Time)
Area code(+62) 967


Jayapura is Sanskrit for "City of Victory" (जय jaya: "victory"; पुर pura: "city") and was named by Suharto as part of the de-Sukarnoization. The last battle against the Dutch was fought in the city in August 1962. Nowadays the Humboldt bay natives know the city as "Port Numbay".

The city was known as Hollandia from its founding in 1910 to 1962.[5] In 1945, the Dutch made Hollandia the capital of Netherlands New Guinea. After the territory was handed over to the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority, on 1 October 1962, the city went by a dual Dutch/Indonesian name: Hollandia/Kota Baru (New Town). When Indonesia took control over the city on 1 May 1963, it became solely Kota Baru. In 1964, the city was briefly renamed Sukarnapura,[6] after then-President Sukarno, until the end of 1968, when it acquired its present name.


Before its inclusion into the colonial government of the Dutch Indies, the location of present-day Jayapura was known as Numbay.[7] Before the arrival of the Dutch there was an active trade in Numbay, centered on the Island of Metui Debi and the area where the former Gereja Pengharapan ("Church of the Favor of God") stood, in Sam Ratulangi Road, being most active between 1897 and 1905. The mode of the trade was through barter for spices, cassava, salted fish and bird-of-paradise. The society of Numbay was led by an ondoafi (chief of the tribe). In the 1800s, Numbay maintained relations with the Ternate Sultanate.[7]

On 28 September 1909 a detachment of the Dutch navy under Captain F.J.P. Sachse came ashore at Humboldt Bay near the mouth of the Numbay river. Their task was the systematic exploration of northern New Guinea and the search for a natural border between the Dutch and German spheres on New Guinea. Their camp along the river was called Kloofkamp, a name still in use as the name of an ancient district of Jayapura. Forty coconut trees were cut down for the establishment of the camp. They were bought from the owners at a cost of one rijksdaalder per palm.

On 7 March 1910, the Dutch flag was raised and the settlement was named Hollandia. On the other side of the bay there was already a German camp, Germania-Huk (German Corner), which is now uninhabited and part of Indonesian territory. Hollandia was the capital of a district of the same name in the northeast of West New Guinea. The name Hollandia was used until 1962.

The northern part of Netherlands New Guinea was occupied by Japanese forces in 1942. Allied forces drove out the Japanese after amphibious landings near Hollandia, from 21 April 1944 including Battle of Hollandia. The area served as General Douglas MacArthur's headquarters until the conquest of the Philippines in March 1945. Over twenty U.S. bases were established and half a million US personnel moved through the area.[8]

Jayapura was struck by the Aitape tsunami after the 1998 Papua New Guinea earthquake.[9]


Looking east to Yos Sudarso Bay, showing the floating village of Tobati (left) and Engros (right), just to the south of Jayapura.

The topography of Jayapura varies from valleys to hills, plateaus, and mountains up to 700 metres (2,300 ft) above sea level. Jayapura overlooks the Yos Sudarso Bay. Jayapura is about 94,000 hectares (230,000 acres) in area, and is divided into five districts. Around 30% of the area is inhabited, with the remainder consisting of a rough terrain, swamps, and protected forest. The average temperature is 29–31.8 °C (84.2–89.2 °F).

Administrative districts

The city comprises five districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their populations at the 2010 Census:[1]

District (kecamatan) Area
2010 Census[12]
Muara Tami 626.7 11,137
Abepura 155.7 73,157
Heram 63.2 40,435
Jayapura Selatan (South Jayapura) 43.3 66,937
Jayapura Utara (North Jayapura) 51.0 65,039
Jayapura 939,9 256,705
Map Districts (Kecamatan) of Jayapura
Districts (kecamatan) of Jayapura


As the capital of Papua Province with all the development undertaken, Jayapura City becomes a "magnet" for ethnicities from other regions of Indonesia. Ethnic Javanese, Makasar, Buginese, Torajanese, Manadonese, Bataks, Moluccans, Madurese and so on, among others ethnicities of the nation that helped increase the population drastically in at least one decade. In addition to the label "city of Education" then has made this city a destination residents from outside the city of Jayapura to find a job and also gain knowledge in several institutions in this city.


On 12 May 1949, the Apostolic Prefecture of Hollandia was established in the city. In 1963, it was renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Kota Baru. In 1964, it was again renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Sukarnapura. It was promoted in 1966 as the Diocese of Sukarnapura, renamed in 1969 as the Diocese of Djajapura and since 1973 spelled as Diocese of Jayapura.


Jayapura Bay - panoramio
Jayapura port activities around Jayapura Bay, 2011

The highest economic growth of Jayapura city compared to other districts/municipalities in the province of Papua has had implications for the increased income and purchasing power of the people. The economic growth is largely contributed from the tertiary sector, where trade and services and finance dominate its contribution to the formation of GRDP.

The sharp gap/disparity of income, and the high rate of poverty (31.95%) and unemployment rate with labor force participation rate reached only 57.26%. Another weakness is the not yet optimal use of agriculture (in the broad sense) as one of the supporters of the regional economy that has a competitive advantage. Tourism developments, marked by the growing tourism industry and domestic and foreign tourist arrivals in Jayapura City, have provided opportunities for various sectors to flourish, especially income generation for the indigenous people of Port Numbay in Jayapura city.

With the development of trade and service activities supported by the increasing availability of trade and service facilities that lead to increased private investment in the trade and tourism services sector and other sectors. This condition also needs to be supported by the protection policy for the indigenous people of Port Numbay to be prioritized in taking the opportunity to compete healthily, especially in the field of trade, investment and tourism sector.

The economic condition of the indigenous people of Port Numbay, particularly in the context of economic competition in the city of Jayapura, is still at a low level with the lack of capital and skills possessed and with increasingly depleted natural resources.

With the skills and knowledge that still rely on subsistence economic activities such as sago concocting activities, catching fish in the sea, shifting cultivation to indigenous people of Port Numbay, it is enough left behind with other ethnic in Jayapura city that competes in trade and service which is economic modern with profit from the subsistence economy. However, by utilizing the customary rights area along the coast that became the coastal tourist attraction, some of the inhabitants of Port Numbay Original have competed in the service sector even on a small scale and limited capital. This is done by indigenous villagers Kayu Batu on BaseG beach in North Jayapura, Hamadi beach in South Jayapura and on Holtekam beach, Skow Mabo and Skow in Muara Tami district.

While competition in the field of trade is still limited to the natives of Port Numbay because it is still in small scale and is subsistence economy. Among other things, the sale of crops such as marine fish, long-term crops such as coconut, areca nut and others that more levels of economic competition with other ethnic Jayapura in the same merchandise, and with a larger scale.


Jayapura is the home of the Persipura, a professional football club that has produced many famous Papuan-Indonesian footballers[13] and have won the Indonesia Super League three times in the 2008–09, 2010–11 and the 2012–13 seasons. Persipura plays its home matches in the Mandala Stadium.

Twin towns and sister cities

See also


  1. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  2. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik (2017). Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia 2012-2016. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
  3. ^ https://www.industry.co.id/read/3866/bps-delapan-kota-ini-dengan-biaya-hidup-paling-mahal-di-indonesia
  4. ^ Ini Rute Jalur KA Papua Setelah Sorong-Manokwari
  5. ^ https://www.tourfrombali.com/papua-province/
  6. ^ In the spelling Sukarnapura, the ending "o" of Sukarno's name was replaced by an "a" to name the city after Sukarno in the Javanese, in which the "o" is pronounced [ɔ] but written with "a".
  7. ^ a b Fabio Maria Lopes Costa (5 June 2015). "Jelajah Sepeda Papua – Jayapura, Cahaya Dari Timur". Jelajah Sepeda Papua (in Indonesian). Jakarta: KOMPAS. KOMPAS. p. 24. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  8. ^ "Jayapura". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  9. ^ "The Impact of the 1998 Aitape Tsunami at Jayapura, Indonesia" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  10. ^ "weather of Indonesia Jayapura".
  11. ^ Kota Jayapura
  12. ^ www.citypopulation.de retrieved 2013-12-19
  13. ^ "Persipura Consistently to Develop Local Players". Papua Untuk Semua. Retrieved 27 July 2013.

External links

2005 Liga Indonesia Premier Division

Liga Indonesia Indonesian national football competition for the 2005 season.

2008–09 Indonesia Super League

The 2008–09 Indonesia Super League season was the first edition of Indonesia Super League, which replaced the Premier Division as the top rank of football competition in the country. The league is sponsored by Djarum and is officially called Djarum Super Liga Indonesia (SLI) or Djarum Indonesia Super League (ISL).

Persipura Jayapura clinched the title after winning a match 3–1 against Persija Jakarta on May 17, 2009. This is their 1st Indonesia Super League title and 2nd title, counting the Premier Division era.

Anus language

Anus, or Korur, is an Austronesian language spoken on an island in Jayapura Bay east of the Tor River in Papua province of Indonesia. It is one of the Sarmi languages.

Bonggo language

Bonggo, also known as Armopa, is an Austronesian language spoken on the north coast of Papua province, Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

Cenderawasih University

Cenderawasih University (Indonesian: Universitas Cenderawasih) is a university in Jayapura, Papua province, Indonesia. The university is the leading educational institution in the province.

The university has faculties in economics, law, teacher training and education, medical, engineering, and social and political science. Until 2002 the university had a faculty of agricultural sciences at Manokwari, which was then separated to form the Universitas Negeri Papua. The university is divided into two areas: mainly the "Kampus lama" (old campus) which is in the Jayapura suburb of Abepura and the "Kampus baru" (new campus) which is in the hillside of Waena valley.

Kaptiau language

Kaptiau (Kapitiauw) is an Austronesian language spoken on the eastern north coast of Papua province, Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

Kayupulau language

Kayupulau is a nearly extinct Austronesian language spoken mainly by adults in Jayapura Harbor in Papua province, Indonesia. By 2007, it was used by less than a tenth of the ethnic population.

Liki language

Liki, also known as Moar, is a nearly extinct Austronesian language spoken on offshore islands of Papua province, Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

Masimasi language

Masimasi is a nearly extinct Austronesian language spoken on an offshore island of Papua, Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

Ormu language

Ormu is an Austronesian language spoken in Jayapura Bay in Papua province, Indonesia.

Papua (province)

Papua is the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia, comprising most of Western New Guinea. It is bordered by the state of Papua New Guinea to the east, the province of West Papua to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the north, and the Arafura Sea to the south. According to the 2010 census by Statistics Indonesia, Papua had a population of 2,833,381, majority of whom are Christians. The province is divided into twenty-eight regencies and one city. Its capital and largest city is Jayapura.

The province was formerly called Irian Jaya and comprised the entire Western New Guinea until the inauguration of the province of West Papua in 2003. In 2002, Papua adopted its current name and was granted a special autonomous status by the Indonesian legislation. Puncak Jaya is the province's highest mountain as well as the highest point of Indonesia.

Persidafon Dafonsoro

Persidafon Dafonsoro or Persidafon Jayapura or Persidafon is an Indonesian football club based in Jayapura, Papua. The club was founded in 1970. The traditional team home kit is black and white striped shirt, looks alike with Udinese Calcio shirt. The club plays in the Barnabas Youwe Stadium, Sentani, Jayapura. Their homebase is in Dafonsoro, Papua.

The club is named after the Dafonsoro mountain (also known as Cyclops Mountains) near Jayapura.

Persipura Jayapura

Persatuan Sepakbola Indonesia Jayapura, or Persipura, is an Indonesian football club based in Jayapura, Papua. The club was founded in 1963 and currently competes in the Liga 1. Persipura plays their home matches in Mandala Stadium. Persipura is one of the giants of modern football in Indonesia with various league and tournament titles. Persipura is also known as the producer of great footballers from the land of Papua such as Rully Nere, Jack Komboy, Eduard Ivakdalam, Boaz Solossa, Ian Louis Kabes and Imanuel Wanggai. They are known for playing style relying on the abilities of individual players.

Podena language

Podena (Fedan) is one of the Austronesian Sarmi languages spoken on the coast of Jayapura Bay and on a nearby island in the Papua province of Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

Sarmi–Jayapura languages

The Sarmi-Jayapura Bay languages consist of half a dozen languages spoken on the northern coast of Papua province of Indonesia:

Sobei, Bonggo, Tarpia (Sarmi), Kayupulau, Ormu, Tobati (Jayapura Bay)Ross (1988) had considered Sarmi and Jayapura Bay (Kayapulau, Orma and Tobati) to be separate but related groups. Ross (1988) listed several additional Sarmi languages:

Anus (Korur) and Podena, Liki and Wakde (close to Sobei), Masimasi, Kaptiau, and Yamna.The inclusion of a supposed Yarsun language appears to be due to confusion of language names with island names. No such language is attested; the island is located between that of the Anus and Podena languages, and all three islands are reported to speak dialects of a single language according to the first source to mention it.With the exception of certain Micronesian languages, the Sarmi-Jayapura languages have the westernmost distribution out of all Oceanic languages.

Tarpia language

Tarpia is an Austronesian language spoken on the eastern north coast of Papua province, Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

Tobati language

Tobati, or Yotafa, is an Austronesian language spoken in Jayapura Bay in Papua province, Indonesia. It was once thought to be a Papuan language. Notably, Tobati displays a very rare object-subject-verb word order.

Wakde language

Wakde, also known as Mo, is an Austronesian language spoken on the coast and on Wakde Island of Papua province, Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

Yamna language

Yamna, also known as Sunum, is an Austronesian language spoken on the coast and an island of Jayapura Bay in Papua province, Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

Climate data for Jayapura
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 319.5
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1) 17.6 17.5 19.2 17.6 14.1 12.9 13 12.8 13.3 14.7 15.6 17.3 185.6
Average relative humidity (%) 80.2 81.2 80.8 80.7 81.1 79.9 81 80.3 79.1 80.1 79.8 80.5 80.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 390.6 353.1 387.5 375 384.4 372 384.4 384.4 372 387.5 378 390.6 4,562.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 12.6 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.6 12.5
Source: Weatherbase[10]
Regencies and cities of Papua
2,000,000 and more


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