Javanese calendar

The Javanese calendar (Javanese: ꦥꦤꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦗꦮ, translit. Pananggalan Jawa) is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of the Republic of Indonesia and civil society, while the Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and the Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays.

The Javanese calendar is used by the main ethnicities of Java island—that is, the Javanese, Madurese, and Sundanese people—primarily as a cultural icon and identifier, and as a maintained tradition of antiquity. The Javanese calendar is used for cultural, metaphysical, and spiritual purposes.[1]

The current system of the Javanese calendar was inaugurated by Sultan Agung of Mataram in the Gregorian year 1633 CE.[2] Prior to this, the Javanese had used the Hindu calendar (Saka), which begins in 78 CE and uses the solar cycle for calculating time.[3] Sultan Agung's calendar retained the Saka calendar year system of counting, but differs by using the same lunar year measurement system as the Islamic calendar, rather than the solar year. Occasionally, the Javanese calendar is referred to by its Latin name Anno Javanico or AJ (Javanese Year).[4]

Calendar cycles

The Javanese calendar contains multiple, overlapping (but separate) measurements of times, called "cycles". These include:

  • the native five-day week, called Pasaran
  • the common Gregorian and Islamic seven-day week
  • the Solar month, called Mangsa
  • the Lunar month, called Wulan
  • the lunar year, or Tahun
  • the octo-ennia (8 year) cycles, or Windu
  • the 120-year cycle of 15 Windu, called Kurup

Division of time

Days in the Javanese calendar, like the Islamic calendar, begin at sunset.[2] Traditionally, Javanese people do not divide the day and night into hours, but rather into phases.[4] The division of a day and night are:

Division of time
Start End Javanese name Meaning
6 am 8 am esuk
ꦲꦺꦱꦸꦏ꧀
morning
8 am 12 pm teng'angi
ꦠꦼꦁꦲꦔꦶ
midday
12 pm 1 pm bedug'
ꦧꦼꦢꦸꦒ꧀
time for bedug prayer
1 pm 3 pm lingsir kulon
ꦭꦶꦁꦱꦶꦂꦏꦸꦭꦺꦴꦤ꧀
(sun) moving west
3 pm 6 pm asar
ꦲꦱꦂ
time for asar prayer
6 pm 8 pm sore
ꦱꦺꦴꦉ
evening
8 pm 11 pm sirap
ꦱꦶꦫꦥ꧀
sleepy time
11 pm 1 am tengah wengi
ꦠꦼꦔꦃꦮꦼꦔꦶ
midnight
1 am 3 am lingsir wengi
ꦭꦶꦁꦱꦶꦂꦮꦼꦔꦶ
late night
3 am 6 am bangun
ꦧꦔꦸꦤ꧀
awakening

Cycles of days

Five-day week (Pasaran)

The native Javanese system groups days into a five-day week called Pasaran, unlike most calendars that uses a seven-day week. The name, pasaran, is derived from the root word pasar ("market"). Historically, but also still today, Javanese villagers gather communally at local markets to socially meet, engage in commerce, and buy and sell farm produce, cooked foods, home industry crafted items and so on. John Crawfurd (1820) suggested that the length of the weekly cycle is related to the number of fingers on the hand,[5] and that itinerant merchants would rotate their visits to different villages according to a five-day "roster".

The days of the cycle each have two names, as the Javanese language has distinct vocabulary associated with two different registers of politeness: ngoko (informal) and krama (formal). The krama names for the days, second in the list, are much less common.

Javanese week
Signs of the Pasaran cycle
  • ꦊꦒꦶ (Legi) – ꦩꦤꦶꦱ꧀ (Manis)
  • ꦥꦲꦶꦁ (Pahing) – ꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ (Pait)
  • ꦥꦺꦴꦤ꧀ (Pon) – ꦥꦼꦠꦏ꧀ (Petak)
  • ꦮꦒꦺ (Wagé) – ꦕꦼꦩꦺꦁ (Cemeng)
  • ꦏ꧀ꦭꦶꦮꦺꦴꦤ꧀ (Kliwon) – ꦲꦱꦶꦃ (Asih)

The origin of the names is unclear, and their etymology remains obscure. Possibly, the names may be derived from indigenous gods, like the European and Asian names for days of the week.[5] An ancient Javanese manuscript illustrates the week with five human figures (shown at right below the day names): a man seizing a suppliant by the hair, a woman holding a horn to receive an offering, a man pointing a drawn sword at another, a woman holding agricultural produce, and a man holding a spear leading a bull.[5]

Additionally, Javanese consider these days' names to have a mystical relation to colors and cardinal direction:

  • Legi : white and East
  • Pahing : red and South
  • Pon : yellow and West
  • Wage : black and North
  • Kliwon : blurred colors/focus and 'center'.

Most Markets no longer operate under this traditional Pasaran cycle, instead pragmatically remaining open every day of the Gregorian week. However many markets in Java still retain traditional names that indicated that once the markets only operated on certain Pasaran days, such as Pasar Legi, or Pasar Kliwon.[2] Some markets in small or medium size locations will be much busier on the Pasaran day than on the other days. On the market's name day itinerate sellers appear selling such things as livestock, plants and other products that are either less frequently purchased or are more expensive. This allows a smaller number of these merchants to service a much larger area much as in bygone days.

Javanese astrological belief dictates that an individual’s characteristics and destiny are attributable to the combination of the Pasaran day and the "common" weekday of the Islamic calendar on that person's birthday. Javanese people find great interest in the astrological interpretations of this combination, called the Wetonan cycle.

Seven-day week

The seven-day-long week cycle (dina pitu, "seven days") is derived from the Islamic calendar, adopted following the spread of Islam throughout the Indonesian archipelago. The names of the days of the week in Javanese are derived from their Arabic counterparts, namely:

Days of Seven-day Week
Javanese Arabic English
Senin (ꦱꦼꦤꦶꦤ꧀) yaum al-ithnayn ( يوم الاثنين ) Monday
Selasa (ꦱꦼꦭꦱ) yaum ath-thalatha' ( يوم الثلاثاء ) Tuesday
Rebo (ꦉꦧꦸ) yaum al-arba`a' ( يوم الأربعاء ) Wednesday
Kemis (ꦏꦼꦩꦶꦱ꧀) yaum al-khamis ( يوم الخميس ) Thursday
Jemuwah (ꦗꦼꦩꦸꦮꦃ) yaum al-jum`a ( يوم الجمعة ) Friday
Setu (ꦱꦼꦠꦸ) yaum as-sabt ( يوم السبت ) Saturday
Minggu/Ahad (ꦩꦶꦁꦒꦸ/ꦄꦲꦢ꧀) yaum al-ahad ( يوم الأحد ) Sunday

These two-week systems occur concurrently; thus, a certain Friday may fall on a Kliwon day, and is consequently called Jumat Kliwon.[2] This combination forms the Wetonan cycle.

Wetonan cycle

The Wetonan cycle superimposes the five-day Pasaran cycle with the seven-day week cycle. Each Wetonan cycle lasts for 35 (7x5) days. An example of Wetonan cycle:

The "Wetonan" Cycle for 2nd week of May (Mei) 2008:
English Monday 5 Tuesday 6 Wednesday 7 Thursday 8 Friday 9 Saturday 10 Sunday 11
Javanese seven-day week Senin 5 Selasa 6 Rebo 7 Kemis 8 Jumat 9 Setu 10 Minggu/ Ahad 11
Javanese Pasaran week 28 Pon 29 Wage 1 Kliwon 2 Legi 3 Pahing 4 Pon 5 Wage

From the example above, the Weton for Tuesday May 6, 2008 would be read as Selasa Wage.

The Wetonan cycle is especially important for divinatory systems, important celebrations, and rites of passage. Commemorations and events are held on days considered to be auspicious.

An especially prominent example, still widely taught in primary schools, is that the Weton for the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945 took place on Jumat Legi; this is also the Weton for the birth and death of Sultan Agung, one of the greatest kings of Java and the inventor of the modern Javanese calendar.[6] Therefore, Jumat Legi is considered an important night for pilgrimage.[7] There are also taboos that relate to the cycle; for example, the ritual dance bedhaya can only be performed on Kemis Kliwon.[8]

The coincidence of the Pasaran day with the common day on the day of birth is considered by Javanese to indicate the personal characteristics of that person, similar to the Western Zodiac and planetary positioning in Western astrology.[1]

Pawukon cycle

Pawukon is a 210-day cycle in Javanese calendar,[2] related to Hindu tradition. Though most associated with Bali, it is still used in Java for special purposes. The calendar consists of concurrent weeks, and has a set of ten weeks, which have a duration of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 days.

The first day of the year is considered the first day of all ten weeks. As 210 is not divisible by 4, 8, or 9, extra days must be added to the 4-, 8-, and 9-day weeks.

Dates numbering

For timekeeping, days are numbered within the lunar month (wulan) as is common in other calendar systems. The date indicates the change in the moon, and symbolizes the life of a human in the world. This process of revolving life is known as cakra manggilingan or heru cakra.

On the first day of the month, when the moon is small, it is compared to a newborn baby. The 14th day, called Purnama Sidhi (full moon), represents a married adult. The next day, called Purnama, occurs as the moon begins to wane. The 20th day, Panglong, symbolizes the point at which people begin to lose their memory. The 25th day, Sumurup, represents the point at which the adult requires care like when they were young. The 26th day, Manjing, represents the return of the human to his or her origin.[6]

Cycles of months

Mangsa

Signs of Months in Javanese Calendar
Signs of Solar months (mangsa) in Javanese Calendar (upper row) with sign of Hindu zodiacs (lower row).

The solar year is divided into twelve periods (mangsa) of unequal length. Its origin lies in agriculture practice in Java. The names of the first ten months are simply the ordinal numbers from 1 to 10 in Javanese language, although the names of the 11th and 12th months are unclear.[5] The cycle begins near the June solstice, around the middle of the dry season in Java.

In the 19th century, the solar month system or pranata mangsa was much better known among Javanese than the civil or religious year.[5] The cycle is clearly of Javanese origin, since the specific application to their climate does not match other territories in the Indonesian archipelago, as well as the usage of Javanese names for the months.[5] Although the cycle matches the weather pattern well, it is still clearly somewhat arbitrary, as can be seen in the lengths of the months.[5]

In astrology, the pranata mangsa is used to predict personality traits in a similar manner to sun signs in Western astrology. It is not widely used anymore for divination, but some practitioners use it as well as the other cycles in their divination.[1]

The Solar months are :

Pranata mangsa [5][9]
Starting day Name Length in days Description
Jun 23 Mangsa Kaso
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦱꦺꦴ
41 The dry season; leaves are falling from the trees; the ground is withered and arid, bereft of water "like a jewel that has come free of its setting."
Aug 3 Mangsa Karo
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦫꦺꦴ
23 The dry season; parched earth lies in hard clumps; the mango and cotton trees begin to bloom.
Aug 26 Mangsa Katelu
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦠꦼꦭꦸ
24 The dry season; spice roots are harvested; the gadung tree begins to bear fruit.
Sep 19 Mangsa Kapat
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦥꦠ꧀
25 Rain begins to fall, as "tears well up in the soul", marking the end of the dry season; birds are singing and busily constructing nests. The Labuh Season is at hand.
Oct 14 Mangsa Kalima
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦭꦶꦩ
27 The rainy season, sometimes with fierce winds and flooding; mangoes are ripe; snakes are driven from their nests; "a fountain of gold falls across the earth".
Nov 11 Mangsa Kanem
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦤꦼꦩ꧀
43 The rainy season; lightning strikes and there are landslides; but it is also the season of many fruit.
Dec 23 Mangsa Kapitu
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦥꦶꦠꦸ
43 The rainy season is at its peak; birds are hard pressed to find food, and in many areas there is severe flooding.
Feb 4/5 Mangsa Kawolu
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸ
27 The rainy season; rice fields are growing and the cat is looking for his mate; grubs and larvae abound.
Mar 2 Mangsa Kasanga
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦱꦔ
25 The rainy season; rice fields are turning yellow; "happy news is spreading"; water is stored within the earth, the wind blows in one direction, and many fruits are ripe.
Mar 27 Mangsa Kasadasa
ꦩꦁꦱꦏꦱꦢꦱ
24 Rain yet falls, but is diminishing; the wind rustles and blows hard; the air is still chilly. The Mareng Season is at hand.
Apr 20 Mangsa Desta
ꦩꦁꦱꦢꦺꦱ꧀ꦠ
23 The dry season has begun; farmers are harvesting the rice fields; birds tend their young with affection, as if they were "jewels of the heart".
May 13 Mangsa Saddha
ꦩꦁꦱꦱꦢ꧀ꦝ
41 The dry season; water begins to recede, "vanishing from its many places".

Wulan

Each lunar year (taun) is divided into a series of twelve wulan (sasi) or lunar months. Each consists of 29 or 30 days. This is adapted from the use of months in the Islamic calendar. The names of the month are given below in Javanese and Arabic which can be used interchangeably:

Javanese lunar months
Ngoko (informal) Arabic names Length of days
Sura
ꦱꦸꦫ
Muharram ( المحرّم ) 30
Sapar
ꦱꦥꦂ
Safar ( صفر ) 29
Mulud/Rabingulawal
ꦩꦸꦭꦸꦢ꧀/ꦫꦧꦶꦔꦸꦭꦮꦭ꧀
Rabi al-awwal ( ربيع الأوّل ) 30
Bakda Mulud/Rabingulakir
ꦧꦏ꧀ꦢꦩꦸꦭꦸꦢ꧀/ꦫꦧꦶꦔꦸꦭꦏꦶꦂ
Rabi al-thani ( ربيع الثاني ) 29
Jumadilawal
ꦗꦸꦩꦢꦶꦭꦮꦭ꧀
Jumada al-awwal ( جمادى الأولى ) 30
Jumadilakhir
ꦗꦸꦩꦢꦶꦭꦏꦶꦂ
Jumada al-thani ( جمادى الآخرة ) 29
Rejeb
ꦉꦗꦼꦧ꧀
Rajab ( رجب ) 30
Ruwah/Arwah
ꦫꦸꦮꦃ/ꦄꦂꦮꦃ
Sha'aban ( شعبان ) 29
Pasa/Siyam
ꦥꦱ/ꦱꦶꦪꦩ꧀
Ramadhan ( رمضان ) 30
Sawal
ꦱꦮꦭ꧀
Shawwal ( شوّال ) 29
Sela/Apit
ꦱꦼꦭ/ꦲꦥꦶꦠ꧀
Dhu al-Qi'dah ( ذو القعدة ) 30
Besar/Khaji
ꦧꦼꦱꦂ/ꦏꦗꦶ
Dhu al-Hijjah ( ذو الحجّة ) 29 or 30

Length of the last month may be 29 or 30 days, depending on whether the year is normal or a leap year (taun kabisat).

The cycle of months is sometimes considered metaphorically to represent the cycle of human life. The first nine months represent gestation before birth, while the tenth month represents the human in the world, the eleventh the end of his or her existence, and the twelfth the return to where he or she came from. The cycle thus goes from one spark or conception (rijal) to another, traversing through the void (suwung).[6]

Year designation

The Shalivahana era, which started in 78 CE and continues to be used on Bali, was used in Hindu times on Java, and for well over a century after the appearance of Islam on Java.

When Sultan Agung adopted the Islamic lunar calendar in 1633 CE, he did not adopt the Anno Hegirae to designate those years, but instead continued the count of the Shalivahana era, which was 1555 at the time.[5] As a result, the Anno Javanico does not in effect count from any time.

Cycles of years

Eight tahun makes up a windu. A single windu lasts for 81 repetitions of the wetonan cycle, or 2,835 days (about 7 years 9 months in the Gregorian calendar). Note that the tahun are lunar years, and of shorter length than Gregorian years. The names of the years in the cycle of windu are as follows (in krama/ngoko):

  1. Purwana/Alip (354 days)
  2. Karyana/Ehé (354 days)
  3. Anama/Jemawal (355 days)
  4. Lalana/Jé (354 days)
  5. Ngawanga/Dal (355 days)
  6. Pawaka/Bé (354 days)
  7. Wasana/Wawu (354 days)
  8. Swasana/Jimakir (355 days)

The windu are then grouped into a cycle of four:

  1. Windu Adi
  2. Windu Kunthara
  3. Windu Sengara
  4. Windu Sancaya

The cycles of wulan, tahun, and windu are derived from the Saka calendar.

Windu' are no longer used much in horoscopy, but there is evidence that it was previously used by court officials to predict trends. The passing of a windu is often seen as a milestone and deserving a slametan ritual feast.[1]

Kurup

The kurup is a period of 120 tahun, or lunar years. There are thus 1440 lunar months, or 15 windu in a kurup. One day is dropped from the last month of Besar having 30 days, resulting in the last windu of the kurup having one less day than usual. Thus, the total number of days in a kurup is 42,524 (2,835 days in a windu x 15 windu - 1 day). This is the same number of days as in 120 lunar years of the Tabular Islamic Calendar.

Each kurup is named for date of the wetonan cycle on which the kurup commences. As this always falls in the Alip (first) year of the windu, it is prefixed with Alip. The current kurup started on Tuesday, March 24 of 1936 CE, which corresponds to Muharram 01 of 1355 AH in the Tabular Islamic Calendar, and will end on Sunday, August 25 of 2052 CE. As the wetonan date of that day was Selasa Pon, the kurup is named Alip Selasa Pon.

The next kurup will commence on Monday, August 26 of 2052 CE, which corresponds to Muharram 01 of 1475 AH in the Tabular Islamic Calendar, and will end on Saturday, January 28 of 2169 CE, and will be named Alip Senin Pahing.[10]

Dino Mulyo

Dino Mulyo (literally "noble days") are celebrated by worshipping Gusti, the creator of life and the universe. Practitioners of traditional Javanese spiritual teachings have preserved several noble days:[6]

  • Satu Suro, the first of Sura, the New Year
  • Anggara Kasih : Tuesday Kliwon
  • Dino Purnomo: Jemuah Legi/Sukra Manis (Friday Legi)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Arciniega, Matthew. "More about Javanese Wetonan". Archived from the original on 2006-08-30.
  2. ^ a b c d e Oey, Eric (2001). Java. Tuttle Publishing. p. 70. ISBN 978-962-593244-6. ISBN 962-593-244-5.
  3. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300. Stanford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-8047-2195-5.
  4. ^ a b Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). The History of Java.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Crawfurd, John (1820). History of the Indian Archipelago vol. 1. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Co.
  6. ^ a b c d Negoro, Suryo S. "Javanese Calendar and Its Significance to Mystical Life". Joglosemar.
  7. ^ Furmann, Klaus (2000). "Formen der javanischen Pilgerschaft zu Heiligenschreinen" (PDF). Dissertation for Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. University of Freiburg: 231. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-14.
  8. ^ Kunst, Jaap (1949). Music in Java. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. pp. 151–152.
  9. ^ Doyodipuro, Ki Hudoyo (1995). Misteri Pranata Mangsa. Semarang: Dahara Prize.
  10. ^ Penanggalan Jawa 120 Tahun Kurup Asapon déning H. Danudji, Dahara Prize, Edisi Pertama 2006, ISBN 979-501-454-4

Further reading

  • Pigeaud, Th., Javaans-Nederlands Woordenboek. GroningenBatavia: J.B. Wolters, 1938
  • Quinn, George The Javanese science of 'burglary' , RIMA. Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs, IX:1 January–June 1975. pp. 33–54.
  • Ricklefs, M.C., Modern Javanese historical tradition: a study of an original Kartasura chronicle and related materials. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1978
  • Soebardi. Calendrical traditions in Indonesia Madjalah IIlmu-ilmu Satsra Indonesia, 1965 no.3.
Balinese saka calendar

The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the Moon, and is approximately the same length as the Gregorian year.

Batang Regency

Batang (Javanese: ꦧꦠꦁ) is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) on the north coast of Central Java province in Indonesia. Its capital is Batang, about 100 km west of the province's capital city of Semarang.

People in Batang are mostly Javanese who speak both Javanese and Indonesian.

The regency comprises both coastal and mountainous landscapes. Batang's town centre is located on the side of the north coast trans Java highway network, widely known as "the Pantura". Economic activities are concentrated along this highway and also in the vicinity of the town square known as "alun-alun". In the middle of the square, there is a huge old ficus tree which has become one of the Regency's icons.

Blangkon

A blangkon or belangkon (Indonesian) is a traditional Javanese headdress worn by men and made of batik fabric. There are four types of blangkons, distinguished by their shapes and origins: Ngayogyakarta, Surakarta, Kedu, and Banyumasan.

Gamelan Sekaten

The Gamelan Sekaten (or Sekati) is a ceremonial gamelan (musical ensemble) from central Java, Indonesia, played during the annual Sekaten festival. The word "sekaten" itself is derived from syahadatain or shahada, the first requirement for converting into Islamic faith. Traditionally it is played once per year, on the occasion of Mawlid, Muhammad's birthday, for the week from the 6-12 of the month of Mulud (the third month of the Javanese calendar, corresponding to the Islamic Rabi' al-awwal). On this celebration it is brought from the palace at 11 pm to two pavilions before the Great Mosque. It is played every day during that week except the Thursday night/Friday morning. On the eve of the birthday proper, it is returned at 11 pm.The ensemble is said to have been created by Java's first Muslim prince, or one of the Wali Sanga, in order to convert reluctant Javanese to the Islamic faith. However, it almost certainly already existed, though the music was probably used to propagate the faith. The style of the Sekaten ensemble is very loud and majestic, because it seeks to attract people to the mosque. It was said that if a saron player was able to play so hard that he broke one of the bronze keys, he would get a reward from the sultan. The gamelan sekaten includes neither singers nor the soft instruments, unlike most Javanese ensembles.The ensembles are kept in the royal palaces. Two sets dating to the 16th century are found in each of the kraton in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, and two in Cirebon, one at Keraton Kasepuhan and one at Keraton Kanoman. Previously they were found in Madura and Banten as well. The names of the sets at Yogyakarta are Kyai Guntur Madu and Kyai Naga Wilaga; those at Surakarta are Kyai Guntur Madu and Kyai Guntur Sari. According to Benjamin Brinner, the gamelan sekaten, exists in halves: divided between the two rival courts in Surakarta and Yogyakorta, each court had a matching second half made.The pitches of the Sekaten ensemble is in pelog, but lower than standard ensembles today. According to Benjamin Brinner it is the lowest pitched, largest, and loudest ensemble in Java. In recent times the gamelan at ISI Surakarta commissioned a special Sekaten set that would be compatible with their other gamelan, to be used in new experimental compositions.

Historically, the Sekaten ensemble is notable in the development of the gamelan because it marked the change from the use of the bonang as the most important melody instrument, as it is in the earlier Munggang and Kodokngorek ensembles, to "leading" the ensemble by playing the pitches in anticipating patterns. In the ensemble, players sit on opposite sides of the bonang, which may have led to the modern configuration of pots, which is aimed at making octaves comfortable.

Javanese culture

Javanese culture is the culture of the Javanese ethnic group in Indonesia, part of the Indonesian culture.

Javanese culture is centered in the Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java provinces of Indonesia. Due to various migrations, it can also be found in other parts of the world, such as Suriname (where 15% of the population are of Javanese descent), the broader Indonesian archipelago region, Cape Malay, Malaysia, Singapore, Netherlands and other countries. The migrants bring with them various aspects of Javanese cultures such as Gamelan music, traditional dances and art of Wayang kulit shadow play.The migration of Javanese people westward has created the coastal Javanese culture that is distinct from inland Sundanese culture in West Java. Being the largest ethnic group, the Javanese culture and people influence Indonesian politics and culture, a process sometimes described as Javanization.

Javanese people

The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese: ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦗꦮ, Madya Javanese: ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦗꦮꦶ, Krama Javanese: ꦥꦿꦶꦪꦤ꧀ꦠꦸꦤ꧀ꦗꦮꦶ, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Malay/Indonesian: suku / orang Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. With approximately 100 million people (as of 2011), they form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. There are also significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in most provinces of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Suriname, Saudi Arabia and the Netherlands.

The Javanese ethnic group has many sub-groups, such as the Mataram, Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Samin, Naganese, Banyumasan, etc.A majority of the Javanese people identify themselves as Muslims, with a minority identifying as Christians and Hindus. However, Javanese civilization has been influenced by more than a millennium of interactions between the native animism Kejawen and the Indian Hindu—Buddhist culture, and this influence is still visible in Javanese history, culture, traditions, and art forms. With a sizeable global population, the Javanese are considered significant as they are the fourth largest ethnic group among Muslims, in the world, after the Arabs, Bengalis and Punjabis.

Legi

Legi may refer to:

Legi, a day in the Pasaran cycle of the Javanese calendar

Łęgi (disambiguation), the name of several places in Poland

N,N'-diacetyllegionaminate synthase, an enzyme

Giacomo Legi, a Baroque painter of Flemish descent who was active principally in Italy during the first half of the 17th century.

Lunar calendar

A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year. The most commonly used calendar, the Gregorian calendar, is a solar calendar system that originally evolved out of a lunar calendar system. A purely lunar calendar is also distinguished from a lunisolar calendar, whose lunar months are brought into alignment with the solar year through some process of intercalation. The details of when months begin varies from calendar to calendar, with some using new, full, or crescent moons and others employing detailed calculations.

Since each lunation is approximately ​29 1⁄2 days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 3 seconds, or 29.530588 days), it is common for the months of a lunar calendar to alternate between 29 and 30 days. Since the period of twelve such lunations, a lunar year, is only 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, 34 seconds (354.367056 days), purely lunar calendars lose around 11 days per year relative to the Gregorian calendar. In purely lunar calendars like the Islamic calendar, the lack of intercalation causes the lunar months to cycle through all the seasons of the Gregorian year over the course of a 33 lunar-year cycle.

Although the Gregorian calendar is in common and legal use in most countries, traditional lunar and lunisolar calendars continue to be used throughout the Old World to determine religious festivals and national holidays. Examples of such holidays include Ramadan (Islamic calendar); Easter; the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Mongolian New Year (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Mongolian calendars); the Nepali New Year (Nepali calendar); the Mid-Autumn Festival and Chuseok (Chinese and Korean calendars); Loi Krathong (Thai calendar); Sunuwar calendar; Vesak/Buddha's Birthday (Buddhist calendar); Diwali (Hindu calendars); and Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew calendar).

Pangeran Pekik

Pangeran Pekik (or Prince Pekik, died in 1659) was a Javanese prince, and son of the last Duke of Surabaya, Jayalengkara. After the Mataram conquest of Surabaya he was forced to live in Mataram court. He was executed in 1659 under the orders of Mataram's King Amangkurat I, who suspected him of conspiracy.

Pasaran

The pasaran is also a cycle in the Javanese calendar.Pasaran is a reclaimed island in the province of Lampung, Indonesia. The island is about 1 km from the provincial capital, Bandar Lampung and is administratively part of the city. It has an area of approximately 11.73 hectares and a population of about 600 in 250 households.

Satu Suro

Satu Suro (Javanese:ꦱꦶꦗꦶꦱꦸꦫ) is the first day of the Javanese calendar year in the month of Sura (also transcribed as "Suro"), corresponding with the Islamic month of Muharram.Satu Suro has numerous associations in folk tales and superstitions in Java, Indonesia that vary considerably through regional variation in cultural practices. The prevalent theme through most superstitions is one of the danger of going out from the home - similar to the Balinese day of Nyepi. There is an Indonesian film that exploits the danger - called Malam Satu Suro.

Sekaten

Sekaten (originated from Arabic word: Syahadatain) is a week-long Javanese traditional ceremony, festival, fair and pasar malam (night market) commemorating Maulid (the birthday of prophet Muhammad), celebrated annually started on 5th day through the 12th day of (Javanese Calendar) Mulud month (corresponding to Rabi' al-awwal in Islamic Calendar).

The festivities usually took place in northern alun-alun (square) in Yogyakarta, and simultaneously also celebrated in northern alun-alun of Surakarta. This ceremony originally were initiated by Sultan Hamengkubuwana I, the founder of Yogyakarta Sultanate to promote the Islamic faith.

Slametan

The slametan (or selametan, slamatan, and selamatan) is the communal feast from Java, symbolizing the social unity of those participating in it. Clifford Geertz considered it the core ritual in Javanese religion, in particular the abangan variant. The feast is common among the closely related Javanese, Sundanese and Madurese people.

A slametan can be given to celebrate almost any occurrence, including birth, marriage, death, moving to a new house, and so forth. Depending on the intention, the mood and emphasis may vary somewhat, but the main structure is the same. Geertz categorizes them into four main types:

Those relating to the crises of life: birth, circumcision, marriage, and death

Those associated with events of the Islamic calendar

The bersih désa ("cleaning of the village"), concerned with the social integration of the village

Those held irregularly depending on unusual occurrences: departing for a long trip, moving residence, changing personal names, illness, sorcery, and so onThe ceremony takes its name from the Javanese word slamet, from Arabic: salam, which refers to a peaceful state of equanimity, in which nothing will happen. This is what the host intends for both himself and his guests, by experiencing the egalitarian structure of the slametan and the petitions of supernatural protection from spirits.In Geertz's fieldwork in Mojokuto in the 1950s, he found that costs of slametans varied from 3 to 5,000 Indonesian rupiahs, depending on the type and the relative wealth of the host.

Taun

Taun may refer to:

Pometia pinnata, the taun tree, a tropical hardwood fruit tree

Tione di Trento, Trentino, Italy; also called "Taun"

taun, the Javanese lunar year, see Javanese calendar

taun, a wasei-eigo term, see List of wasei-eigo

Wulan (disambiguation)

Wulan is a county in Qinghai, China.

Wulan may also refer to:

Wulan (TV series), a 2006–2007 Indonesian soap opera television series

Wulan (Javanese calendar), month in Javanese calendar

Ulan (politician) or Wulan, Chinese politician

Yaqowiyu

Yaqowiyu is a traditional Javanese religious festival held in Jatinom, Klaten Regency, Central Java. The festival is held every Sapar of the Javanese calendar, and is often called Saparan.

During Yaqowiyu, a traditional cake called apem which is round snack made of rice flour is distributed, and thousands of people fight for the cake. Thousands of apems will be distributed from a platform established in the mosque located in the funeral complex of Ki Ageng Gribig.Traditional belief tells that apem will bring fortune for people who succeed in getting it. The festival is a prominent example of adat which is a syncretism between Islamic belief and vernacular customary traditions.

Yaqowiyu was first introduced by Ki Ageng Gribig, who is believed to be the descendant of Brawijaya, after his return from the hajji pilgrimage in Mecca. The name Yaqowiyu comes from the part of the Arabic dua (supplication prayer), yaa qowiyyu, yaa aziz, qowwina wal muslimiin, yaa qowiyyu warzuqna wal muslimiin which is believed to be the dua for power.

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