Javan ferret-badger

The Javan ferret-badger (Melogale orientalis) is a mustelid endemic to Java and Bali, Indonesia.[2] It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List and occurs from at least 260 to 2,230 m (850 to 7,320 ft) elevation in or close to forested areas.[1]

Javan ferret-badger
Javan Ferret-badger
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
M. orientalis
Binomial name
Melogale orientalis
Blanford, 1888
Javan Ferret-badger area
Javan ferret-badger range
Synonyms

Melogale personata ssp. orientalis Blanford, 1888

Description

An adult Javan ferret-badger weighs between 1 and 2 kg (2.2 and 4.4 lb) with a body length of 35 to 40 cm (14 to 16 in) and a tail of 14.5 to 17 cm (6 to 7 in). The head is small with a narrow, blunt snout, long whiskers and large eyes. The body is low-slung with brown silky fur tinged with red and in some lights looks tawny or greyish. The back of the head and throat are darker brown and there are white markings on the face, neck, throat, chest and abdomen.[3]

Distribution and habitat

The Javan ferret-badger is endemic to the islands of Java and Bali in Indonesia. Its exact range is unknown, but it is present in hilly and mountainous areas and may also occur at lower altitudes. In Bali it has been recorded from a forest track at 1,180 m (3,871 ft) and at another site, the precise location of which was not recorded. In Java there are two subspecies, M. o. orientalis in the eastern part of the island and M. o. sundaicus in western Java. It is found in primary forest and in Bali has also been recorded in an area of secondary forest and rubber plantations not far from human habitations.[1]

Behaviour

Like other ferret-badgers, the Javan ferret-badger is a fossorial animal that makes use of pre-existing burrows in the forest floor. It is mainly nocturnal, and small groups of adults and juveniles forage together. It is often found in dense undergrowth and it may be able to scramble about in trees and bushes. Its diet is mainly carnivorous and consists of small animals, birds, amphibians, eggs, carrion and invertebrates, and it also eats fruit.[3]

In the Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, Javan ferret-badgers seem fairly common and have been observed scavenging for food scraps after nightfall at picnic areas and turning over the leaf litter. They seemed undisturbed by the presence of humans and one young individual even fed on biscuits held out on an observer's hand.[4]

Status

Java is a densely populated island and much of the primary forest has been fragmented and degraded, but the Javan ferret-badger is thought to be at least partially adaptable as to habitat as it has been found in secondary forests and plantations. It has been observed in the Mount Halimun Salak National Park in western Java and in the Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Duckworth, J.W.; Shepherd, C.; Rode-Margono, E.J.; Wilianto, E.; Spaan, D. & Abramov, A.V. (2016). "Melogale orientalis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T41697A45218557. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41697A45218557.en. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  2. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 613. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ a b Denryter, Kristin (2013). "Melogale orientalis: Javan ferret-badger". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
  4. ^ Duckworth, J.; Roberton, S.; Brickle, N. (2008). "Further notes on Javan ferret badger Melogale orientalis at Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, Java" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation. 39: 39–40. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-28.
Arctocephalus

The genus Arctocephalus consists of fur seals. Arctocephalus translates to "bear head."

Asian palm civet

The Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) is a small viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, it is IUCN Red Listed as Least Concern as it is tolerant of a broad range of habitats. It is widely distributed with large populations that in 2008 were thought unlikely to be declining. In 2012, it was suggested that recent increases in capturing the animals for kopi luwak (civet coffee) production may constitute a significant threat to wild palm civet populations.

Asiatic linsang

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor). Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

Badger

Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the families Mustelidae (which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines), and Mephitidae (which also includes the skunks). They are not a natural taxonomic grouping, but are united by possession of a squat body adapted for fossorial activity. All belong to the caniform suborder of carnivoran mammals. The 11 species of mustelid badgers are grouped in four subfamilies: Melinae (4 species, including the European badger), Helictidinae (5 species of ferret-badger), Mellivorinae (the honey badger or ratel), and Taxideinae (the American badger); the respective genera are Arctonyx, Meles, Melogale, Mellivora and Taxidea. Badgers include the most basal mustelids; the American badger is the most basal of all, followed succesively by the ratel and Melinae. The two species of Asiatic stink badgers of the genus Mydaus were formerly included within Melinae (and thus Mustelidae), but more recent genetic evidence indicates these are actually members of the skunk family.Badger mandibular condyles connect to long cavities in their skulls, giving resistance to jaw dislocation and increasing their bite grip strength, but in turn limiting jaw movement to hinging open and shut, or sliding from side to side but not the twisting movement possible for the jaws of most mammals.

Badgers have rather short, wide bodies, with short legs for digging. They have elongated, weasel-like heads with small ears. Their tails vary in length depending on species; the stink badger has a very short tail, while the ferret badger's tail can be 46–51 cm (18–20 in) long, depending on age. They have black faces with distinctive white markings, grey bodies with a light-coloured stripe from head to tail, and dark legs with light-coloured underbellies. They grow to around 90 cm (35 in) in length including tail.

The European badger is one of the largest; the American badger, the hog badger, and the honey badger are generally a little smaller and lighter. Stink badgers are smaller still, and ferret badgers smallest of all. They weigh around 9–11 kg (20–24 lb), with some Eurasian badgers around 18 kg (40 lb).

Catopuma

Catopuma is a genus containing two Asian small wild cat species, the bay cat (C. badia) and the Asian golden cat (C. temminckii).

Both are typically reddish brown in colour, with darker markings on the head. They inhabit forested environments in Southeast Asia. The bay cat is restricted to the island of Borneo. Originally thought to be two subspecies of the same animal, recent genetic analysis has confirmed they are, indeed, separate species.The two species diverged from one another 4.9-5.3 million years ago, long before Borneo separated from the neighboring islands. Their closest living relative is the marbled cat, from which the common ancestor of the genus Catopuma diverged around 9.4 million years ago.

Eupleres

Eupleres is a genus of two species of mongoose-like euplerid mammal native to Madagascar. They are primarily terrestrial and consume mainly invertebrates.

Eupleres major

Eupleres major, the western falanouc, is a rare mongoose-like mammal endemic to Madagascar and classified in the carnivoran family Eupleridae.

Recognized only in 2010, it is in the genus Eupleres.It is found in humid rainforest and marshes in northwest Madagascar and also in the dry deciduous forest in the west.

Ferret-badger

Ferret-badgers are the five species of the genus Melogale, which is the only genus of the monotypic mustelid subfamily Helictidinae.

Bornean ferret-badger (Melogale everetti)

Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata)

Javan ferret-badger (Melogale orientalis)

Burmese ferret-badger (Melogale personata)

Vietnam ferret-badger (Melogale cucphuongensis)

Galerella

Galerella is a genus of the mongoose family (Herpestidae) native to Africa and commonly called the slender mongooses.There are four or five species in this genus, with more than 30 subspecies.

Four of the species have long been established:

A recent addition is the black mongoose, Galerella nigrata, which now is considered a separate species by many scientists, following genetic analysis. It was previously seen as a variant of Galerella sanguinea.

Indian brown mongoose

The Indian brown mongoose (Herpestes fuscus) looks similar to the short-tailed mongoose from Southeast Asia and is sometimes believed to be only a subspecies of this latter. The Indian brown mongoose is found in southwest India and Sri Lanka.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

M. orientalis

M. orientalis may refer to:

Meliphaga orientalis, the Mountain honeyeater, a bird species found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

Melogale orientalis, the Javan ferret-badger, a mammal species endemic to Java, Indonesia

Merops orientalis, the green bee-eater or little green bee-eater, a bird species found widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa

Millettia orientalis, a legume species found only in Madagascar

Mitra orientalis, a sea snail species

Mogurnda orientalis, the eastern mogurnda, a fish species endemic to Papua New Guinea

Mouldingia orientalis, an air-breathing land snail species endemic to Australia

Myurella orientalis, a sea snail species

Mustelidae

The Mustelidae (; from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, ferrets, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others. Mustelids are diverse and the largest family in the order Carnivora, suborder Caniformia. Mustelidae comprises about 56-60 species across eight subfamilies.

Mustelinae

Mustelinae is a subfamily of family Mustelidae, which includes weasels, ferrets amd minks.It was formerly defined in a paraphyletic manner to also include wolverines, martens, and many other mustelids, to the exclusion of the otters (Lutrinae).

Narrow-striped mongoose

The narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata) is a member of the family Eupleridae, subfamily Galidiinae and endemic to Madagascar. It inhabits the Madagascar dry deciduous forests of western and southwestern Madagascar, where it lives from sea level to about 125 m (410 ft) between the Tsiribihina and Mangoky rivers. In Malagasy it is called bokiboky (pronounced "Boo-ky Boo-ky").

Nyctereutes

Nyctereutes is an Old World genus of the family Canidae, consisting of just one living species, the raccoon dog of East Asia. Nyctereutes appeared about 9.0 million years ago (Mya), with all but one species becoming extinct before the Pleistocene.

Native to East Asia, the raccoon dog has been intensively bred for fur in Europe and especially in Russia during the twentieth century. Specimens have escaped or have been introduced to increase production and formed populations in Eastern Europe. It is currently expanding rapidly in the rest of Europe, where its presence is undesirable because it is considered to be a harmful and invasive species.

Paradoxurus

Paradoxurus is a genus within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. As of 2005, this genus was defined as comprising three species native to Southeast Asia:

the Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)

the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

the brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)In 2009, it was proposed to also include the golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus), the Sri Lankan brown palm civet (P. montanus) and the golden dry-zone palm civet (P. stenocephalus), which are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Patagonian weasel

The Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon patagonicus) is a small mustelid that is the only member of the genus Lyncodon. Its geographic range is the Pampas of western Argentina and sections of Chile. An early mention of the animal is in the Journal of Syms Covington, who sailed with Charles Darwin on his epic voyage aboard HMS Beagle.

Extant Carnivora species

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