Java

Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ) is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. With a population of over 141 million (Java only) or 145 million (including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands), Java is the home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island.[1] The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally. Four of Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, and Sangiran Early Man Site.

Formed mostly as the result of volcanic eruptions from geologic subduction between Sunda Plate and Australian Plate, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by landmass at about 138,800 square kilometres (53,600 sq mi). A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese, where Javanese is the most spoken; it is the native language of about 60 million Javanese people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian (the official language of Indonesia) as their first or second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java's population comprises people of diverse religious beliefs, ethnicities, and cultures.

Java is divided into four administrative provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Banten, and two special regions, Jakarta and Yogyakarta.

Java
Jawa  (Indonesian)
ꦗꦮ  (Javanese)
ᮏᮝ  (Sundanese)
Java Topography
Topography of Java
Java Locator
Geography
LocationSoutheast Asia
Coordinates7°29′30″S 110°00′16″E / 7.49167°S 110.00444°ECoordinates: 7°29′30″S 110°00′16″E / 7.49167°S 110.00444°E
ArchipelagoGreater Sunda Islands
Area138,793.6 km2 (53,588.5 sq mi)
Area rank13th
Highest elevation3,676 m (12,060 ft)
Highest pointSemeru
Administration
ProvincesBanten,
Special Capital Region of Jakarta,
West Java,
Central Java,
East Java,
Yogyakarta Special Region
Largest settlementJakarta (pop. 10,135,030)
Demographics
Population145 million (2015)
Pop. density1,121 /km2 (2,903 /sq mi)
Ethnic groupsJavanese (inc. Tenggerese, Osing, Banyumasan, Cirebonese), Sundanese (inc. Bantenese, Baduy), Betawi, Madurese, Chinese etc.

Etymology

The origins of the name "Java" are not clear. One possibility is that the island was named after the jáwa-wut plant, which was said to be common in the island during the time, and that prior to Indianization the island had different names.[2] There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant".[3] And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous.[3] "Yavadvipa" is mentioned in India's earliest epic, the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yavadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita.[4] It was hence referred to in India by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa" (dvīpa = island). Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar that states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram.[5][6][7] Another source states that the "Java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, Iawa that meaning "home".[8] The great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia composed around 150 CE in the Roman Empire. Iabadiu is said to mean "barley island", to be rich in gold, and have a silver town called Argyra at the west end. The name indicates Java,[9] and seems to be derived from the Sanskrit name Java-dvipa (Yavadvipa).

The annual news of Songshu and Liangshu referred Java as She-po (5th century CE), He-ling (640–818), then called it She-po again until the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), where they began mentioning Zhao-Wa.[10] According to Ma Huan's book (the Yingya Shenlan), the Chinese call Java as Chao-Wa, and the island was called She-pó (She-bó) in the past.[11] When John of Marignolli returned from China to Avignon, he stayed at the Kingdom of Saba for a few months, which he said had many elephants and led by a queen; Saba may be his interpretation of She-bó.[12]

Geography

Java lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island is to the south. It is the world's 13th largest island. Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south and Bali Strait and Madura Strait in the east.

Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains thirty-eight mountains forming an east–west spine that have at one time or another been active volcanoes. The highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru (3,676 metres (12,060 ft)). The most active volcano in Java and also in Indonesia is Mount Merapi (2,930 metres (9,610 ft)). In total, Java boast more than 150 mountains.

More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the rice lands of Java are among the richest in the world.[13] Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699. Today, Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders and larger plantations.

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM De weg van Buitenzorg naar de Preanger Regentschappen TMnr 3728-429c
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872

The area of Java is approximately 150,000 square kilometres (58,000 sq mi).[13] It is about 1,000 km (620 mi) long and up to 210 km (130 mi) wide. The island's longest river is the 600 km long Solo River.[14] The river rises from its source in central Java at the Lawu volcano, then flows north and eastward to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya. Other major rivers are Brantas, Citarum, Cimanuk and Serayu.

The average temperature ranges from 22 °C (72 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F); average humidity is 75%. The northern coastal plains are normally hotter, averaging 34 °C (93 °F) during the day in the dry season. The south coast is generally cooler than the north, and highland areas inland are even cooler.[15] The wet season begins in November and ends in April. During that rain falls mostly in the afternoons and intermittently during other parts of the year. The wettest months are January and February.

West Java is wetter than East Java and mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall. The Parahyangan highlands of West Java receive over 4,000 millimetres (160 in) annually, while the north coast of East Java receives 900 millimetres (35 in) annually.

Natural environment

Banteng at Alas Purwo
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java

The natural environment of Java is tropical rainforest, with ecosystems ranging from coastal mangrove forests on the north coast, rocky coastal cliffs on the southern coast, and low-lying tropical forests to high altitude rainforests on the slopes of mountainous volcanic regions in the interior. The Javan environment and climate gradually alters from west to east; from wet and humid dense rainforest in western parts, to a dry savanna environment in the east, corresponding to the climate and rainfall in these regions.

Java-1934 -2
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.

Originally Javan wildlife supported a rich biodiversity, where numbers of endemic species of flora and fauna flourished; such as the Javan rhinoceros,[16] Javan banteng, Javan warty pig, Javan hawk-eagle, Javan peafowl, Javan silvery gibbon, Javan lutung, Java mouse-deer, Javan rusa, and Javan leopard. With over 450 species of birds and 37 endemic species, Java is a birdwatcher's paradise.[17] There are about 130 freshwater fish species in Java.[18] There are also several endemic amphibian species in Java, including 5 species of tree frogs.

Since ancient times, people have opened the rainforest, altered the ecosystem, shaped the landscapes and created rice paddy and terraces to support the growing population. Javan rice terraces have existed for more than a millennium, and had supported ancient agricultural kingdoms. The growing human population has put severe pressure on Java's wildlife, as rainforests were diminished and confined to highland slopes or isolated peninsulas. Some of Java's endemic species are now critically endangered, with some already extinct; Java used to have Javan tigers and Javan elephants, but both have been rendered extinct. Today, several national parks exist in Java that protect the remnants of its fragile wildlife, such as Ujung Kulon, Mount Halimun-Salak, Gede Pangrango, Baluran, Meru Betiri, Bromo Tengger Semeru and Alas Purwo.

Administration

Java Transportation Network
Java transport network

Java is divided into four provinces and two special regions:

History

Sumbing, Java
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.

Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", dating back 1.7 million years were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River.[19]

The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the development of wet-field rice cultivation, which required sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages. Out of these village alliances, small kingdoms developed. The chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java kept its interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated.[20] Before the advent of Islamic states and European colonialism, the rivers provided the main means of communication, although Java's many rivers are mostly short. Only the Brantas and Sala rivers could provide long-distance communication, and this way their valleys supported the centres of major kingdoms. A system of roads, permanent bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in Java by at least the mid-17th century. Local powers could disrupt the routes as could the wet season and road use was highly dependent on constant maintenance. Subsequently, communication between Java's population was difficult.[21]

Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era

Prambanan Java245
Prambanan Hindu temple
Borobudur-Temple-Park Indonesia Stupas-of-Borobudur-04
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java

The Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western Java appeared in the 4th and 7th centuries respectively, while the Kalingga Kingdom sent embassies to China starting in 640.[22]:53,79 However, the first major principality was the Medang Kingdom that was founded in central Java at the beginning of the 8th century. Medang's religion centred on the Hindu god Shiva, and the kingdom produced some of Java's earliest Hindu temples on the Dieng Plateau. Around the 8th century the Sailendra dynasty rose in Kedu Plain and become the patron of Mahayana Buddhism. This ancient kingdom built monuments such as the 9th century Borobudur and Prambanan in central Java.

Around the 10th century the centre of power shifted from central to eastern Java. The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

Majapahit was established by Wijaya[22]:201 and by the end of the reign of Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350–89) it claimed sovereignty over the entire Indonesian archipelago, although control was likely limited to Java, Bali and Madura. Hayam Wuruk's prime minister, Gajah Mada, led many of the kingdom's territorial conquests.[22]:234 Previous Javanese kingdoms had their power based in agriculture, however, Majapahit took control of ports and shipping lanes and became Java's first commercial empire. With the death of Hayam Wuruk and the coming of Islam to Indonesia, Majapahit went into decline.[22]:241

Spread of Islam and rise of Islamic sultanates

Islam became the dominant religion in Java at the end of the 16th century. During this era, the Islamic kingdoms of Demak, Cirebon, and Banten were ascendant. The Mataram Sultanate became the dominant power of central and eastern Java at the end of the 16th century. The principalities of Surabaya and Cirebon were eventually subjugated such that only Mataram and Banten were left to face the Dutch in the 17th century.

Colonial periods

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Thee-kweekbedden zonder afdak Java TMnr 10011931
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926

Java's contact with the European colonial powers began in 1522 with a treaty between the Sunda kingdom and the Portuguese in Malacca. After its failure the Portuguese presence was confined to Malacca, and to the eastern islands. In 1596, a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis de Houtman was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia.[23] By the end of the 18th century the Dutch had extended their influence over the sultanates of the interior through the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia. Internal conflict prevented the Javanese from forming effective alliances against the Dutch. Remnants of the Mataram survived as the Surakarta (Solo) and Yogyakarta principalities. Javanese kings claimed to rule with divine authority and the Dutch helped them to preserve remnants of a Javanese aristocracy by confirming them as regents or district officials within the colonial administration.

Java's major role during the early part of the colonial period was as a producer of rice. In spice producing islands like Banda, rice was regularly imported from Java, to supply the deficiency in means of subsistence.[24]

During the Napoleonic wars in Europe, the Netherlands fell to France, as did its colony in the East Indies. During the short-lived Daendels administration, as French proxy rule on Java, the construction of the Java Great Post Road was commenced in 1808. The road, spanning from Anyer in Western Java to Panarukan in East Java, served as a military supply route and was used in defending Java from British invasion.[25]

In 1811, Java was captured by the British, becoming a possession of the British Empire, and Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's Governor. In 1814, Java was returned to the Dutch under the terms of the Treaty of Paris.[26]

The Allied Occupation of Java, 1945 SE4857
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945

In 1815, there may have been five million people in Java.[27] In the second half of the 18th century, population spurts began in districts along the north-central coast of Java, and in the 19th century population grew rapidly across the island. Factors for the great population growth include the impact of Dutch colonial rule including the imposed end to civil war in Java, the increase in the area under rice cultivation, and the introduction of food plants such as casava and maize that could sustain populations that could not afford rice.[28] Others attribute the growth to the taxation burdens and increased expansion of employment under the Cultivation System to which couples responded by having more children in the hope of increasing their families' ability to pay tax and buy goods.[29] Cholera claimed 100,000 lives in Java in 1820.[30]

The advent of trucks and railways where there had previously only been buffalo and carts, telegraph systems, and more coordinated distribution systems under the colonial government all contributed to famine elimination in Java, and in turn, population growth. There were no significant famines in Java from the 1840s through to the Japanese occupation in the 1940s.[31] However, other sources claimed the Dutch's Cultivation system is linked to famines and epidemics in the 1840s, firstly in Cirebon and then Central Java, as cash crops such as indigo and sugar had to be grown instead of rice. Furthermore, the age of first marriage dropped during the 19th century thus increasing a woman's child-bearing years.[31]

Independence

Indonesian nationalism first took hold in Java in the early 20th century, and the struggle to secure the country's independence following World War II was centered in Java. In 1949, Indonesia became independent and the island has dominated Indonesian social, political and economic life, which has been the source of resentment of those residents in other islands.

Demography

Demographic profile

Jakarta
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1971 76,086,320—    
1980 91,269,528+20.0%
1990 107,581,306+17.9%
2000 121,352,608+12.8%
2010 136,610,590+12.6%
2015 145,013,583+6.2%
sources:[32][33] refers to the administrative region

Java has been traditionally dominated by an elite class, while the people in the lower classes were often involved in agriculture and fishing. The elite class in Java has evolved over the course of history, as cultural wave after cultural wave immigrated to the island. There is evidence that South Asian emigres were among this elite, as well as Arabian and Persian immigrants during the Islamic eras. More recently, Chinese immigrants have also become part of the economic elite of Java. Although politically the Chinese generally remain sidelined, there are notable exceptions, such as the former governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama. Though Java is increasingly becoming more modern and urban, only 75% of the island has electricity. Villages and their rice paddies are still a common sight. Unlike the rest of Java, the population growth in Central Java remains low. Central Java however has a younger population than the national average.[34] The slow population growth can in part be attributed to the choice by many people to leave the more rural Central Java for better opportunities and higher incomes in the bigger cities.[35] Java's population continues to rapidly increase despite many Javanese leaving the island. This is somewhat due to the fact that Java is the business, academic, and cultural hub of Indonesia, which attracts millions of non-Javanese people to its cities. The population growth is most intense in the regions surrounding Jakarta and Bandung, which is reflected through the demographic diversity in those areas.

Population development

With a combined population of 145 million in the 2015 census (including Madura's 3.7 million),[36] which is estimated for 2014 at 143.1 million (including 3.7 million for Madura), Java is the most populous island in the world and is home to 57% of Indonesia's population.[36] At over 1,100 people per km² in 2014, it is also one of the most densely populated parts of the world, on par with Bangladesh. Every region of the island has numerous volcanoes, with the people left to share the remaining flatter land. Because of this, many coasts are heavily populated and cities ring around the valleys surrounding volcanic peaks.

The population growth rate more than doubled in economically depressed Central Java in the latest 2010–2015 period vs 2000–2010, indicative of migration or other issues; there were significant volcanic eruptions during the earlier period. Approximately 45% of the population of Indonesia is ethnically Javanese,[37] while Sundanese make a large portion of Java's population as well.

The western third of the island (West Java, Banten, and DKI Jakarta) has an even higher population density, of nearly 1,500 per square kilometer and accounts for the lion's share of the population growth of Java.[36] It is home to three metropolitan areas, Greater Jakarta (with outlying areas of Greater Serang and Greater Sukabumi), Greater Bandung, and Greater Cirebon.

Province or Special Region Capital Area
km²
Area
%
Population
census of 2000[38]
Population
census of 2010[38]
Population
2015 census (prelim.)[1]
Population
density in 2015
Banten Serang 9,662.92 7.1 8,098,277 10,632,166 11,934,373 1,235
DKI Jakarta 664.01 0.5 8,361,079 9,607,787 10,154,134 15,292
West Java Bandung 35,377.76 27.1 35,724,093 43,053,732 46,668,224 1,319
Western Java
(3 areas above)
45,704.69 34.7 52,183,449 63,293,685 68,756,731 1,504
Central Java Semarang 32,800.69 25.3 31,223,258 32,382,657 33,753,023 1,029
Yogyakarta Yogyakarta 3,133.15 2.4 3,121,045 3,457,491 3,675,768 1,173
Central Java Region
(2 areas above)
35,933.84 27.7 34,344,303 35,840,148 37,428,791 1,041
East Java Surabaya 47,799.75 37.3 34,765,993 37,476,757 38,828,061 812
Region Administered as Java Jakarta 129,438.28 100% 121,293,745 136,610,590 145,013,583 1,120
Madura Island of East Java
5,025.30 3.3 3,230,300 3,622,763 3,724,545** 741**
Java Island1)
124,412.98 96.7 118,063,445 132,987,827 141,300,000** 1,136**

1) Other islands are included in this figure, but are very small in population and area, Nusa Barung 100 km², Bawean 196 km², Karimunjawa 78 km², Kambangan 121 km², Panaitan 170 km², Thousand Islands 8.7 km² – with a combined population of roughly 90,000.

2) Land area of provinces updated in 2010 Census figures, areas may be different than past results.

3) 2015 Census prelim data released only first level administrations only, where not available 2014 Min. Health[33] estimates are used in their place.

From the 1970s to the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, the Indonesian government ran transmigration programs aimed at resettling the population of Java on other less-populated islands of Indonesia. This program has met with mixed results, sometimes causing conflicts between the locals and the recently arrived settlers. Nevertheless, it has caused Java's share of the nation's population to progressively decline.

Jakarta and its outskirts, being the dominant metropolis, is also home to people from all over the nation. East Java is also home to ethnic Balinese, as well as large numbers of Madurans due to their historic poverty.

Ethnicity and culture

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Een jonge Javaan te Semarang Java TMnr 10002811
A teenager in Java wearing traditional Javanese attire: blangkon headgear, batik sarong and kris as accessory. 1913

Despite its large population and in contrast to the other larger islands of Indonesia, Java is comparatively homogeneous in ethnic composition. Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the Javanese and Sundanese. A third group is the Madurese, who inhabit the island of Madura off the north east coast of Java, and have immigrated to East Java in large numbers since the 18th century.[39] The Javanese comprise about two-thirds of the island's population, while the Sundanese and Madurese account for 20% and 10% respectively.[39] The fourth group is the Betawi people that speak a dialect of Malay, they are the descendants of the people living around Batavia from around the 17th century. Betawis are creole people, mostly descended from various Indonesian archipelago ethnic groups such as Malay, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Minang, Bugis, Makassar, Ambonese, mixed with foreign ethnic groups such as Portuguese, Dutch, Arab, Chinese and Indian brought to or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs. They have a culture and language distinct from the surrounding Sundanese and Javanese.

The Javanese kakawin Tantu Pagelaran explained the mythical origin of the island and its volcanic nature. Four major cultural areas exist on the island: the kejawen or Javanese heartland, the north coast of the pasisir region, the Sunda lands of West Java, and the eastern salient, also known as Blambangan. Madura makes up a fifth area having close cultural ties with coastal Java.[39] The kejawen Javanese culture is the island's most dominant. Java's remaining aristocracy are based here, and it is the region from where the majority of Indonesia's army, business, and political elite originate. Its language, arts, and etiquette are regarded as the island's most refined and exemplary.[39] The territory from Banyumas in the west through to Blitar in the east and encompasses Indonesia's most fertile and densely populated agricultural land.[39]

Ramayana Java
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.

In the southwestern part of Central Java, which is usually named the Banyumasan region, a cultural mingling occurred; bringing together Javanese culture and Sundanese culture to create the Banyumasan culture. In the central Javanese court cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, contemporary kings trace their lineages back to the pre-colonial Islamic kingdoms that ruled the region, making those places especially strong repositories of classical Javanese culture. Classic arts of Java include gamelan music and wayang puppet shows.

Java was the site of many influential kingdoms in the Southeast Asian region,[40] and as a result, many literary works have been written by Javanese authors. These include Ken Arok and Ken Dedes, the story of the orphan who usurped his king, and married the queen of the ancient Javanese kingdom; and translations of Ramayana and Mahabharata. Pramoedya Ananta Toer is a famous contemporary Indonesian author, who has written many stories based on his own experiences of having grown up in Java, and takes many elements from Javanese folklore and historical legends.

Languages

Java languages
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.

The three major languages spoken on Java are Javanese, Sundanese and Madurese. Other languages spoken include Betawi (a Malay dialect local to the Jakarta region), Osing, Banyumasan, and Tenggerese (closely related to Javanese), Baduy (closely related to Sundanese), Kangeanese (closely related to Madurese), and Balinese.[41] The vast majority of the population also speaks Indonesian, often as a second language.

Religion

Java has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has created a broad range of religious belief.

Indian influences came first with Shaivism and Buddhism penetrating deeply into society, blending with indigenous tradition and culture.[42] One conduit for this were the ascetics, called resi, who taught mystical practices. A resi lived surrounded by students, who took care of their master's daily needs. Resi's authorities were merely ceremonial. At the courts, Brahmin clerics and pudjangga (sacred literati) legitimised rulers and linked Hindu cosmology to their political needs.[42] Small Hindu enclaves are scattered throughout Java, but there is a large Hindu population along the eastern coast nearest Bali, especially around the town of Banyuwangi.

The coming of Islam, strengthened the status structure of this traditional religious pattern. More than 90 percent of the people of Java are Muslims, on a broad continuum between abangan (more traditional) and santri (more modernist). The Muslim scholar of the writ (Kyai) became the new religious elite as Hindu influences receded. Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood, but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools. In Javanese pesantren (Islamic schools), The Kyai perpetuated the tradition of the resi. Students around him provided his needs, even peasants around the school.[42]

Candi Mendut 1

Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.

Masjid Agung Yogyakarta

Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.

Ganjuran Church, exterior 01

Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Pre-Islamic Javan traditions have encouraged Islam in a mystical direction. There emerged in Java a loosely structured society of religious leadership, revolving around kyais, possessing various degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore, belief and practice.[42] The kyais are the principal intermediaries between the villages masses and the realm of the supernatural. However, this very looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. There were often sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who merely instructed in Islamic law, with those who taught mysticism and those who sought reformed Islam with modern scientific concepts. As a result, there is a division between santri, who believe that they are more orthodox in their Islamic belief and practice, with abangan, who have mixed pre-Islamic animistic and Hindu-Indian concepts with a superficial acceptance of Islamic belief.[42]

There are also Christian communities, mostly in the larger cities, though some rural areas of south-central Java are strongly Roman Catholic. Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities, primarily among the Chinese Indonesian. The Indonesian constitution recognises six official religions.

A wider effect of this division is the number of sects. In the middle of 1956, the Department of Religious Affairs in Yogyakarta reported 63 religious sects in Java other than the official Indonesian religions. Of these, 35 were in Central Java, 22 in West Java and six in East Java.[42] These include Kejawen, Sumarah, Subud, etc. Their total membership is difficult to estimate as many of their adherents identify themselves with one of the official religions.[43]

Economy

Initially the economy of Java relied heavily on rice agriculture. Ancient kingdoms such as the Tarumanagara, Mataram, and Majapahit were dependent on rice yields and tax. Java was famous for rice surpluses and rice export since ancient times, and rice agriculture contributed to the population growth of the island. Trade with other parts of Asia such as ancient India and China flourished as early as the 4th century, as evidenced by Chinese ceramics found on the island dated to that period. Java also took part in the global trade of Maluku spice from ancient times in the Majapahit era, until well into the Dutch East India Company (VOC) era.

The VOC set their foothold on Batavia in the 17th century and was succeeded by the Dutch East Indies in the 19th century. During these colonial times, the Dutch introduced the cultivation of commercial plants in Java, such as sugarcane, rubber, coffee, tea, and quinine. In the 19th and early 20th century, Javanese coffee gained global popularity. Thus, the name "Java" today has become a synonym for coffee.

Jakarta Car Free Day
Central Jakarta

Java has been Indonesia's most developed island since the Dutch East Indies era and continues to be so today in the modern Republic of Indonesia. The road transportation networks that have existed since ancient times were connected and perfected with the construction of Java Great Post Road by Daendels in the early 19th century. It became the backbone of Java's road infrastructure and laid the base of Java North Coast Road (Indonesian: Jalan Pantura, abbreviation from "Pantai Utara"). The need to transport commercial produces such as coffee from plantations in the interior of the island to the harbour on the coast spurred the construction of railway networks in Java. Today, industry, business, trade and services flourished in major cities of Java, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang, and Bandung; while some traditional Sultanate cities such as Yogyakarta, Surakarta, and Cirebon preserved its royal legacy and has become the centre of art, culture and tourism. Industrial estates are also growing in towns on northern coast of Java, especially around Cilegon, Tangerang, Bekasi, Karawang, Gresik and Sidoarjo. The toll road highway networks was built and expanded since the New Order until the present day, connecting major urban centres and surrounding areas, such as in and around Jakarta and Bandung; also the ones in Cirebon, Semarang and Surabaya. In addition to these motorways, Java has 16 national highways.

Based on the statistical data by the year of 2012 released by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik), Java alone contributes at least 57.51% of Indonesia's GDP or equivalent to US$504 billion.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Indonesia: Urban Population of Cities Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  2. ^ Raffles, Thomas E.: History of Java. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 2.
  3. ^ a b Raffles, Thomas E.: History of Java. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 3.
  4. ^ History of Ancient India Kapur, Kamlesh
  5. ^ Hindu culture in ancient India by Sekharipuram Vaidyanatha Viswanatha, p. 177.
  6. ^ Tamil Literature by M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, p. 46.
  7. ^ The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago by V. Kanakasabhai, p. 11.
  8. ^ Hatley, R., Schiller, J., Lucas, A., Martin-Schiller, B., (1984). "Mapping cultural regions of Java" in: Other Javas away from the kraton. pp. 1–32.
  9. ^ J. Oliver Thomson (2013). History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge University Press. pp. 316–317. ISBN 9781107689923.
  10. ^ Lombard, Denys (1990). The Javanese Crossroads: Essay of global history. ISBN 978-2713209499.
  11. ^ Mills, J.V.G. (1970). Ying-yai Sheng-lan: The Overall Survey of the Ocean Shores [1433]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  12. ^ Yule, Sir Henry (1913). Cathay and the way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China vol. II. London: The Hakluyt Society.
  13. ^ a b Ricklefs, M. C. (1990). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300 (2 ed.). London: MacMillan. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-333-57690-8.
  14. ^ Management of Bengawan Solo River Area Archived 2007-10-11 at the Wayback Machine Jasa Tirta I Corporation 2004. Retrieved 26 July 2006.
  15. ^ "Climate, Weather, and Temperature of Java Indonesia". Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  16. ^ "Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)". EDGE Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  17. ^ "Indonesia bird watching tour". wildlifenews.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  18. ^ Nguyen, T. T. T., and S. S. De Silva (2006). Freshwater finfish biodiversity and conservation: an asian perspective. Biodiversity & Conservation 15(11): 3543–3568.
  19. ^ Pope, G. G. (1988). "Recent advances in far eastern paleoanthropology". Annual Review of Anthropology. 17: 43–77. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.17.100188.000355. cited in Whitten, T.; Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. pp. 309–312.; Pope, G. (15 August 1983). "Evidence on the Age of the Asian Hominidae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 80 (16): 4, 988–4992. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.16.4988. PMC 384173. PMID 6410399. cited in Whitten, T.; Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 309.; de Vos, J. P.; P. Y. Sondaar (9 December 1994). "Dating hominid sites in Indonesia" (PDF). Science Magazine. 266 (16): 4, 988–4992. doi:10.1126/science.7992059. cited in Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 309.
  20. ^ Ricklefs (1991), pp. 16–17.
  21. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 15.
  22. ^ a b c d Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  23. ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500–1700. p. 99.
  24. ^ St. John, Horace Stebbing Roscoe (1853). The Indian Archipelago: its history and present state, Volume 1. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. p. 137.
  25. ^ Ekspedisi Anjer-Panaroekan, Laporan Jurnalistik Kompas. Pnerbit Buku Kompas, PT Kompas Media Nusantara, Jakarta Indonesia. November 2008. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-979-709-391-4.
  26. ^ Atkins, James (1889). The Coins And Tokens of the Possessions And Colonies of the British Empire. London. p. 213.
  27. ^ Java (island, Indonesia). Encyclopædia Britannica.
  28. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 253.
  29. ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 253–254.
  30. ^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-313-34102-1.
  31. ^ a b Taylor (2003), p. 254.
  32. ^ "Statistics Indonesia". Bps.go.id. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  33. ^ a b "Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  34. ^ Usia Kawin Pertama Rata-Rata Wanita Menurut Provinsi: Sensus Penduduk Tahun 1990, 2000 dan 2010 Archived 2015-06-29 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  35. ^ Agus Maryono (30 March 2009). "Central Java strives to alleviate poverty". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  36. ^ a b c "Population growth 'good for Papua'". The Jakarta Post. 23 August 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  37. ^ CIA factbook
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  39. ^ a b c d e Hefner, Robert (1997). Java. Singapore: Periplus Editions. p. 58. ISBN 978-962-593-244-6.
  40. ^ See Wallace Stevens's poem "Tea" for an appreciative allusion to Javanese culture.
  41. ^ Languages of Java and Bali Archived 2017-02-16 at the Wayback Machine. Other sources may list some of these as dialects rather than languages.
  42. ^ a b c d e f van der Kroef, Justus M. (1961). "New Religious Sects in Java". Far Eastern Survey. 30 (2): 18–25. doi:10.1525/as.1961.30.2.01p1432u. JSTOR 3024260.
  43. ^ Beatty, Andrew, Varieties of Javanese Religion: An Anthropological Account, Cambridge University Press 1999, ISBN 0-521-62473-8

Sources

  • Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10518-6.

Further reading

Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, communication protocols, and tools for building software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication among various components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer.

An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware, or software library.

An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables, or remote calls. POSIX, Windows API and ASPI are examples of different forms of APIs. Documentation for the API usually is provided to facilitate usage and implementation.

C Sharp (programming language)

C# (pronounced C sharp) is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed around 2000 by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2018). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure.

C# was designed by Anders Hejlsberg, and its development team is currently led by Mads Torgersen. The most recent version is C# 7.3, which was released in 2018 alongside Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7.2.

Central Java

Central Java (Javanese: ꦗꦮꦠꦼꦔꦃ; Indonesian: Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia. This province is located in the middle of the island of Java. Its administrative capital is Semarang. The province is bordered by West Java in the west, the Indian Ocean and the Special Region of Yogyakarta in the south, East Java in the east, and the Java Sea in the north. The area is 32,548 km², or around 28.94% of the total area of Java. The province of Central Java also includes the island of Nusakambangan in the south (close to the border of West Java), and the Karimun Jawa Islands in the Java Sea. Central Java is also a cultural concept that includes the Special Region and city of Yogyakarta as well as the Province of Central Java. However, administratively the city and its surrounding regencies have formed a separate special region (equivalent to a province) since Indonesian independence, administrated separately. Central Java is known as the "heart" of Javanese culture. Even so, in this province there are also other ethnic groups that have different cultures from the Javanese, such as the Sundanese in the border area with West Java. Besides there are also Chinese-Indonesians, Arabs-Indonesians and Indian-Indonesians scattered throughout the province.

The province has been inhabited by humans since the prehistoric-era. Remains of the Homo erectus, popularly dubbed the "Java Man", were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River, and these dates back to 1.7 million years ago. In the past, Central Java was under the control of several Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Islamic sultanates and the Dutch East Indies colonial government. Central Java was also center of the Indonesian independence movement. As the majority of the modern-day Indonesian are of Javanese descent, both Central Java and East Java has a major impact on Indonesia's social, political and economic life.

The province is 32,800.69 km2 in area, approximately a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population was 33,753,023 at the 2015 Census; it is the third most populated province in both Java and Indonesia after West Java and East Java.

East Java

East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese: ꧋ꦗꦮꦮꦺꦠꦤ꧀, translit. Jåwå Wétan, Madurese: جاوه تيمور, translit. Jhâbâh Dhimor) is a province of Indonesia. It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west; the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean border its northern and southern coasts, respectively, while the narrow Bali Strait to the east separates Java from Bali. Located in eastern Java, it includes the island of Madura, which is connected to Java by the longest bridge in Indonesia, the Suramadu Bridge, as well as the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north, respectively. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East Java and the largest on the island of Java.It covers an area of 47,800 km2, According to the 2010 Census estimates, there were 37,476,757 people residing in the East Java, making it Indonesia's second-most-populous province; the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 41,529,481. The province is inhabited by many different ethnic groups, such as the Javanese, Madurese and Chinese. Most of the people in East Java adheres to Islam, forming around 96% of the total population. Other religions are also worshipped, such as Christianity, which are mostly worshipped by Chinese Indonesians and immigrants from Eastern Indonesia and North Sumatra, and also Hinduism which are mostly worshipped by the Tenggerese people in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park and the Balinese people inhabiting the easternmost part of the province bordering Bali. The Indonesian language is the official language of the province as well as the whole nation, but Javanese and Madurese are the most frequently used language. Indonesian is only used for inter-ethnic communication and official purposes.

East Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia that offers different types of tourist attractions. This area offers a variety of natural attractions ranging from mountains, beaches, caves, to waterfalls. In general, almost every regencies or city in East Java has its own unique tourist destinations, such as the Ijen volcano in Banyuwangi, Baluran National Park in Situbondo, etc.

Eclipse (software)

Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE) used in computer programming, and is the most widely used Java IDE. It contains a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. Eclipse is written mostly in Java and its primary use is for developing Java applications, but it may also be used to develop applications in other programming languages via plug-ins, including Ada, ABAP, C, C++, C#, Clojure, COBOL, D, Erlang, Fortran, Groovy, Haskell, JavaScript, Julia, Lasso, Lua, NATURAL, Perl, PHP, Prolog, Python, R, Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Rust, Scala, and Scheme. It can also be used to develop documents with LaTeX (via a TeXlipse plug-in) and packages for the software Mathematica. Development environments include the Eclipse Java development tools (JDT) for Java and Scala, Eclipse CDT for C/C++, and Eclipse PDT for PHP, among others.

The initial codebase originated from IBM VisualAge. The Eclipse software development kit (SDK), which includes the Java development tools, is meant for Java developers. Users can extend its abilities by installing plug-ins written for the Eclipse Platform, such as development toolkits for other programming languages, and can write and contribute their own plug-in modules. Since the introduction of the OSGi implementation (Equinox) in version 3 of Eclipse, plug-ins can be plugged-stopped dynamically and are termed (OSGI) bundlesEclipse software development kit (SDK) is free and open-source software, released under the terms of the Eclipse Public License, although it is incompatible with the GNU General Public License. It was one of the first IDEs to run under GNU Classpath and it runs without problems under IcedTea.

Indonesia

Indonesia ( (listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə, -⁠NEE-zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndoˈnesia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia]), is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan, Singapore and India.The history of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. It has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, and independence movements began to take shape. During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20. It is also a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to "bytecode" that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. As of 2018, Java was according to GitHub one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun had relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Meanwhile, others have developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).

The latest version is Java SE 12, released in March 2019. Since Java 9 is no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to "immediately transition" to Java 12. Oracle released the last public update for the legacy Java 8 LTS, which is free for commercial use, in January 2019. Java 8 will be supported with public updates for personal use up to at least December 2020. Oracle and others "highly recommend that you uninstall older versions of Java" because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues. Oracle extended support for Java 6 ended in December 2018.

Java (software platform)

Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment. Java is used in a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded devices and mobile phones to enterprise servers and supercomputers. Java applets, which are less common than standalone Java applications, were commonly run in secure, sandboxed environments to provide many features of native applications through being embedded in HTML pages. It's still possible to run Java in web browsers after most of them having dropped support for Java's VM.

Writing in the Java programming language is the primary way to produce code that will be deployed as byte code in a Java virtual machine (JVM); byte code compilers are also available for other languages, including Ada, JavaScript, Python, and Ruby. In addition, several languages have been designed to run natively on the JVM, including Clojure, Groovy, and Scala. Java syntax borrows heavily from C and C++, but object-oriented features are modeled after Smalltalk and Objective-C. Java eschews certain low-level constructs such as pointers and has a very simple memory model where objects are allocated on the heap (while some implementations e.g. all currently supported by Oracle, may use escape analysis optimization to allocating on the stack instead) and all variables of object types are references. Memory management is handled through integrated automatic garbage collection performed by the JVM.

On November 13, 2006, Sun Microsystems made the bulk of its implementation of Java available under the GNU General Public License (GPL).The latest version is Java 11, released on September 25, 2018. Java 11 is a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version ("Oracle Customers will receive Oracle Premier Support"); Oracle released for the "legacy" Java 8 LTS the last free "public update" in January 2019 for commercial use, while it will otherwise still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use up to at least December 2020. Oracle (and others) "highly recommend that you uninstall older versions of Java", because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues. Since Java 9 is no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to "immediately transition" to Java 11. Extended support for Java 6 ended in December 2018.

Java Platform, Enterprise Edition

Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE), formerly Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), currently Jakarta EE, is a set of specifications, extending Java SE 8 (i.e. not based on latest Java 11; while can also work with later it or later than Java 8) with specifications for enterprise features such as distributed computing and web services. Java EE applications are run on reference runtimes, that can be microservices or application servers, which handle transactions, security, scalability, concurrency and management of the components it is deploying.

Java EE is defined by its specification. The specification defines APIs and their interactions. As with other Java Community Process specifications, providers must meet certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as Java EE compliant.

Examples of contexts in which Java EE referencing runtimes are used are: e-commerce, accounting, banking information systems.

Java version history

The Java language has undergone several changes since JDK 1.0 as well as numerous additions of classes and packages to the standard library. Since J2SE 1.4, the evolution of the Java language has been governed by the Java Community Process (JCP), which uses Java Specification Requests (JSRs) to propose and specify additions and changes to the Java platform. The language is specified by the Java Language Specification (JLS); changes to the JLS are managed under JSR 901.

In addition to the language changes, much more dramatic changes have been made to the Java Class Library over the years, which has grown from a few hundred classes in JDK 1.0 to over three thousand in J2SE 5. Entire new APIs, such as Swing and Java2D, have been introduced, and many of the original JDK 1.0 classes and methods have been deprecated. Some programs allow conversion of Java programs from one version of the Java platform to an older one (for example Java 5.0 backported to 1.4) (see Java backporting tools).

In September 2017, Mark Reinhold, chief Architect of the Java Platform, proposed to change the release train to "one feature release every six months" rather than the current two-year schedule, and later the proposal took effect.

Java 11 is a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version ("Oracle Customers will receive Oracle Premier Support"); Oracle released for the "legacy" Java 8 LTS the last free "public update" in January 2019 for commercial use, while it will otherwise still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use up to at least December 2020. Java 10 is the previously supported rapid release version. Java 10 support ended on the same date that support for Java 11 began, in September 2018. Java 7 is no longer publicly supported, and Java 9 has stopped receiving updates since Java 9 was a short-term rapid release version that has been superseded by Java 10 and now Java 11. For Java 11, long-term support will not be provided by Oracle for the public; instead, the broader OpenJDK community, as AdoptOpenJDK, is expected to perform the work.

Java virtual machine

A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages that are also compiled to Java bytecode. The JVM is detailed by a specification that formally describes what is required of a JVM implementation. Having a specification ensures interoperability of Java programs across different implementations so that program authors using the Java Development Kit (JDK) need not worry about idiosyncrasies of the underlying hardware platform.

The JVM reference implementation is developed by the OpenJDK project as open source code and includes a JIT compiler called HotSpot. The commercially supported Java releases available from Oracle Corporation are based on the OpenJDK runtime. Eclipse OpenJ9 is another open source JVM for OpenJDK.

Javanese language

Javanese (; ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [bɔsɔ dʒɔwɔ]; colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [t͡ʃɔrɔ dʒɔwɔ]) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers on the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people (more than 42% of the total population of Indonesia).

Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages, but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese, Madurese and Balinese. Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians.

There are speakers of Javanese in Malaysia (concentrated in the states of Selangor and Johor) and Singapore. Some people of Javanese descent in Suriname (the Dutch colony of Suriname until 1975) speak a creole descendant of the language.

Jmol

Jmol is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions. Jmol returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry.

It is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna.

A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways.

For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models, space-filling models, ribbon diagrams, etc.

Jmol supports a wide range of chemical file formats, including Protein Data Bank (pdb), Crystallographic Information File (cif), MDL Molfile (mol), and Chemical Markup Language (CML). There is also a JavaScript-only (HTML5) version, JSmol, that can be used on computers with no Java.The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, which is no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol requires Java installation and operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is fully functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, Google Chrome, and Safari.

Kotlin (programming language)

Kotlin is a cross-platform, statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference. Kotlin is designed to interoperate fully with Java, and the JVM version of its standard library depends on the Java Class Library, but type inference allows its syntax to be more concise. Kotlin mainly targets the JVM, but also compiles to JavaScript or native code (via LLVM). Kotlin is sponsored by JetBrains and Google through the Kotlin Foundation.

Kotlin is officially supported by Google for mobile development on Android. Since the release of Android Studio 3.0 in October 2017, Kotlin is included as an alternative to the standard Java compiler. The Android Kotlin compiler lets the user choose between targeting Java 6 or Java 8 compatible bytecode.

Minecraft

Minecraft is a sandbox video game created by Swedish game developer Markus Persson and released by Mojang in 2011. The game allows players to build with a variety of different blocks in a 3D procedurally generated world, requiring creativity from players. Other activities in the game include exploration, resource gathering, crafting, and combat.

Multiple gameplay modes are available. These include survival mode in which the player must acquire resources to build the world and maintain health, creative mode where players have unlimited resources to build with and the ability to fly, adventure mode where players can play custom maps created by other players with certain restrictions, and spectator mode where players can freely move throughout a world without being affected by gravity and collisions, or without being allowed to destroy or build anything. There is also hardcore mode, which is similar to survival mode but the player is given only one life, and the game difficulty is locked on hard. If the player dies on hardcore, the player does not respawn, and the world is locked to spectator mode (as of 1.9). The Java Edition of the game allows players to create mods with new gameplay mechanics, items, textures and assets.

Minecraft received critical acclaim and has won numerous awards and accolades. Social media, parodies, adaptations, merchandise, and the MineCon convention played large roles in popularizing the game. It has also been used in educational environments (Minecraft Education Edition), especially in the realm of computing systems, as virtual computers and hardware devices have been built in it. By late 2018, over 154 million copies had been sold across all platforms, making it the second best-selling video game of all time, behind Tetris. In September 2014, Microsoft announced a deal to buy Mojang and the Minecraft intellectual property for US$2.5 billion, with the acquisition completed two months later. A spin-off game titled Minecraft: Story Mode has also been released. By mid-2018, the game had around 91 million active players monthly.

NetBeans

NetBeans is an integrated development environment (IDE) for Java. NetBeans allows applications to be developed from a set of modular software components called modules. NetBeans runs on Windows, macOS, Linux and Solaris. In addition to Java development, it has extensions for other languages like PHP, C, C++, HTML5, and JavaScript. Applications based on NetBeans, including the NetBeans IDE, can be extended by third party developers.

Scala (programming language)

Scala ( SKAH-lah) is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a strong static type system. Designed to be concise, many of Scala's design decisions aimed to address criticisms of Java.Scala source code is intended to be compiled to Java bytecode, so that the resulting executable code runs on a Java virtual machine. Scala provides language interoperability with Java, so that libraries written in either language may be referenced directly in Scala or Java code. Like Java, Scala is object-oriented, and uses a curly-brace syntax reminiscent of the C programming language. Unlike Java, Scala has many features of functional programming languages like Scheme, Standard ML and Haskell, including currying, type inference, immutability, lazy evaluation, and pattern matching. It also has an advanced type system supporting algebraic data types, covariance and contravariance, higher-order types (but not higher-rank types), and anonymous types. Other features of Scala not present in Java include operator overloading, optional parameters, named parameters, and raw strings. Conversely, a feature of Java not in Scala is checked exceptions, which have proved controversial.The name Scala is a portmanteau of scalable and language, signifying that it is designed to grow with the demands of its users.

Spring Framework

The Spring Framework is an application framework and inversion of control container for the Java platform. The framework's core features can be used by any Java application, but there are extensions for building web applications on top of the Java EE (Enterprise Edition) platform. Although the framework does not impose any specific programming model, it has become popular in the Java community as an addition to, or even replacement for the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) model. The Spring Framework is open source.

West Java

West Java (Indonesian: Jawa Barat, abbreviated as Jabar; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ ᮊᮥᮜᮧᮔ᮪ Jawa Kulon) is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the western part of the island of Java and its capital and largest urban center is Bandung, although much of its population in the northwest corner of the province live in areas suburban to the larger urban area of Jakarta, though that city itself lies outside the administrative province. With a population of 46.3 million (as of 2014) West Java is the most populous of Indonesia's provinces.

The city proper of Bandung, largest city in West Java, has one of the highest population density worldwide, while Bekasi and Depok are respectively the 7th and 10th most populated suburbs in the world (Tangerang in adjacent Banten province is the 9th); in 2014 Bekasi had 2,510,951 and Depok 1,869,681 inhabitants. All these cities are suburban to Jakarta.

Sumatra
Java
Kalimantan
Lesser Sunda
Sulawesi
Maluku
Papua

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