Jason-3 is a satellite created by a partnership of the European Organisation for the Exploration of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), and is an international cooperative mission in which NOAA is partnering with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France's governmental space agency). The satellites' mission is to supply data for scientific, commercial, and practical applications to sea level rise, sea surface temperature, ocean temperature circulation, and climate change.
Artist's impression of the Jason-3 satellite
|Names||Joint Altimetry Satellite Oceanography Network – 3|
|Mission type||Earth observation|
|Operator||NASA, NOAA, CNES, EUMETSAT|
|Mission duration||Planned: 5 years |
Elapsed: 3 years, 8 months and 27 days
|Manufacturer||Thales Alenia Space|
|Launch mass||553 kg (1,219 lb)|
|Dry mass||525 kg (1,157 lb)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||January 17, 2016, 18:42:18 UTC|
|Rocket||Falcon 9 v1.1|
|Launch site||Vandenberg SLC-4E|
|Semi-major axis||7,715.8 km (4,794.4 mi)|
|Perigee altitude||1,331.7 km (827.5 mi)|
|Apogee altitude||1,343.7 km (834.9 mi)|
|Argument of perigee||268.03°|
|Mean motion||12.81 rev/day|
|Repeat interval||9.92 days|
|Epoch||July 16, 2016, 19:55:51 UTC|
Ocean Surface Topography
Jason-3 will make precise measurements related to global sea surface height. This data is important to collect and analyze because it is a critical factor in understanding Earth's changing climate.
The primary users of Jason-3 data are people who are dependent on marine and weather forecasts for public safety, commerce and environmental purposes. Other users include scientists and people who are concerned with global warming and its relation to the ocean. NOAA and EUMETSAT are using the data primarily for monitoring wind and waves on the high seas, hurricane intensity, ocean surface currents, El Niño forecasts, water levels of lakes and rivers. NASA and CNES are more interested in the research aspect, in terms of understanding and planning for climate change. Ultimately, the benefits of Jason-3 data will transfer to people and to the economy.
Jason-3 flies at the same 9.9-day repeat track orbit and this means the satellite will make observations over the same ocean point every 9.9 days. The orbital parameters are: 66.05º inclination, 1380 km apogee, 1328 km perigee, 112 minutes per revolution around Earth. It is flying 1 minute behind Jason-2. The 1 minute time delay is applied in order to not miss any data collection between missions.
In order to detect sea level change, we need to know the orbit height of the satellites as they revolve around Earth, to within 1 centimeter (0.4 inches). Combining instruments from three different techniques—GPS, DORIS, LRA. The GPS receiver on Jason-3 uses data from the constellation of GPS satellites in orbit to constantly determine its position in orbit.
Appearing on the SpaceX manifest as early as July 2013, Jason-3 was originally scheduled for launch on July 22, 2015. However, this date was pushed back to August 19 following the discovery of contamination in one of the satellite's thrusters, requiring the thruster to be replaced and further inspected. The launch was further delayed by several months due to the loss of a Falcon 9 rocket with the CRS-7 mission on June 28.
After SpaceX conducted their return-to-flight mission in December 2015 with the upgraded Falcon 9 Full Thrust, Jason-3 was assigned to the final previous-generation Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket, although some parts of the rocket body had been reworked following the findings of the failure investigation.
A 7-second static fire test of the rocket was completed on January 11, 2016. The Launch Readiness Review was signed off by all parties on January 15, 2016, and the launch proceeded successfully on January 17, 2016, at 18:42 UTC. The Jason-3 payload was deployed into its target orbit at 830 miles (1,336 km) altitude after an orbital insertion burn about 56 minutes into the flight. It was the 21st Falcon 9 flight overall and the second into a high-inclination orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base Space Launch Complex 4E in California.
Following paperwork filed with US regulatory authorities in 2015, SpaceX confirmed in January 2016 that they would attempt a controlled-descent flight test and vertical landing of the rocket's first stage on their west-coast floating platform Just Read the Instructions, located about 200 miles (320 km) out in the Pacific Ocean.
This attempt followed the first successful landing and booster recovery on the previous launch in December 2015. The controlled descent through the atmosphere and landing attempt for each booster is an arrangement that is not used on other orbital launch vehicles.
Approximately nine minutes into the flight, the live video feed from the drone ship went down due to the losing its lock on the uplink satellite. Elon Musk later reported that the first stage did touch down smoothly on the ship, but a lockout on one of the four landing legs failed to latch, so that the booster fell over and was destroyed.
Our investigation is ongoing until we exonerate all other aspects of the vehicle, but at this time, we expect to return to flight this fall and fly all the customers we intended to fly in 2015 by end of year.
At Space Launch Complex 4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the static test fire of the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket for the upcoming Jason-3 launch was completed Monday at 5:35 p.m. PST, 8:35 p.m. EST. The first stage engines fired for the planned full duration of 7 seconds.
This mission also marks SpaceX's return-to-flight as well as its first attempt to land a first stage on land. The landing of the first stage is a secondary test objective.
AC/DC are an Australian rock band formed in Sydney in 1973 by Scottish-born brothers Malcolm and Angus Young. Their music has been variously described as hard rock, blues rock, and heavy metal; however, the band themselves describe their music as simply "rock and roll".AC/DC underwent several line-up changes before releasing their first album, High Voltage, in 1975. Membership subsequently stabilised around the Young brothers, singer Bon Scott, drummer Phil Rudd, and bass player Mark Evans. Evans was replaced by Cliff Williams in 1977 for the album Powerage. In February 1980, a few months after recording the album Highway to Hell, lead singer and co-songwriter Bon Scott died of acute alcohol poisoning. The group considered disbanding but stayed together, bringing in Brian Johnson as replacement for Scott. Later that year, the band released their first album with Johnson, Back in Black, which they dedicated to Scott's memory. The album launched them to new heights of success and became one of the best selling albums of all time.
The band's next album, For Those About to Rock We Salute You, was their first album to reach number one in the United States. The band fired Phil Rudd as drummer in 1983, and Simon Wright filled his place until quitting in 1989, being in turn replaced by Chris Slade. The band experienced a commercial resurgence in the early 1990s with the release of The Razors Edge. Phil Rudd returned in 1994, contributing to the band's 1995 album Ballbreaker. The band's studio album Black Ice, released in 2008, was the second highest-selling album of that year, and their biggest chart hit since For Those About to Rock, eventually reaching No.1 on all charts worldwide.The band's line-up remained the same until 2014 with Malcolm Young's retirement due to early-onset dementia and Rudd's legal troubles. In 2016, Johnson was advised to stop touring due to worsening hearing loss. Guns N' Roses front man Axl Rose stepped in as the band's vocalist for the remainder of that year's dates. Long-term bass player and background vocalist Cliff Williams retired from the band at the end of their 2016 Rock or Bust World Tour. Nevertheless, the group has not officially disbanded and unconfirmed reports of a new album and possible tour continue to circulate.
AC/DC have sold more than 200 million records worldwide, including 71.5 million albums in the United States, making them the tenth highest-selling artist in the United States and the 14th best selling artist worldwide. Back in Black has sold an estimated 50 million units worldwide, making it the third highest-selling album by any artist, and the highest-selling album by any band. The album has sold 22 million units in the US, where it is the sixth-highest-selling album of all time. AC/DC ranked fourth on VH1's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock" and were named the seventh "Greatest Heavy Metal Band of All Time" by MTV. In 2004, AC/DC ranked No. 72 on the Rolling Stone list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Producer Rick Rubin, who wrote an essay on the band for the Rolling Stone list, referred to AC/DC as "the greatest rock and roll band of all time". In 2010, VH1 ranked AC/DC number 23 in its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".Autonomous spaceport drone ship
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|AMR-2||Advanced Microwave Radiometer-2|
|DORIS||Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite|
|GPSP||Global Positioning System Payload|
|LRA||Laser Retroreflector Array|
|CARMEN-3||Characterization and Modeling of Environment-3|
|LPT||Light Particle Telescope|
Orbital meteorological and remote sensing systems
Falcon rocket launches
|Falcon rocket family|
|Falcon 1 missions|
|Falcon 9 missions|
|Falcon Heavy missions|
Kosmos 2517 / Geo-IK-2 No.12 – Intelsat 31 / DLA-2 – USA-268 / NROL-37 – BeiDou G7 – Eutelsat 117 West B · ABS-2A – Echostar 18 · BRIsat – CartoSat-2C · BIROS · GHGsat · LAPAN-A3 · M3MSat · SkySat-C1 · Flock-2p × 12 · SathyabamaSat · Swayam – MUOS-5 – Chinese next-generation crew capsule scale model · Aolong-1 · Aoxiang Zhixing · Tiange-1 · Tiange-2 – Shijian 16-02
Progress MS-04 – Göktürk-1 – Resourcesat-2A – WGS-8 – HTV-6 / Kounotori 6 · (EGG · TuPOD · UBAKUSAT · AOBA-VELOX · STARS · FREEDOM · ITF · Waseda-SAT · OSNSAT · Tancredo-1 · TechEDSat · Lemur-2 × 4) – Fengyun 4A – CYGNSS × 8 – EchoStar 19 – Arase / ERG – TanSat · Spark × 2 – Star One D1 · JCSAT-15 – SuperView / Gaojing-1 01, 02 · Bayi Kepu 1
Launches are separated by dashes ( – ), payloads by dots ( · ), multiple names for the same satellite by slashes ( / ). Cubesats are smaller.
Manned flights are bolded. Launch failures are in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are (enclosed in brackets).