Jason-3 is a satellite created by a partnership of the European Organisation for the Exploration of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), and is an international cooperative mission in which NOAA is partnering with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France's governmental space agency). The satellites' mission is to supply data for scientific, commercial, and practical applications to sea level rise, sea surface temperature, ocean temperature circulation, and climate change.[4]

Jason-3 2015 illustration (crop)
Artist's impression of the Jason-3 satellite
NamesJoint Altimetry Satellite Oceanography Network – 3
Mission typeEarth observation
COSPAR ID2016-002A
SATCAT no.41240
Mission durationPlanned: 5 years
Elapsed: 3 years, 8 months and 27 days
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerThales Alenia Space
Launch mass553 kg (1,219 lb)[1]
Dry mass525 kg (1,157 lb)[1]
Power550 watts[1]
Start of mission
Launch dateJanuary 17, 2016, 18:42:18 UTC[2]
RocketFalcon 9 v1.1
Launch siteVandenberg SLC-4E
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Semi-major axis7,715.8 km (4,794.4 mi)
Perigee altitude1,331.7 km (827.5 mi)
Apogee altitude1,343.7 km (834.9 mi)
Period112.42 minutes
Argument of perigee268.03°
Mean anomaly91.98°
Mean motion12.81 rev/day
Repeat interval9.92 days
EpochJuly 16, 2016, 19:55:51 UTC[3]
Ocean Surface Topography

Mission objectives

Jason-3 will make precise measurements related to global sea surface height. This data is important to collect and analyze because it is a critical factor in understanding Earth's changing climate.

Scientific applications

The primary users of Jason-3 data are people who are dependent on marine and weather forecasts for public safety, commerce and environmental purposes. Other users include scientists and people who are concerned with global warming and its relation to the ocean. NOAA and EUMETSAT are using the data primarily for monitoring wind and waves on the high seas, hurricane intensity, ocean surface currents, El Niño forecasts, water levels of lakes and rivers. NASA and CNES are more interested in the research aspect, in terms of understanding and planning for climate change. Ultimately, the benefits of Jason-3 data will transfer to people and to the economy.


Animation of Jason-3 trajectory
Animation of Jason-3's orbit from 20 May 2018 to 14 November 2018. Earth is not shown.

Jason-3 flies at the same 9.9-day repeat track orbit and this means the satellite will make observations over the same ocean point every 9.9 days. The orbital parameters are: 66.05º inclination, 1380 km apogee, 1328 km perigee, 112 minutes per revolution around Earth. It is flying 1 minute behind Jason-2. The 1 minute time delay is applied in order to not miss any data collection between missions.

Orbit Determination Instruments

In order to detect sea level change, we need to know the orbit height of the satellites as they revolve around Earth, to within 1 centimeter (0.4 inches). Combining instruments from three different techniques—GPS, DORIS, LRA. The GPS receiver on Jason-3 uses data from the constellation of GPS satellites in orbit to constantly determine its position in orbit.[4]


Jason-3 Rollout (24038722499) (2)
Falcon 9 rolling out on January 15, 2015

Appearing on the SpaceX manifest as early as July 2013,[5] Jason-3 was originally scheduled for launch on July 22, 2015. However, this date was pushed back to August 19 following the discovery of contamination in one of the satellite's thrusters, requiring the thruster to be replaced and further inspected.[6][7] The launch was further delayed by several months due to the loss of a Falcon 9 rocket with the CRS-7 mission on June 28.[8]

After SpaceX conducted their return-to-flight mission in December 2015 with the upgraded Falcon 9 Full Thrust, Jason-3 was assigned to the final previous-generation Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket, although some parts of the rocket body had been reworked following the findings of the failure investigation.[9][10]

A 7-second static fire test of the rocket was completed on January 11, 2016.[11] The Launch Readiness Review was signed off by all parties on January 15, 2016, and the launch proceeded successfully on January 17, 2016, at 18:42 UTC. The Jason-3 payload was deployed into its target orbit at 830 miles (1,336 km) altitude after an orbital insertion burn about 56 minutes into the flight.[12] It was the 21st Falcon 9 flight overall[9] and the second into a high-inclination orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base Space Launch Complex 4E in California.[6]

Post-mission landing test

First stage of Jason-3 rocket (24423604506)
First stage of Falcon 9 Flight 21 descending over the floating landing platform, January 17, 2016

Following paperwork filed with US regulatory authorities in 2015,[13] SpaceX confirmed in January 2016 that they would attempt a controlled-descent flight test and vertical landing of the rocket's first stage on their west-coast floating platform Just Read the Instructions,[14] located about 200 miles (320 km) out in the Pacific Ocean.

This attempt followed the first successful landing and booster recovery on the previous launch in December 2015.[15][16] The controlled descent through the atmosphere and landing attempt for each booster is an arrangement that is not used on other orbital launch vehicles.[17]

Approximately nine minutes into the flight, the live video feed from the drone ship went down due to the losing its lock on the uplink satellite. Elon Musk later reported that the first stage did touch down smoothly on the ship, but a lockout on one of the four landing legs failed to latch, so that the booster fell over and was destroyed.[18][19][20]

Debris from the fire, including several rocket engines attached to the octaweb assembly, arrived back to shore on board the floating landing platform on January 18, 2016.[21]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Satellite: JASON-3". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  2. ^ "Jason-3 Ocean-Monitoring Satellite healthy after smooth ride atop Falcon 9 Rocket". Spaceflight 101. January 17, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  3. ^ "Jason 3 – Orbit". Heavens Above. July 16, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Jason-3 Satellite - Mission". www.nesdis.noaa.gov. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  5. ^ "Launch Manifest – Future Missions". SpaceX. Archived from the original on July 31, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Rhian, Jason (June 3, 2015). "Thruster contamination on NOAA's Jason-3 satellite forces delay". Spaceflight Insider.
  7. ^ Clark, Stephen (June 18, 2015). "Jason 3 satellite shipped to Vandenberg for SpaceX launch". Spaceflight Now.
  8. ^ "CRS-7 Investigation Update". SpaceX. July 20, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015. Our investigation is ongoing until we exonerate all other aspects of the vehicle, but at this time, we expect to return to flight this fall and fly all the customers we intended to fly in 2015 by end of year.
  9. ^ a b Bergin, Chris (September 7, 2015). "SpaceX conducts additional Falcon 9 improvements ahead of busy schedule". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  10. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (January 8, 2016). "SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 conducts static fire test ahead of Jason-3 mission". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  11. ^ Curie, Mike (January 11, 2016). "SpaceX Falcon 9 Static Fire Complete for Jason-3". NASA. Retrieved January 12, 2016. At Space Launch Complex 4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the static test fire of the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket for the upcoming Jason-3 launch was completed Monday at 5:35 p.m. PST, 8:35 p.m. EST. The first stage engines fired for the planned full duration of 7 seconds.
  12. ^ Jason-3 Hosted Webcast. YouTube.com. SpaceX. January 17, 2016. Event occurs at 1:37:08 (55:58 after lift-off). Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  13. ^ "Application for Special Temporary Authority". Federal Communications Commission. December 28, 2015.
  14. ^ Coldewey, Devin (January 7, 2016). "SpaceX Plans Drone Ship Rocket Landing for Jan. 17 Launch". NBC News. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
  15. ^ "Press Kit: ORBCOMM-2 Mission" (PDF). SpaceX. December 21, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2015. This mission also marks SpaceX's return-to-flight as well as its first attempt to land a first stage on land. The landing of the first stage is a secondary test objective.
  16. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (December 31, 2015). "Year In Review, Part 4: SpaceX and Orbital ATK recover and succeed in 2015". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
  17. ^ "SpaceX wants to land next booster at Cape Canaveral". Florida Today. December 1, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  18. ^ Jason-3 Hosted Webcast. YouTube.com. SpaceX. January 17, 2016. Event occurs at 1:06:30 (25:20 after lift-off). Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  19. ^ Boyle, Alan (January 17, 2016). "SpaceX rocket launches satellite, but tips over during sea landing attempt". GeekWire. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  20. ^ Musk, Elon (January 17, 2016). "Flight 21 landing and breaking a leg". Instagram.
  21. ^ "SpaceX rocket wreckage back on shore after near-miss at landing". Spaceflight Now. January 20, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016.

External links

About the satellite

About the flight


AC/DC are an Australian rock band formed in Sydney in 1973 by Scottish-born brothers Malcolm and Angus Young. Their music has been variously described as hard rock, blues rock, and heavy metal; however, the band themselves describe their music as simply "rock and roll".AC/DC underwent several line-up changes before releasing their first album, High Voltage, in 1975. Membership subsequently stabilised around the Young brothers, singer Bon Scott, drummer Phil Rudd, and bass player Mark Evans. Evans was replaced by Cliff Williams in 1977 for the album Powerage. In February 1980, a few months after recording the album Highway to Hell, lead singer and co-songwriter Bon Scott died of acute alcohol poisoning. The group considered disbanding but stayed together, bringing in Brian Johnson as replacement for Scott. Later that year, the band released their first album with Johnson, Back in Black, which they dedicated to Scott's memory. The album launched them to new heights of success and became one of the best selling albums of all time.

The band's next album, For Those About to Rock We Salute You, was their first album to reach number one in the United States. The band fired Phil Rudd as drummer in 1983, and Simon Wright filled his place until quitting in 1989, being in turn replaced by Chris Slade. The band experienced a commercial resurgence in the early 1990s with the release of The Razors Edge. Phil Rudd returned in 1994, contributing to the band's 1995 album Ballbreaker. The band's studio album Black Ice, released in 2008, was the second highest-selling album of that year, and their biggest chart hit since For Those About to Rock, eventually reaching No.1 on all charts worldwide.The band's line-up remained the same until 2014 with Malcolm Young's retirement due to early-onset dementia and Rudd's legal troubles. In 2016, Johnson was advised to stop touring due to worsening hearing loss. Guns N' Roses front man Axl Rose stepped in as the band's vocalist for the remainder of that year's dates. Long-term bass player and background vocalist Cliff Williams retired from the band at the end of their 2016 Rock or Bust World Tour. Nevertheless, the group has not officially disbanded and unconfirmed reports of a new album and possible tour continue to circulate.

AC/DC have sold more than 200 million records worldwide, including 71.5 million albums in the United States, making them the tenth highest-selling artist in the United States and the 14th best selling artist worldwide. Back in Black has sold an estimated 50 million units worldwide, making it the third highest-selling album by any artist, and the highest-selling album by any band. The album has sold 22 million units in the US, where it is the sixth-highest-selling album of all time. AC/DC ranked fourth on VH1's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock" and were named the seventh "Greatest Heavy Metal Band of All Time" by MTV. In 2004, AC/DC ranked No. 72 on the Rolling Stone list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Producer Rick Rubin, who wrote an essay on the band for the Rolling Stone list, referred to AC/DC as "the greatest rock and roll band of all time". In 2010, VH1 ranked AC/DC number 23 in its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".

Autonomous spaceport drone ship

An autonomous spaceport drone ship (ASDS) is an ocean-going vessel derived from a deck barge, outfitted with station-keeping engines and a large landing platform and is controlled by an autonomous robot. Construction of such ships was commissioned by aerospace company SpaceX to allow for recovery of rocket first-stages at sea for missions which do not carry enough fuel to return to the launch site after boosting spacecraft onto an orbital trajectory.SpaceX has two operational drone ships and has a third under construction as of early 2018. Just Read the Instructions operates in the Pacific for launches from Vandenberg; Of Course I Still Love You operates in the Atlantic for launches from Cape Canaveral. A Shortfall of Gravitas is under construction. As of 25 June 2019, 31 Falcon 9 flights have attempted to land on a drone ship, with 24 of them succeeding (77%).

The ASDS ships are a key early operational component in the SpaceX objective to significantly lower the price of space launch services through "full and rapid reusability," and were developed as part of the multi-year reusable rocket development program SpaceX undertook to engineer the technology. Any Falcon flights going to geostationary orbit or exceeding escape velocity require landing at sea, encompassing about half of SpaceX missions.

Cabinet of Iran

The Cabinet of Iran (Persian: هیئت‌دولت ایران‎) is a formal body composed of government officials, ministers, chosen and led by a President. Its composition must be approved by a vote in the Parliament. According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the President may dismiss members of the cabinet, but must do so in writing, and new appointees must again be approved by the Parliament. The cabinet meets weekly on Saturdays in Tehran. There may be additional meetings if circumstances require it. The president chairs the meetings.

Charlize Theron

Charlize Theron ( shar-LEEZ THERR-ən; Afrikaans: [ʃarˈlis trɔn]; born 7 August 1975) is a South African and American actress and producer. She is the recipient of several accolades, including an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, an American Cinematheque Award, and the Silver Bear for Best Actress. Time magazine named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2016, and she is one of the world's highest-paid actresses, as of 2019.

Theron came to international prominence in the 1990s by playing the leading lady in the Hollywood films The Devil's Advocate (1997), Mighty Joe Young (1998), and The Cider House Rules (1999). In 2003, she received critical acclaim for her portrayal of serial killer Aileen Wuornos in Monster, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress, becoming the first South African to win an Oscar in an acting category. She received another Academy Award nomination for playing a sexually abused woman seeking justice in the drama North Country (2005). Theron has since starred in several top-grossing action films, including Hancock (2008), Snow White and the Huntsman (2012), Prometheus (2012), Mad Max: Fury Road (2015), The Fate of the Furious (2017), and Atomic Blonde (2017). She also received praise for playing troubled women in Jason Reitman's comedy-dramas Young Adult (2011) and Tully (2018), receiving Golden Globe Award nominations for both films.

Since the early 2000s, Theron has ventured into film production with her company Denver and Delilah Productions. She has produced numerous films, in many of which she had a starring role, including The Burning Plain (2008), Dark Places (2015), and Long Shot (2019). Theron became an American citizen in 2007, while retaining her South African citizenship.

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List of islands of the Falkland Islands

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OSTM/Jason-2, or the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite, was an international Earth observation satellite mission that continued the sea surface height measurements begun in 1992 by the joint NASA/CNES TOPEX/Poseidon mission and followed by the NASA/CNES Jason-1 mission launched in 2001.

Olympic Channel

Olympic Channel is an over-the-top Internet television service operated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). It was launched on 21 August 2016, alongside the closing of the 2016 Summer Olympics. The service aims to maintain year-round interest in the Olympic movement, by showcasing Olympic athletes and competitions outside of the Games proper.

The IOC operates the service with an international focus, but also stated plans to work with local National Olympic Committees and rightsholders to establish localized versions and linear services as franchised versions of Olympic Channel. The first of these, in the United States, launched in July 2017.


Paella (Valencian pronunciation: [paˈeʎa]; Spanish: [paˈeʎa]) is a Valencian rice dish that has ancient roots, but its modern form traces origins in the mid-19th century in the area around the Albufera lagoon on the east coast of Spain adjacent to the city of Valencia. Many non-Spaniards view paella as Spain's national dish, but most Spaniards consider it to be a regional Valencian dish. Valencians, in turn, regard paella as one of their identifying symbols.

Types of paella include Valencian paella, vegetable paella (Spanish: paella de verduras), seafood paella (Spanish: paella de mariscos), and mixed paella (Spanish: paella mixta), among many others. Valencian paella is believed to be the original recipe and consists of white rice (which must be round grain), green beans (bajoqueta and tavella), meat (chicken and rabbit, sometimes duck), garrofó (a variety of lima beans or butterbeans), sometimes snails, and seasoning such as saffron and rosemary. Also, artichoke hearts and stems are used as seasonal ingredients. Seafood paella replaces meat with seafood and omits beans and green vegetables. Mixed paella is a free-style combination of meat from land animals, seafood, vegetables, and sometimes beans. Most paella chefs use bomba rice due to it being less likely to overcook, but Valencians tend to use a slightly stickier (and thus more susceptible to overcooking) variety known as Senia. All types of paellas use olive oil.

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Leati Joseph "Joe" Anoaʻi (born May 25, 1985) is an American professional wrestler, actor, and former professional gridiron football player. He is part of the Anoaʻi family and is currently signed to WWE as a member of the SmackDown brand under the ring name Roman Reigns.

After playing college football for Georgia Tech, Anoaʻi started his professional football career with brief off-season stints with the Minnesota Vikings and Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League (NFL) in 2007. He then played a full season for the Canadian Football League's (CFL) Edmonton Eskimos in 2008 before his release and retirement from football. He then pursued a career in professional wrestling and was signed by WWE in 2010, reporting to their developmental territory Florida Championship Wrestling (FCW). As Roman Reigns, he made his main roster debut in November 2012 alongside Dean Ambrose and Seth Rollins as The Shield. The trio teamed together until June 2014, after which Reigns entered singles competition.

Reigns is a four-time world champion in WWE, having held the WWE Championship three times and the Universal Championship once. He is also a one-time United States Champion, a one-time Intercontinental Champion, a one-time WWE Tag Team Champion (with Rollins), the 2015 Royal Rumble winner, and the 2014 Superstar of the Year. He tied the WWE record for most eliminations in a Survivor Series elimination match with four in the 2013 event and set the then-record for most eliminations in a Royal Rumble match with 12 in the 2014 event. Upon winning the Intercontinental Championship, he became the twenty-eighth Triple Crown Champion and the seventeenth Grand Slam Champion.

Since 2014, WWE has attempted to establish Reigns as their next "face of the company", which has been met with audience disapproval. Reigns has headlined numerous WWE pay-per-view events, including four straight WrestleManias (31, 32, 33 and 34).

Sea level rise

Since at least the start of the 20th century, the average global sea level has been rising. Between 1900 and 2016, the sea level rose by 16–21 cm (6.3–8.3 in). More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an accelerating rise of 7.5 cm (3.0 in) from 1993 to 2017, which is a trend of roughly 30 cm (12 in) per century. This acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers. Between 1993 and 2018, thermal expansion of the oceans contributed 42% to sea level rise; the melting of temperate glaciers, 21%; Greenland, 15%; and Antarctica, 8%. Climate scientists expect the rate to further accelerate during the 21st century.Projecting future sea level is challenging, due to the complexity of many aspects of the climate system. As climate research into past and present sea levels leads to improved computer models, projections have consistently increased. For example, in 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projected a high end estimate of 60 cm (2 ft) through 2099, but their 2014 report raised the high-end estimate to about 90 cm (3 ft). A number of later studies have concluded that a global sea level rise of 200 to 270 cm (6.6 to 8.9 ft) this century is "physically plausible". A conservative estimate of the long-term projections is that each Celsius degree of temperature rise triggers a sea level rise of approximately 2.3 meters (4.2 ft/degree Fahrenheit) over a period of two millennia: an example of climate inertia.The sea level will not rise uniformly everywhere on Earth, and it will even drop in some locations. Local factors include tectonic effects and subsidence of the land, tides, currents and storms. Sea level rises can influence human populations considerably in coastal and island regions. Widespread coastal flooding is expected with several degrees of warming sustained for millennia. Further effects are higher storm-surges and more dangerous tsunamis, displacement of populations, loss and degradation of agricultural land and damage in cities. Natural environments like marine ecosystems are also affected, with fish, birds and plants losing parts of their habitat.Societies can respond to sea level rise in three different ways: to retreat, to accommodate and to protect. Sometimes these adaptation strategies go hand in hand, but at other times choices have to be made among different strategies. Ecosystems that adapt to rising sea levels by moving inland might not always be able to do so, due to natural or artificial barriers.

Surface Water and Ocean Topography

The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is a future satellite jointly developed by NASA and CNES, the French space agency, in partnership with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and UK Space Agency (UKSA). The objectives of the mission are to make the first global survey of the Earth's surface water, to observe the fine details of the ocean surface topography, and to measure how terrestrial surface water bodies change over time. While past satellite missions like the Jason series altimeters (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, Jason-3) have provided variation in river and lake water surface elevations at select locations, SWOT will provide the first truly global observations of changing water levels, slopes, and inundation extents in rivers, lakes and floodplains. In the world's oceans, SWOT will observe ocean circulation at unprecedented scales of 15–25 km, approximately an order of magnitude finer than current satellites. Because it uses wide-swath altimetry technology, SWOT will almost completely observe the world's oceans and freshwater bodies with repeated high-resolution elevation measurements, allowing observations of variations.


TOPEX/Poseidon was a joint satellite mission between NASA, the U.S. space agency; and CNES, the French space agency, to map ocean surface topography. Launched on August 10, 1992, it was the first major oceanographic research satellite. TOPEX/Poseidon helped revolutionize oceanography by providing data previously impossible to obtain. Oceanographer Walter Munk described TOPEX/Poseidon as "the most successful ocean experiment of all time." A malfunction ended normal satellite operations in January 2006.

WWE Universal Championship

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Named in honor of the WWE Universe, the championship was established on July 25, 2016 to be the world championship of the Raw brand. Its creation came as a result of the re-introduction of the brand split and subsequent draft on July 19, 2016 in which the WWE Championship, the promotion's original world title, became exclusive to SmackDown. The inaugural Universal Champion was Finn Bálor. Since its inception, matches for the championship have headlined several pay-per-view events, including SummerSlam in 2017, 2018, 2019, and WrestleMania 34, both being two of WWE's "big four" pay-per-views, the latter of which is WWE's flagship event.

Wave base

The wave base, in physical oceanography, is the maximum depth at which a water wave's passage causes significant water motion. For water depths deeper than the wave base, bottom sediments and the seafloor are no longer stirred by the wave motion above.

 Poseidon-3B Altimeter
AMR-2Advanced Microwave Radiometer-2
DORISDoppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite
GPSPGlobal Positioning System Payload
LRALaser Retroreflector Array
CARMEN-3Characterization and Modeling of Environment-3
LPTLight Particle Telescope
Orbital meteorological and remote sensing systems
Ocean zones
Sea level
Falcon rocket launches
Falcon rocket family
Falcon 1 missions
Falcon 9 missions
Falcon Heavy missions


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