Jargon

Jargon is specialized terminology used to define specific words and phrases used in a particular profession, trade, and/or group.[1]

Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context. The context is usually a particular occupation (that is, a certain trade, profession, vernacular, or academic field), but any in a group can have jargon. The main trait that distinguishes jargon from the rest of a language is special vocabulary—including some words specific to it, and often different senses or meanings of words, that out-groups would tend to take in another sense—therefore misunderstanding that communication attempt.

Specifics

Jargon is thus "the technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group".[2] Most jargon is technical terminology (technical terms), involving terms of art[3] or industry terms, with particular meaning within a specific industry. A main driving force in the creation of technical jargon is precision and efficiency of communication when a discussion must easily range from general themes to specific, finely differentiated details without circumlocution. Jargon enrichess everyday vocabulary with meaningful content and can potentially become a catchword.[4]

A side-effect of jargon, a higher threshold for comprehensibility, which is usually accepted as a trade-off but is sometimes even used as a means of social exclusion (reinforcing ingroup-outgroup barriers) or social aspiration (when intended as a way of showing off). Some academics encourage fellow academics to use jargon-free language because it pervades disciplines, history, and different research strategies. When using jargon people tend to become less engaged as they become lost in the Technical language.[5]

Etymology

The French word is believed to have been derived from the Latin word gaggire, meaning "to chatter", which was used to describe speech that the listener did not understand.[6] The word may also come from Old French jargon meaning "chatter of birds".[6] Middle English also has the verb jargounen meaning "to chatter," or "twittering," deriving from Old French.[7]

The first use of the word dates back to the usage of the word in The Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400. Chaucer referred to jargon as the utterance of birds or sounds resembling birds.[7]

In colonial history, Jargon was seen as a language tool to bridge the gap between two speakers who did not speak the same tougue. Jargon was synonymous with pidgin in naming specific language usages. Jargon then began to have a negative connotation with lacking grammar, or giberish as it was seen as a "broken" language of many different languages with no full community to call their own. In the 1980s linguists began restricting this usage of Jargon to keep the word to more commonly define a technical or specialized language use.[8]

Fields using the term

The term is used, often interchangeably, with the term buzzword[9] when examining organizational culture.[10] In linguistics, it is used to mean "specialist language,"[11] with the term also seen as closely related to slang argot and cant.[12] The use of jargon in language can be used in professional and unprofessional settings.[13] Examples: economics, computing, medical, photography, business, military, politicians, sports, geographical, employee, employer, radio, music, movies, plays, children, adults, professors, students etc.[13]

Various kinds of language peculiar to ingroups can be named across a semantic field. Slang can be either culture-wide or known only within a certain group or subculture. Argot is slang or jargon purposely used to obscure meaning to outsiders. Conversely, a lingua franca is used for the opposite effect, helping communicators to overcome unintelligibility, as are pidgins and creole languages. For example, the Chinook Jargon was a pidgin.[14] Although technical jargon's primary purpose is to aid technical communication, not to exclude outsiders by serving as an argot, it can have both effects at once and can provide a technical ingroup with shibboleths. For example, medieval guilds could use this as one means of informal protectionism. On the other hand, jargon that once was obscure outside a small ingroup can become generally known over time. For example, the terms bit, byte, and hexadecimal (which are terms from computing jargon[15]) are now recognized by many people outside computer science.

Referenced

The philosopher Étienne Bonnot de Condillac observed in 1782 that "every science requires a special language because every science has its own ideas". As a rationalist member of the Enlightenment, he continued: "It seems that one ought to begin by composing this language, but people begin by speaking and writing, and the language remains to be composed."[16]

Industry term

"An industry term... is a type of technical terminology that has a particular meaning in a specific industry. It implies that a word or phrase is a typical one in a particular industry and people working in the respective industry or business will be familiar with and use the term."[17]

Precise technical terms and their definitions are formally recognized, documented, and taught by educators in the field. Other terms are more colloquial, coined and used by practitioners in the field, and are similar to slang. The boundaries between formal and slang jargon, as in general English, are quite fluid. This is especially true in the rapidly developing world of computers and networking. For instance, the term firewall (in the sense of a device used to filter network traffic) was at first technical slang. As these devices became more widespread and the term became widely understood, the word was adopted as formal terminology.[18]

Technical terminology evolves due to the need for experts in a field to communicate with precision and brevity, but often has the effect of excluding those who are unfamiliar with the particular specialized language of the group. This can cause difficulties as, for example, when a patient is unable to follow the discussions of medical practitioners, and thus cannot understand his own condition and treatment. Differences in jargon also cause difficulties where professionals in related fields use different terms for the same phenomena.[19]

In practice

Jargon may serve the purpose of a "gatekeeper" in conversation, signaling who is allowed into certain forms of conversation. Jargon may serve this function by dictating to which direction or depth a conversation about or within the context of a certain field or profession will go.[20] For example, a conversation between two professionals in which one person has little previous interaction or knowledge of the other person could go one of at least two possible ways. One of the professionals (who the other professional does not know) does not use, or does not correctly use the jargon of their respective field, and is little regarded or remembered beyond small talk or fairly insignificant in this conversation. Or, if the person does use particular jargon (showing their knowledge in the field to be legitimate, educated, or of particular significance) the other professional then opens the conversation up in an in-depth or professional manner .[20]

Positivity of jargon

Ethos is used to create an appeal to authority. It is one of three pillars of persuasion created by Aristotle to create a logical argument. Ethos uses credibility to back up arguments. It can illuminate the audience to be an insider with using specialized terms in the field to make an argument based on authority and credibility.[21]

Jargon can be used to convey meaningful information in a convenient way within communities. It provides communities with cultures and subcultures to understand the meaning of information in a condense form. It is used to convey specific meanings with the use of language creating a discourse. Explaining the same information to one person who is not well-knowledgeable in a field compared to someone who is a person might want to tailor their conversation. To speak with a person in the same community speaking in jargon communicates the information optimally.[22] In exampling this weather a person is a football coach talking to their team in a 1-minute break during a game or a doctor explain to the nurses what item they need in sugury jargon will be used to explaining complicated things within a certain community.[23]

Accessibility and criticism

With the rise of the self-advocacy movement within the disability movement, jargonized language has been much objected to by advocates and self-advocates. Jargon is largely present in everyday language, in newspapers, government documents, and official forms. Several advocacy organizations work on influencing public agents to offer accessible information in different formats.[24] One accessible format that offers an alternative to jargonised language is Easy Read, which consists of a combination of plain English and images.

The criticism against jargon can be found in certain fields when responding to specific information. In a study done analyzing 58 patients and 10 Radiation Therapists, they diagnosed and explained the treatment of a disease to a patient with the use of jargon. It was found that using jargon in the Medical field is not the best in communicating the terminology and concepts. Patients tend to be confused about what were the treatments and the risks.[25] There resources include online glossaries of Technical jargon, also known as a "jargon busters."[26]

Examples

Many examples of jargon exist because of its use among specialists and subcultures alike. In the professional world, those who are in the business of filmmaking may use words like "vorkapich" to refer to a montage when talking to colleagues.[27] In Rhetoric, rhetoricians use words like "arete" to refer to a person of power's character when speaking with one another.[28]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Jargon - Definition and Examples of Jargon". Literary Devices. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  2. ^ "Jargon". Merriam Webster. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 29 March 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  3. ^ "Term of art". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  4. ^ Wodak, Ruth (1989). Language, Power and Ideology: Studies in political discourse. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 1–288. ISBN 9789027286055.
  5. ^ Ross, Steven (2014). "Jargon and the Crisis of Readability: Methodology, Language, and the Future of Film History". Cinema Journal. 44 (1): 130–133. doi:10.1353/cj.2004.0052. JSTOR 3661180.
  6. ^ a b "Jargon". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  7. ^ a b Martinuzzi, Bruna. "The History of Jargon". American Express. American Express Company. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  8. ^ Mufwene, Salikoko Sangol. "Jargon | linguistics". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  9. ^ Collins, David (2013-10-11). Management Fads and Buzzwords: Critical-Practical Perspectives. ISBN 9781136295089.
  10. ^ Martin, J. and Frost, P., 2011. The organizational culture war games. Sociology of Organizations: Structures and relationships, 315.
  11. ^ https://books.google.ca/books id=tppMDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA18&dq=linguistics+jargon+definition&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmw7aZ5ongAhUJ34MKHScfB9wQ6AEIRTAE
  12. ^ Adams, Michael (2012-09-01). Slang: The People's Poetry. ISBN 9780199986538.
  13. ^ a b "plainlanguage.gov | Keep It Jargon-free". www.plainlanguage.gov.
  14. ^ "Jargon | linguistics".
  15. ^ Lundin, Leigh (2009-12-31). "Buzzwords– bang * splat !". Don Martin School of Software. Criminal Brief.
  16. ^ Quoted by Fernand Braudel, in discussing the origins of capital, capitalism, in The Wheels of Commerce, vol. II of Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, 1979:234. Originally found in Condillac's work Le Commerce et le gouvernement considérés relativement l'un à l'autre (1776).
  17. ^ Peterlicean, Andrea (2015). "Challenges and perspectives in teaching specialised languages". The Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Education. 8: 149–162. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  18. ^ Monografias.com, jaimemontoya. "Technical Terminology - Monografias.com". www.monografias.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  19. ^ Jirtle, James. "Words in English :: Usage". www.ruf.rice.edu. 2003, James Jirtle. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  20. ^ a b Campbell, Gordon (2014-01-22), "Jargon", Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.t2072529
  21. ^ "Ethos". Philosophy Terms. 1 December 2015.
  22. ^ Boggs, Colleen Glenney (27 November 2012). "In Defense of Jargon". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  23. ^ Dodge, Amanda (23 August 2013). "The Pros and Cons of Using Jargon". Copypress. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  24. ^ Lundin, Leigh (2013-04-05). "Jargon buster – Accessible Information * splat !". Northampton Borough Council. Northampton Borough Council.
  25. ^ Schnitzler, Lena; et al. (9 August 2016). "Communication during radiation therapy education sessions: The role of medical jargon and emotional support in clarifying patient confusion". Patient Education and Counseling. 100 (1): 112–120. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2016.08.006. PMID 27542311.
  26. ^ Lundin, Leigh (2013-04-05). "Jargon buster – Involve * splat !". Involve.
  27. ^ "Cinematic Terms – A FilmMaking Glossary". filmsite.org.
  28. ^ "Dictionary.com - Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com.

Further reading

  • Green, Jonathon. Dictionary of Jargon. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987. ISBN 0-7100-9919-3.
  • Nash, Walter. Jargon: Its Uses and Abuses. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993. ISBN 0-631-18063-X.
  • Sonneveld, H., Loenning, K.: (1994): "Introducing terminology", in Terminology, p. 1–6
  • Wright, S. E.; Budin, G.: (1997): Handbook of Terminology Management, Volume 1: Basic Aspects of Terminology Management. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 370 pp.

External links

Broken Slavey

Broken Slavey (also Broken Slavé, Broken Slave, Slavey Jargon, Broken Slavee, and le Jargon esclave) was a trade language used between Native Americans and whites in the Yukon area (for example, in around Liard River and in the Mackenzie River district) in the 19th century.

Broken Slavey is based primarily on the Slavey language with elements from French, Cree, and perhaps to a lesser extent English. However, there is some disagreement among sources: Petitot (1889) states that it lacks English, Dene Suline (Chipewyan), or Gwich'in (Kutchin) elements in contrast to the neighbouring Loucheux Pidgin (or Loucheux Jargon), while Dall (1870) states that it includes English elements and McClellan (1981) states that it contained Dene Suline influences. Later sources have ignored the earlier accounts and assumed that "Broken Slavey" is merely French vocabulary (loanwords) used in northern Athabascan languages. Michael Krauss has suggested that French loanwords in Athabascan languages may have been borrowed via Broken Slavey.

A further difference among sources is that Petitot distinguishes the Broken Slavey trade language spoken along the Mackenzie River from a different trade language called Loucheux Pidgin that was spoken along the Peel (a tributary of the Mackenzie) and Yukon rivers. Other contemporary sources as well as later sources do not make a distinction between Broken Slavey and Loucheux Pidgin, which may explain their inclusion of English, Dene Suline, and Gwich'in as influences on Broken Slavey.

The native languages of speakers who used Broken Slavey (known in Alaska as 'Slavey') were Dene Suline, French, Gwich'in, Inuktitut, Slavey. One notable speaker of Slavey Jargon was Antoine Hoole, the Hudson's Bay Company translator at Fort Yukon. Hoole (or Houle) was a professional servant of the Company who served for well over twenty years at Peel River and at Fort Yukon.

Having a French-speaking father and a Métis mother, Hoole was born in 1827 and raised in a household where at least two languages were spoken. He originally came from Fort Halkett on the Liard River in what is now the southern Yukon Territory. He probably spoke South Slavey because that was the Native American language spoken around the Liard River, although Sekani and Kaska people also frequented the area. Hoole died in Fort Yukon at the age of forty-one, on October 22, 1868. The Gwich'in apparently stopped speaking the jargon in the early 20th century. The gold rush, with its massive influx of English speakers into the region beginning in 1886, probably provided a death blow. One speaker, Malcolm Sandy Roberts of Circle, Alaska, continued to use it in a diminished form until his death in 1983.The best written historical documentation of Slavey Jargon shows its actual use was for preaching the gospel and for teasing and harassing clergymen, and for interpersonal relationships. For all these reasons, it seems inaccurate to characterize it strictly as a trade jargon.

Broken Slavey has recently been documented with a few vocabulary items and phrases (collected in Petitot's work) and only a little of its grammar and lexicon. However, more information may yet be discovered in archives through missionary records and traders' journals.

Chinook Jargon

Chinook Jargon (also known as Chinuk Wawa, or Chinook Wawa) is a nearly extinct American indigenous language originating as a pidgin trade language in the Pacific Northwest, and spreading during the 19th century from the lower Columbia River, first to other areas in modern Oregon and Washington, then British Columbia and as far as Alaska, sometimes taking on characteristics of a creole language. It is partly descended from the Chinook language, upon which much of its vocabulary is based.Many words from Chinook Jargon remain in common use in the Western United States and British Columbia. The total number of Jargon words in published lexicons numbered only in the hundreds, and so it was easy to learn. It has its own grammatical system, but a very simple one that, like its word list, was easy to learn. Though existent in Chinook Jargon, the consonant /r/ is rare, and English and French loan words, such as rice and merci, have changed in their adoption to the Jargon, to lice and mahsie, respectively.

Corporate jargon

Corporate jargon, variously known as corporate speak, corporate lingo, business speak, business jargon, management speak, workplace jargon, corporatese or commercialese, is the jargon often used in large corporations, bureaucracies, and similar workplaces. The use of corporate jargon is criticised for its lack of clarity as well as for its tedium, making meaning and intention opaque and understanding difficult.The tone is associated with managers of large corporations, business management consultants, and occasionally government. Reference to such jargon is typically derogatory, implying the use of long, complicated, or obscure words, abbreviations, euphemisms, and acronyms. For that reason some of its forms may be considered as an argot. Some of these words may be actually new inventions, designed purely to fit the specialized meaning of a situation or even to "spin" negative situations as positive situations.Marketing speak is a related label for wording styles used to promote a product or service to a wide audience by seeking to create the impression that the vendors of the service possess a high level of sophistication, skill, and technical knowledge. Such language is often used in marketing press releases, advertising copy, and prepared statements read by executives and politicians.

Fear, uncertainty and doubt

Fear, uncertainty and doubt (often shortened to FUD) is a disinformation strategy used in sales, marketing, public relations, politics, cults, and propaganda. FUD is generally a strategy to influence perception by disseminating negative and dubious or false information and a manifestation of the appeal to fear.

While the phrase dates to at least the early 20th century, the present common usage of disinformation related to software, hardware and technology industries generally appeared in the 1970s to describe disinformation in the computer hardware industry, and has since been used more broadly.

Garbage in, garbage out

In computer science, garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) describes the concept that flawed, or nonsense input data produces nonsense output or "garbage".

The principle also applies more generally to all analysis and logic, in that arguments are unsound if their premises are flawed.

Gibberish

Gibberish, alternatively jibberish, jibber, jibber-jabber, or gobbledygook, is speech that is (or appears to be) nonsense. It may include speech sounds that are not actual words, or language games and specialized jargon that seems nonsensical to outsiders. Gibberish should not be confused with literary nonsense such as that used in the poem "Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll."Gibberish" is also used as an imprecation to denigrate or tar ideas or opinions the user disagrees with or finds irksome, a rough equivalent of "nonsense", "falderal", or "claptrap". The implication is that the criticized expression or proposition lacks substance or congruence, as opposed to simply being a differing view.

The word gibberish is more commonly applied to informal speech, while gobbledygook (sometimes gobbledegook, gobbledigook or gobbledegoo) is more often applied to writing or language that is meaningless or is made unintelligible by excessive use of abstruse technical terms. "Officialese", "legalese", or "bureaucratese" are forms of gobbledygook. The related word jibber-jabber refers to rapid talk that is difficult to understand.

Glossary of archaeology

This page is a glossary of archaeology, the study of the human past from material remains.

Glossary of poker terms

The following is a glossary of poker terms used in the card game of poker. It supplements the glossary of card game terms. Besides the terms listed here, there are thousands of common and uncommon poker slang terms. This is not intended to be a formal dictionary; precise usage details and multiple closely related senses are omitted here in favor of concise treatment of the basics.

Hanlon's razor

Hanlon's razor is an aphorism expressed in various ways, including:

"Never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity."An eponymous law, probably named after a Robert J. Hanlon, it is a philosophical razor which suggests a way of eliminating unlikely explanations for human behavior.

Jargon File

The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers. The original Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical cultures such as the MIT AI Lab, the Stanford AI Lab (SAIL) and others of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities, including Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Carnegie Mellon University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. It was published in paperback form in 1983 as The Hacker's Dictionary (edited by Guy Steele), revised in 1991 as The New Hacker's Dictionary (ed. Eric S. Raymond; third edition published 1996).

Lingua franca

A lingua franca ( (listen); lit. Frankish tongue), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages" facilitated trade) but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term is taken from the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Romance-based pidgin language used (especially by traders and seamen) as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century. A world language – a language spoken internationally and learned and spoken by a large number of people – is a language that may function as a global lingua franca.

Military slang

Military slang is an array of colloquial terminology used commonly by military personnel, including slang which is unique to or originates with the armed forces. In English-speaking countries, it often takes the form of abbreviations/acronyms or derivations of the NATO Phonetic Alphabet, or otherwise incorporates aspects of formal military terms and concepts. Military slang is often used to reinforce or reflect (usually friendly and humorous) interservice rivalries.

Mobilian Jargon

Mobilian Jargon (also Mobilian trade language, Mobilian Trade Jargon, Chickasaw–Choctaw trade language, Yamá) was a pidgin used as a lingua franca among Native American groups living along the Gulf of Mexico around the time of European settlement of the region. It was the main language among Indian tribes in this area, mainly Louisiana. There is evidence indicating its existence as early as the late 17th to early 18th century. The Indian groups that are said to have used it were the Alabama, Apalachee, Biloxi, Chacato, Pakana, Pascagoula, Taensa, Tunica, Caddo, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Chitimacha, Natchez, and Ofo. The name is thought to refer to the Mobile Indians of the central Gulf Coast, but did not originate from this group; Mobilian Jargon is linguistically and grammatically different from the language traditionally spoken by the Mobile Indians.

Mobilian Jargon facilitated trade between tribes speaking different languages and European settlers. There is continuing debate as to when Mobilian Jargon first began to be spoken. Some scholars, such as James Crawford, have argued that Mobilian Jargon has its origins in the linguistically diverse environment following the establishment of the French colony of Louisiana. Others, however, suggest that the already linguistically diverse environment of the lower Mississippi basin drove the need for a common method of communication prior to regular contact with Europeans.

The Native Americans of the Gulf coast and Mississippi valley have always spoken multiple languages, mainly the languages of the other tribes that inhabited the same area. The Mobilians, like these neighboring tribes, were also multi-lingual. By the early 19th century, Mobilian Jargon evolved from functioning solely as a contact language between people into a means of personal identification. With an increasing presence of outsiders in the Indian Gulf coast community, Mobilian Jargon served as a way of knowing who was truly a native of the area, and allowed Mobilians to be socially isolated from non-Indian population expansion from the north.

Padonkaffsky jargon

Padonkaffsky jargon (Russian: язык падонкафф, yazyk padonkaff) or Olbanian (олбанский, olbanskiy) is a cant language developed by a subculture of Runet called padonki (Russian: падонки). It started as an Internet slang language originally used in the Russian Internet community. It is comparable to the English-based Leet. Padonkaffsky jargon became so popular that the former President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev jokingly suggested that Olbanian be taught in schools.

Pidgin

A pidgin , or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally, a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language.A pidgin may be built from words, sounds, or body language from a multitude of languages as well as onomatopoeia. As the lexicon of any pidgin will be limited to core vocabulary, words with only a specific meaning in lexifier language may acquire a completely new (or additional) meaning in the pidgin.

Pidgins have historically been considered a form of patois, unsophisticated simplified versions of their lexifiers, and as such usually have low prestige with respect to other languages. However, not all simplified or "unsophisticated" forms of a language are pidgins. Each pidgin has its own norms of usage which must be learned for proficiency in the pidgin.A pidgin differs from a creole, which is the first language of a speech community of native speakers that at one point arose from a pidgin. Unlike pidgins, creoles have fully developed vocabulary and patterned grammar. Most linguists believe that a creole develops through a process of nativization of a pidgin when children of acquired pidgin-speakers learn and use it as their native language.

Politics

Politics (from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions that apply to members of a group.It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, which is therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology (not to be confused with politicology, a synonym of political science).

In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.An election is usually a competition between different parties. Some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India.

Politics is a multifaceted word. It has a set of fairly specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental (such as "the art or science of government" and "political principles"), but does often colloquially carry a negative connotation. The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", and the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics; anti-slavery is no half-jest with us."A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level.

A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. The history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius.

Quantitative analyst

A quantitative analyst (or, in financial jargon, a quant) is a person who specializes in the application of mathematical and statistical methods – such as numerical or quantitative techniques – to financial and risk management problems. The occupation is similar to those in industrial mathematics in other industries.Although the original quantitative analysts were "sell side quants" from market maker firms, concerned with derivatives pricing and risk management, the meaning of the term has expanded over time to include those individuals involved in almost any application of mathematics in finance, including the buy side. Examples include statistical arbitrage, quantitative investment management, algorithmic trading, and electronic market making.

Technobabble

Technobabble (a portmanteau of technology and babble), also called technospeak, is a form of jargon that consists of buzzwords, esoteric language, specialized technical terms, or technical slang that is impossible to understand for the listener. Various fields of practice and industry have their own specialized vocabularies, or jargon, that allow those educated within that industry to concisely convey ideas that may be confusing, misleading, or nonsensical to an outside listener. The difference between technobabble and jargon lies with the intent of the user and the audience: a dishonest person might use overly technical (and often meaningless) language to overwhelm and confuse the audience, masking their dishonesty, while a fiction writer might use it to cover plot holes or to invoke suspension of disbelief of story elements that defy current understandings of science and technology. Use of jargon within technical circles and with no intent to obfuscate is not usually included in the definition of technobabble.

Wheel (computing)

In computing, the term wheel refers to a user account with a wheel bit, a system setting that provides additional special system privileges that empower a user to execute restricted commands that ordinary user accounts cannot access.

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