Japanese paradise flycatcher

The Japanese paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone atrocaudata), also called the black paradise flycatcher, is a medium-sized passerine bird native to southeastern Asia. It is a glossy black, chestnut and white bird, slightly smaller than either the Amur paradise flycatcher or Blyth's paradise flycatcher, but similar in appearance. Males have exceptionally long tails. Females are generally duller in appearance and have shorter tails.

It is a migratory species, breeding in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and the far north of the Philippines. Outside the breeding season it migrates to China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, other parts of the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sumatra, Indonesia.

Japanese paradise flycatcher
ITerpsiphone atrocaudata
Male in Kyoto
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Monarchidae
Genus: Terpsiphone
Species:
T. atrocaudata
Binomial name
Terpsiphone atrocaudata
(Eyton, 1839)
Subspecies

See text

Synonyms
  • Muscipeta atrocaudata

Taxonomy and systematics

The Japanese paradise flycatcher was previously classified with the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae, but the paradise-flycatchers, monarch flycatchers and Australasian fantails are now normally grouped with the drongos in the family Dicruridae, which has most of its members in Australasia and tropical southern Asia.

Subspecies

Three subspecies are recognized:[2]

  • T. a. atrocaudata - (Eyton, 1839): Found in central and southern Korea, Japan and Taiwan
  • T. a. illex - Bangs, 1901: Originally described as a separate species. Found on the Ryukyu Islands
  • T. a. periophthalmica - (Ogilvie-Grant, 1895): Originally described as a separate species. Found on Lanyu Island (off of southeast Taiwan) and Batan Island (northern Philippines)
CallaeopsPeriophthalmicaGronvold
T. a. periophthalmica

Description

The Japanese paradise flycatcher is similar in appearance to both the Amur paradise flycatcher and Blyth's paradise flycatcher, but is slightly smaller. Mature males have a black hood with a purplish-blue gloss which shades into blackish-grey on the chest. The underparts are off-white to white. The mantle, back, wings and rump are plain dark chestnut. The tail has extremely long black central feathers, which are shorter in immature males. Unlike the Asian paradise flycatcher there is no white morph. The female resembles the male but is duller and darker brown on the chestnut areas. It has black legs and feet, a large black eye with a blue eye-ring, and a short blue bill.

The song is rendered in Japanese as tsuki-hi-hoshi, hoi-hoi-hoi, which translates to Moon-Sun-Stars and gives the Japanese name of the bird サンコウチョウ (三光鳥) sankōchō (literally, bird of three lights, i.e. moon, sun, star, from san three + lights + chō bird).

Distribution and habitat

The Japanese paradise flycatcher is mainly migratory and breeds in shady mature deciduous or evergreen broadleaf forest of Japan (southern Honshū, Shikoku, Kyushu and the Nansei Shoto islands), South Korea, Taiwan (including Lanyu island) and the far north Philippines. It is a non-breeding visitor to mainland China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sumatra, Indonesia.

In Jeju-do of South Korea, Gotjawal Forest, a forest formed on a rocky area of volcanic AA Lava, is one of the important breeding sites of Japanese paradise flycatcher[3]

A recent survey detected a steep decline in part of the Japanese breeding population which has presumably occurred because of forest loss and degradation in its winter range.

Notes

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Terpsiphone atrocaudata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ "IOC World Bird List 6.4". IOC World Bird List Datasets. doi:10.14344/ioc.ml.6.4.
  3. ^ Oh, Hong-shik, Byung-soo Kim, and Wanbyung Kim, 2002, Study on the bird communities of Mt. Halla, Korea Journal of Ornithology, Vol 9, No. 2, pp85-104

References

  • Brazil, Mark. The Birds of East Asia: China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Russia. A & C Black Publishers Ltd., 2009
  • Sibagu: Bird Names in Oriental Languages (http://www.sibagu.com/japan/monarchidae.html) (accessed 24 November 2014)
Conservation in Hong Kong

Out of the total 1,092 km² of Hong Kong land, three-quarters is countryside, with various landscapes including beaches, woodlands and mountain ranges within the small territory. Most of Hong Kong's parks have natural diversity, usually containing over 1,000 species of plants

Giao Xuân

Giao Xuân (xã Giao Xuân) is a commune in Giao Thủy District, Nam Định, Vietnam approximately 150 km South-East of Hanoi. It has a population of 10,000 people.

The main source of income of the people of Giao Xuan comes from marine life. Being 40% Christian, there is a collection of churches around the village. The other predominant religion is Buddhism.

Gotjawal Forest

Gotjawal Forest is a naturally formed forest located on the middle slopes of Halla Mountain, Jeju Island in South Korea. It covers the rocky area of ʻaʻā on Jeju Island off the southwestern coast of South Korea. Due to the geographical feature, the region remains largely undisturbed by people. The Gotjawal Forest is an enclave of the Southern Korea evergreen forests ecoregion, and is a favorite place of the Jeju locals.

List of birds of Hong Kong

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Hong Kong. The avifauna of Hong Kong include a total of 522 species, of which twenty-three have been introduced by humans. Twenty-nine species are globally threatened.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the Hong Kong Bird List published by Hong Kong Bird Watching Society. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Hong Kong.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Hong Kong

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Hong Kong as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Japan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Japan. The avifauna of Japan include a total of 722 species, of which 16 are endemic, and 39 have been introduced by humans.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and non-endemic residents.

(A) Accidental – a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Japan (also called a vagrant)

(E) Endemic – a species endemic to Japan

(I) Introduced – a species introduced to Japan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Korea

This is a list of all birds recorded in the wild in the Korean Peninsula and its islands.

List of birds of North Korea

This is a list of the bird species recorded in North Korea. The avifauna of North Korea include a total of 318 species, none of which are introduced, accidental or endemic. One species listed is extirpated in North Korea and is not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.

The following tag has been used to highlight extirpated species. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in North Korea although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Russia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Russia. The avifauna of Russia include a total of 780 species, of which one is endemic and twelve are rare or accidental in Russia and are not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Russia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Russia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Russia

List of birds of Singapore

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Singapore. The avifauna of Singapore include a total of approximately 400 species. In addition, there are some ornamental birds, escapees and free-ranging birds from the Singapore Zoo, Jurong Bird Park and private aviaries.

List of birds of the Philippines

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Philippines. The avifauna of the Philippines include a total of 657 species, of which 214 are endemic, five have been introduced by humans and 52 are rare or accidental. Of these, 68 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for the Philippines.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental: a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Philippines

(E) Endemic: a species endemic to the Philippines

(I) Introduced: a species introduced to the Philippines as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of near threatened birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 1012 near threatened avian species. 9.3% of all evaluated avian species are listed as near threatened.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of near threatened avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

Monarch flycatcher

The monarchs (family Monarchidae) comprise a family of over 100 passerine birds which includes shrikebills, paradise flycatchers, and magpie-larks.

Monarchids are small insectivorous songbirds with long tails. They inhabit forest or woodland across sub-Saharan Africa, south-east Asia, Australasia and a number of Pacific islands. Only a few species migrate. Many species decorate their cup-shaped nests with lichen.

Muljangori-Oreum

Muljangori-oreum wetland is a mountain crater lake formed in a volcanic crater, 900m-937m above sea-level, 9km northeast of Hallasan. The 628000m2 lake provides water, which is not abundant on the island, to the indigenous wildlife.

Paradise flycatcher

The paradise flycatchers (Terpsiphone), are a genus of bird in the family Monarchidae. The genus ranges across Africa and Asia, as well as a number of islands. A few species are migratory, but the majority are resident. The most telling characteristic of the genus is the long tail streamers of the males of many species. In addition to the long tails the males and females are sexually dimorphic and have rufous, black and white plumage.

Red River Delta Biosphere Reserve

The Red River Delta Biosphere Reserve (established 2004) is a UNESCO biosphere reserve in the coastal region of northern Vietnam. Mangroves and intertidal habitats of the Red River Delta form wetlands of high biodiversity especially in the Xuan Thuy and Tien Hai districts. These wetlands are of global importance as migratory sites for several bird species.The reserve's surface area (terrestrial and marine) is 137,261 hectares (529.97 sq mi). The core area is 14,842 hectares (57.31 sq mi), of which 6,278 hectares (24.24 sq mi) is terrestrial and 8,564 hectares (33.07 sq mi) is marine, surrounded by buffer zone(s) of 36,951 hectares (142.67 sq mi) (18,457 hectares (71.26 sq mi) terrestrial, 18,494 hectares (71.41 sq mi) marine) and transition area(s) of 85,468 hectares (329.99 sq mi) (35,447 hectares (136.86 sq mi) terrestrial, 50,021 hectares (193.13 sq mi) marine).

Ryukyu Islands

The Ryukyu Islands (琉球諸島, Ryūkyū-shotō), also known as the Nansei Islands (南西諸島, Nansei-shotō, lit. "Southwest Islands") or the Ryukyu Arc (琉球弧, Ryūkyū-ko), are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.

The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) in the north to tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification Af) in the south. Precipitation is very high and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait (between the Tokara and Amami Islands) and the Kerama Gap (between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands). The islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs.

The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the people are ethnically Japanese and speak a variation of the Kagoshima dialect of Japanese. The Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them. The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, and the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken. The outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started mainly by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language.

Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture (specifically the islands administered by Kagoshima District, Kumage Subprefecture/District, and Ōshima Subprefecture/District) in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture. The northern (Kagoshima) islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain (Okinawa Prefecture) are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese.

Shizuoka Prefecture

Shizuoka Prefecture (静岡県, Shizuoka-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region of Honshu. The capital is the city of Shizuoka, while Hamamatsu is the largest city by population.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 13

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Wildlife of Vietnam

The wildlife of Vietnam is rich in flora and fauna as reflected by its unique biodiversity. Rare and endemic antelope-like animal, categorized under the bovine subfamily, was found in 1992, in Bạch Mã National Park. In the 1990s, three other large mammal species, the deer-like Truong Son muntjac, giant muntjac and Pu Hoat muntjac, were also discovered, the first two in the same park. Conservation protection and scientific studies of the ecology of Vietnam, particularly in the protected forest areas, have been given priority attention by the Government of Vietnam. Laws were enacted to set up Xuân Thủy Wetland National Park, four UNESCO Biosphere Reserves, and Hạ Long Bay and Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Parks; the last two are also designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.The rich diversity of Vietnam’s wildlife includes 11,400 species of vascular plants, 1030 species of moss, 310 species of mammals, 296 reptile species, 162 amphibian species, 700 freshwater species of fish and 2000 species of marine fish. There are about 889 species of birds and 310 species of land mollusks. However, a study by the WWF has reported that nearly 10% of the wildlife in the country is threatened with extinction. Vietnam is placed 16th highest among 152 countries studied in terms of the proportion of its wildlife species found to be in danger.

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