Japanese long-eared bat

The Japanese long-eared bat (Plecotus sacrimontis) is a species of vesper bat endemic to Japan, where it is found in Hokkaido, Honshu and Shikoku. It has distinctive, long ears, hence its Japanese name, the 'rabbit bat'. Formerly included as a subspecies of the European bat Plecotus auritus, genetic studies now indicate Plecotus sacrimontis is a separate species.[2]

Japanese Long-eared Bat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Plecotus
Species:
P. sacrimontis
Binomial name
Plecotus sacrimontis
Synonyms
  • Plecotus auritus sacrimontis (Allen, 1908)

Taxonomy and etymology

It was described as a new species in 1908 by American zoologist Glover Morrill Allen. The holotype had been collected in December 1906 by Alan Owston on Mount Fuji. Allen received the specimen from Thomas Barbour. Allen noted that it resembled the brown long-eared bat, Plecotus auritus.[3] Its species name "sacrimontis" is from Latin sacer meaning "sacred" and mons meaning "mountain."[4]

In 1929, Nikolay Alekseyevich Bobrinski published that he considered P. sacrimontis as a synonym of P. auritus. In 1938, Allen himself expressed doubts about P. sacrimontis as a species, saying "Bobrinski...is very likely right in believing the name a synonym of P. auritus."[5] In 1942, George Henry Hamilton Tate published that he considered P. sacrimontis as a subspecies of P. auritus, with a trinomen of P. auritus sacrimontis.[6] This was largely maintained until 2006, when Spitzenberger et al. revised the genus Plecotus. They found that P. sacrimontis had a high genetic distance from other Plecotus species, and thus determined that it should be considered a full species rather than a subspecies of P. auritus.[7]

Description

It has woolly fur and a "mask" of darker fur on its face.[7]

Range and habitat

Its range includes several islands of Japan, including Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Rebun, and Rishiri. It is also found on the Kuril Islands, specifically Iturup and Kunashir.[1] It has been documented at a range of elevations from 700–1,700 m (2,300–5,600 ft) above sea level.[1]

Conservation

As of 2008, it is evaluated as a least-concern species by the IUCN. It meets the criteria for this classification because its geographic range is relatively large; it is found in a variety of habitats; and no major threats to its existence are known.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Maeda, K. & Sano, A. (2008). "Plecotus sacrimontis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T136664A4324871.
  2. ^ Ohdachi, Satoshi D. I; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki; Iwasa, Masahiro A.; Saitoh, Takashi (2009): The Wild Mammals of Japan, Shoukadoh, Kyoto, ISBN 978-4-87974-626-9 C0645
  3. ^ Allen, G. M. (1908). "Notes on Chiroptera". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 52: 50–51.
  4. ^ Lamboj, A.; Pichler, C. (2012). "On the validity of Pelvicachromis sacrimontis Paulo, 1977 (Perciformes, Cichlidae), with designation of a neotype, and redescription of the species". Zootaxa. 3436 (1): 61–68. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3436.1.5.
  5. ^ Allen, Glover M. (1938). "The mammals of China and Mongolia". pt.1. American Museum of Natural History: 258–260. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.12195.
  6. ^ Tate, G. H. H. (1942). Review of the vespertilionine bats, with special attention to genera and species of the Archbold collections. American Museum of Natural History. p. 231. hdl:2246/1783.
  7. ^ a b Spitzenberger, Friederike; Strelkov, Petr P.; Winkler, Hans; Haring, Elisabeth (2006). "A preliminary revision of the genus Plecotus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) based on genetic and morphological results". Zoologica Scripta. 35 (3): 187–230. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00224.x.
Aeorestes

Aeorestes is a genus of vesper bat commonly known as the hoary bats. This genus includes species that were formerly included in the genus Lasiurus.

Anchieta's pipistrelle

Anchieta's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus anchietae) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Madagascar.

The species inhabits dry savanna and moist savanna habitats.

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Brown long-eared bat

The brown long-eared bat or common long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) is a small Eurasian bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It is extremely similar to the much rarer grey long-eared bat which was only validated as a distinct species in the 1960s.

An adult brown long-eared bat has a body length of 4.5-4.8 cm, a tail of 4.1-4.6 cm, and a forearm length of 4-4.2 cm. The ears are 3.3-3.9 cm in length, and readily distinguish the long-eared bats from most other bat species.

They are relatively slow flyers compared to other bat species.

Dark-winged lesser house bat

The dark-winged lesser house bat (Scotoecus hirundo) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and United States of Africa

Grey long-eared bat

The grey long-eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) is a fairly large European bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It hunts above woodland, often by day, and mostly for moths. It is extremely similar to the more common brown long-eared bat, and was only distinguished in the 1960s, but has a paler belly.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

Lake Sai Bat Cave

Lake Sai Bat Cave (Japanese: 西湖蝙蝠穴, Saiko Kōmori Ana) is the largest of the several lava tubes that are near Lake Sai, in the Aokigahara forest in the northern side of Mt. Fuji, Japan. It is known as a cave where visitors can observe the bats which live there.

Moloney's mimic bat

Moloney's mimic bat (Mimetillus moloneyi) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in subtropical or tropical dry or moist forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry and moist savanna.

Neoromicia

Neoromicia is a genus of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

It contains the following species:

Dark-brown serotine (Neoromicia brunneus)

Cape serotine (Neoromicia capensis)

Yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens)

Neoromicia grandidieri

Tiny serotine (Neoromicia guineensis)

Heller's pipistrelle (Neoromicia helios)

Isabelline white-winged serotine (Neoromicia isabella)

Isalo serotine (Neoromicia malagasyensis)

Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka)

Melck's house bat (Neoromicia melckorum)

Banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nana)

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli)

Rosevear's serotine (Neoromicia roseveari)

Neoromicia robertsi

Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalicus)

Neoromicia stanleyi

White-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis)

Aloe serotine (Neoromicia zuluensis)

Nyctalus

Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi

Plecotus

The genus Plecotus consists of the long-eared bats. Many species in the genus have only been described and recognized in recent years.

Rüppell's pipistrelle

Rüppell's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rueppellii) is a species of vesper bat found in Africa and Asian republics such as Iraq and Israel. It is found in dry and moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and hot deserts.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Scotophilus tandrefana

The western yellow bat (Scotophilus tandrefana) is a species of vesper bat endemic to Madagascar.

Somali serotine

The Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalica) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.

Its natural habitats are dry savanna and moist savanna.

White-bellied yellow bat

The white-bellied yellow bat (Scotophilus leucogaster) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in dry and moist savanna.

Yellow serotine

The yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Malawi, and Mozambique.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry savanna, and moist savanna.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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