January 3

January 3 is the third day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 362 days remaining until the end of the year (363 in leap years). Perihelion, the point during the year when the Earth is closest to the Sun, occurs around this date.

01 02 03 04 05
06 07 08 09 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 31  
  2019 (Thursday)
  2018 (Wednesday)
  2017 (Tuesday)
  2016 (Sunday)
  2015 (Saturday)
  2014 (Friday)
  2013 (Thursday)
  2012 (Tuesday)
  2011 (Monday)
  2010 (Sunday)

Events

Births

Deaths

Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ W. H. C. Frend (1984). The Rise of Christianity. Fortress Press, Philadelphia. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-8006-1931-2.
  2. ^ Michael M. Tavuzzi (1997). Prierias: The Life and Works of Silvestro Mazzolini Da Prierio, 1456-1527. Duke University Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-8223-1976-4.
  3. ^ Joseph Thekkedath (1972). The troubled Days of Francis Garcia S. J. Archbishop of Cranganore (1641-1659). Gregorian Biblical BookShop. p. 60. ISBN 978-88-7652-158-4.
  4. ^ Alfred Billings Street (1859). The Council of Revision of the State of New York: its history, a history of the courts with which its members were connected, biographical sketches of its members, and its vetoes. W. Gould. p. 94.
  5. ^ Mark Maloy (12 March 2018). Victory Or Death: The Battles of Trenton and Princeton, December 25, 1776 - January 3 1777. Savas Beatie. ISBN 978-1-61121-381-2.
  6. ^ Lists and Indexes. H.M. Stationery Office. 1914. p. 138.
  7. ^ Roberto C. Laver (February 2001). The Falklands/Malvinas Case: Breaking the Deadlock in the Anglo-Argentine Sovereignty Dispute. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 19–. ISBN 90-411-1534-X.
  8. ^ Liberia; Thomas McCants Stewart (1928). Revised Statutes of the Republic of Liberia: Being a Revision of the Statutes from the Organization of the Government in 1848 to and Including the Acts of the Legislature of 1910-1911. Établissements Busson. p. 13.
  9. ^ Patience Essah (1996). A House Divided: Slavery and Emancipation in Delaware, 1638-1865. University of Virginia Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-8139-1681-1.
  10. ^ Sir Ernest Satow, A Diplomat In Japan, p. 353 ISBN 978-1-933330-16-7
  11. ^ "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights". refworld. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  12. ^ Clark, Stephen (5 January 2019). "Chinese rover begins exploring far side of the moon". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  13. ^ "Sophie Elkan (f. Salomon)". sok.riksarkivet.se. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  14. ^ Demidov, S.S.; Yushkevich, A.P.; Petrova, S.S. "Isabella Grigoryevna Bashmakova: on the occasion of her 60th birthday". Historia Mathematica. 8 (4): 389–392. doi:10.1016/0315-0860(81)90049-5.
  15. ^ January 3 at Encyclopædia Britannica
  16. ^ "Colin Brumby 1933-2018". australianmusiccentre.com.au/article/colin-brumby-1933-2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  17. ^ Herb Kelleher, Aviation Pioneer and Southwest Airlines Founder, Dies at 87

External links

116th United States Congress

The One Hundred Sixteenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2019 and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.

In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this is the first Congress in which the House and Senate are controlled by different parties since the 113th Congress (2013–2015). This Congress is considered to be the most diverse ever elected, and the youngest in the past three cycles.

Angela Lansbury

Dame Angela Brigid Lansbury (born October 16, 1925) is an English-Irish-American actress who has appeared in theater, television, and film. Her career has spanned eight decades, much of it in the United States, and her work has attracted international acclaim.

Lansbury was born to Irish actress Moyna Macgill and English politician Edgar Lansbury, an upper-middle-class family in Regent's Park, central London; her paternal grandfather was the British Labour Party leader George Lansbury. To escape the Blitz, in 1940 she moved to the United States with her mother and two brothers, and studied acting in New York City. Proceeding to Hollywood in 1942, she signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and obtained her first film roles, in Gaslight (1944) and The Picture of Dorian Gray (1945), earning her two Oscar nominations and a Golden Globe Award. She appeared in eleven further films for MGM, mostly in supporting roles, and after her contract ended in 1952 she began supplementing her cinematic work with theatrical appearances. Although largely seen as a B-list star during this period, her appearance in the film The Manchurian Candidate (1962) received widespread acclaim and is cited as being one of her finest performances. Moving into musical theatre, Lansbury finally gained stardom for playing the leading role in the Broadway musical Mame (1966), which earned her a range of awards.

Amid difficulties in her personal life, Lansbury moved from California to County Cork, Ireland in 1970, and continued with a variety of theatrical and cinematic appearances throughout that decade. These included leading roles in the stage musicals Gypsy, Sweeney Todd, and The King and I, as well as in the hit Disney film Bedknobs and Broomsticks (1971). Moving into television, she achieved worldwide fame as fictional writer and sleuth Jessica Fletcher in the American whodunit series Murder, She Wrote, which ran for twelve seasons from 1984 until 1996, becoming one of the longest-running and most popular detective drama series in television history. Through Corymore Productions, a company that she co-owned with her husband Peter Shaw, Lansbury assumed ownership of the series and was its executive producer for the final four seasons. She also moved into voice work, thereby contributing to animated films such as Disney's Beauty and the Beast (1991) and 20th Century Fox's Anastasia. Since then, she has toured in a variety of international theatrical productions and continued to make occasional film appearances.

Lansbury has received an Honorary Oscar and has won five Tony Awards, six Golden Globes, and an Olivier Award. She has also been nominated for numerous other industry awards, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress on three occasions, and various Primetime Emmy Awards on eighteen occasions, as well as a Grammy award for her work on the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack for the 1994 Disney animated film Beauty and the Beast. In 2014, Lansbury was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. She has been the subject of three biographies.

Anne Hathaway

Anne Jacqueline Hathaway (born November 12, 1982) is an American actress and singer. One of the world's highest-paid actresses in 2015, she has received multiple awards, including an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, a British Academy Film Award, and a Primetime Emmy Award. Her films have earned $6.4 billion worldwide, and she appeared in the Forbes Celebrity 100 in 2009.

Hathaway graduated from Millburn High School in New Jersey, where she acted in several plays. As a teenager, she was cast in the television series Get Real (1999–2000) and made her breakthrough as the protagonist in her debut film, the Disney comedy The Princess Diaries (2001). Hathaway made a transition to adult roles with the 2005 dramas Havoc and Brokeback Mountain. The comedy film The Devil Wears Prada (2006), in which she played an assistant to a fashion magazine editor, was her biggest commercial success to that point. She played a recovering alcoholic in the drama Rachel Getting Married (2008), which garnered her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. She followed this with roles in the commercially successful romantic films Bride Wars (2009), Valentine's Day (2010) and Love & Other Drugs (2010).

In 2012, Hathaway starred as Selina Kyle in her highest-grossing film The Dark Knight Rises, the final installment in The Dark Knight trilogy. That year, she also played Fantine, a prostitute dying of tuberculosis, in the musical romantic drama Les Misérables, for which she earned multiple accolades, including an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. She went on to play a scientist in the science fiction film Interstellar (2014), the owner of an online fashion site in the comedy film The Intern (2015), the White Queen—a role she first played in Alice in Wonderland (2010)—in Alice Through the Looking Glass (2016) and a haughty actress in the heist film Ocean's 8 (2018). Hathaway has also won an Emmy Award for providing her voice in The Simpsons, sung for soundtracks, appeared on stage, and hosted events.

Hathaway supports several charities. A board member of the Lollipop Theatre Network, an organization that brings films to sick children in hospitals, she advocates gender equality as a UN Women goodwill ambassador. She is married to businessman Adam Shulman, with whom she has a son.

Case Closed

Detective Conan (名探偵コナン, Meitantei Konan), also known as Case Closed, is an ongoing Japanese detective manga series written and illustrated by Gosho Aoyama. It was serialized in Shogakukan's Weekly Shōnen Sunday on January 19, 1994, and has been collected into 95 tankōbon volumes as of October 18, 2018. Due to legal considerations with the name Detective Conan, the English language releases from Funimation and Viz were renamed to Case Closed. The story follows an amateur detective who was transformed into a child while investigating a mysterious organization and solves a multitude of cases while impersonating his friend's father and other characters.

The series received an anime adaptation by Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation and TMS Entertainment. The anime resulted in animated feature films, original video animations, video games, audio disc releases and live action episodes.

Funimation licensed the anime series for North American broadcast in 2003 under the name Case Closed with the characters given Americanized names. The anime premiered on Adult Swim but was discontinued due to low ratings. In March 2013, Funimation began streaming their licensed episodes of Case Closed; Crunchyroll simulcast them in 2014. Funimation also localized the first six Case Closed films, while Discotek Media localized the Lupin III crossover special and its film sequel. Meanwhile, the manga was localized by Viz Media, which used Funimation's changed title and character names. Shogakukan Asia made its own English language localized version of the manga which used the original title and Japanese names.

The tankōbon volumes of the manga have sold over 230 million copies worldwide, making it the fourth-best-selling manga series. In 2001, the manga was awarded the 46th Shogakukan Manga Award in the shōnen category. The anime adaptation has been well received and ranked in the top twenty in Animage's polls between 1996 and 2001. In the Japanese anime television ranking, Case Closed episodes ranked in the top six on a weekly basis. Both the manga and the anime have had positive response from critics for their plot and cases. The manga has been sold in 25 countries, while the anime has been broadcast in 40 countries.

Chuck Norris

Carlos Ray Norris (born March 10, 1940) is an American martial artist, actor, film producer and screenwriter. After serving in the United States Air Force, he competed as a martial artist, won many championships, and he has since founded his own school of fighting, Chun Kuk Do. Norris is also a black belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu and Judo.Norris appeared in a number of action films, such as Way of the Dragon (in which he starred alongside Bruce Lee), Good Guys Wear Black, The Octagon, Lone Wolf McQuade, Code of Silence, The Delta Force, and Missing in Action 1, 2, & 3. He was The Cannon Group's leading star in the 1980s. He played the title role in the television series Walker, Texas Ranger from 1993 until 2001. Since 1997, he and model Christie Brinkley have been the main spokespersons for the Total Gym infomercials.

Norris has written several books, with subject matter varying from martial arts, exercise, philosophy, politics, Christian

religion, western novels, to biography. He was twice a New York Times best-selling author, firstly with his book on his personal philosophy of positive force and the psychology of self-improvement based on personal anecdotes called The Secret of Inner Strength: My Story (1988). His second New York Times Best Seller, Black Belt Patriotism: How to Reawaken America (2008), was about his critique on current issues in the USA.

In 2005, Norris became an internet star with the comical Chuck Norris facts, which documents fictional and often absurd feats associated with him. With this new found popularity he was hired to endorse many products that incorporated Chuck Norris facts in their commercials. This phenomenon also spawned six books, two of them New York Times Best Sellers, and two video games.

Danica Patrick

Danica Sue Patrick (; born March 25, 1982) is an American former professional racing driver. She is the most successful woman in the history of American open-wheel racing—her victory in the 2008 Indy Japan 300 is the only win by a woman in an IndyCar Series race.

Born to a working-class family in Beloit, Wisconsin, Patrick began karting at the age of ten and achieved early success by winning her class in the World Karting Association Grand National Championship three times in the mid-1990s. She dropped out of high school with her parents' permission in 1998, and moved to the United Kingdom to further her career. Patrick competed in Formula Vauxhall and Formula Ford before returning to the United States in 2001 due to a lack of funding. In 2002, she competed in five Barber Dodge Pro Series races for Rahal Letterman Racing. Patrick later raced in the Toyota Atlantic Series for the next two years. Her best effort was third in the championship standings for the 2004 season where she became the first woman to win a pole position in the series.

She first drove in the IndyCar Series with Rahal Letterman Racing in 2005 and took three pole positions, equaling Tomas Scheckter's record of poles in a rookie season. She was named the Rookie of the Year for both the 2005 Indianapolis 500 and the 2005 IndyCar Series. She improved over the next two years with Rahal Letterman Racing in 2006 and later Andretti Green Racing in 2007. In 2008, Patrick followed up her first victory to place sixth overall in the drivers' standings. She improved on this to secure fifth the following season, which saw her finish a career-high third at the Indianapolis 500, the best performance by any woman at the race. Patrick's overall form declined during 2010, but she still managed two second-places at oval tracks before leaving IndyCar after the 2011 season to focus on stock car racing full-time.

Patrick began racing stock cars in 2010 in the NASCAR Nationwide Series (now Xfinity Series) with her best result coming in the form of a fourth-place finish at Las Vegas Motor Speedway in 2011. She placed a career-high tenth in the 2012 season standings and was the second woman to clinch a pole position in the Nationwide Series since Shawna Robinson in 1994. Patrick started in the Sprint Cup Series (now Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series) in 2012. She became the first woman to win a Cup Series pole position by setting the fastest qualifying lap for the 2013 Daytona 500, finishing eighth. Patrick bested Janet Guthrie's record for the most top-ten finishes by a woman in the Sprint Cup Series in 2015. She announced her intention to step away from full-time racing after the 2017 season, but competed at the 2018 Daytona 500 and the 2018 Indianapolis 500 before officially retiring.

Eli Manning

Elisha Nelson Manning IV

(born January 3, 1981) is an American football quarterback for the New York Giants of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at the University of Mississippi from 2000 to 2003. He was drafted as the first overall pick in the 2004 NFL Draft by the San Diego Chargers and was immediately traded to the Giants who in return gave up a package, highlighted by fourth overall selection Philip Rivers. Manning is the son of former NFL quarterback Archie Manning and the younger brother of former NFL quarterback Peyton Manning.

Manning holds Giants franchise records for most passing yards, touchdown passes, and completed passes in a career. In 2012, in a 41–34 win over the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, he threw for 510 yards, 3 yards short of Phil Simms' record of 513. He led the Giants to victory in Super Bowls XLII and XLVI, defeating the New England Patriots in both games. Manning was named Most Valuable Player in both Super Bowls, becoming one of five players to have multiple Super Bowl MVP awards (Bart Starr and Terry Bradshaw also have two, Joe Montana three and Tom Brady four).

Manning started 210 straight games from 2004 to 2017, the second-longest consecutive starts streak by a quarterback in NFL history. He is the seventh all-time leader in passing yards and touchdowns. Though lacking his brother's regular-season consistency and high-caliber performances, Manning is known for his two improbable Super Bowl-winning postseason runs in 2007 and 2011, in which he led an underdog Giants squad to Super Bowl victories twice against the Patriots.

Friends

Friends is an American television sitcom, created by David Crane and Marta Kauffman, which aired on NBC from September 22, 1994, to May 6, 2004, lasting ten seasons. With an ensemble cast starring Jennifer Aniston, Courteney Cox, Lisa Kudrow, Matt LeBlanc, Matthew Perry and David Schwimmer, the show revolves around six friends in their 20s and 30s who live in Manhattan, New York City. The series was produced by Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions, in association with Warner Bros. Television. The original executive producers were Kevin S. Bright, Kauffman, and Crane.

Kauffman and Crane began developing Friends under the title Insomnia Cafe between November and December 1993. They presented the idea to Bright, and together they pitched a seven-page treatment of the show to NBC. After several script rewrites and changes, including a title change to Six of One, and, Friends Like Us, the series was finally named Friends.Filming of the show took place at Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California. All ten seasons of Friends ranked within the top ten of the final television season ratings; it ultimately reached the number-one spot in its eighth season. The series finale aired on May 6, 2004, and was watched by around 52.5 million American viewers, making it the fifth most-watched series finale in television history, and the most-watched television episode of the 2000s decade.Friends received acclaim throughout its run, becoming one of the most popular television shows of all time. The series was nominated for 62 Primetime Emmy Awards, winning the Outstanding Comedy Series award in 2002 for its eighth season. The show ranked no. 21 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time, and no. 7 on Empire magazine's The 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 1997, the episode "The One with the Prom Video" was ranked no. 100 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All-Time. In 2013, Friends ranked no. 24 on the Writers Guild of America's 101 Best Written TV Series of All Time, and no. 28 on TV Guide's 60 Best TV Series of All Time.

Jonas Brothers

The Jonas Brothers are an American pop rock band. Formed in 2005, they gained popularity from their appearances on the Disney Channel television network. They consist of three brothers: Kevin Jonas, Joe Jonas, and Nick Jonas. Raised in Wyckoff, New Jersey, the Jonas Brothers moved to Little Falls, New Jersey in 2005, where they wrote their first record that made its Hollywood release. In the summer of 2008, they starred in the Disney Channel Original Movie Camp Rock and its sequel, Camp Rock 2: The Final Jam. They also starred as Kevin, Joe, and Nick Lucas, the band Lucas in their own Disney Channel series Jonas, which was rebranded as Jonas L.A. after the first season and cancelled after the second. The band released four albums: It's About Time (2006), Jonas Brothers (2007), A Little Bit Longer (2008), and Lines, Vines and Trying Times (2009).

In 2008, the group was nominated for the Best New Artist award at the 51st Grammy Awards and won the award for Breakthrough Artist at the American Music Awards. As of May 2009, before the release of Lines, Vines and Trying Times, they had sold over eight million albums worldwide. After a hiatus during 2010 and 2011 to pursue solo-projects, the group reconciled in 2012 to record a new album, which was cancelled following their break-up on October 29, 2013.

They have sold over 17 million albums worldwide. Six years following their split, the group reunited with the release of "Sucker" on March 1, 2019. The song became the 34th song to debut at number one on the Billboard Hot 100. It became the Jonas Brothers' first number one single on the chart.

List of Jewish members of the United States Congress

This is a list of members of the United States Congress who practiced Judaism as a religion. It does not include members who had Jewish ancestry but were not religiously practicing. In the 115th Congress, there were 24 American Jews in the House and eight in the Senate; in the 116th Congress, which commenced on January 3, 2019, there are 28 in the House and nine in the Senate.

List of United States Representatives from New York

The following is a list of members of the United States House of Representatives from the state of New York. For chronological tables of members of both houses of the United States Congress from the state (through the present day), see United States Congressional Delegations from New York. The list of names should be complete as of March 16, 2018, but other data may be incomplete.

List of federal judges appointed by Donald Trump

This is a comprehensive list of all Article III and Article IV United States federal judges appointed by Donald Trump during his presidency, as well as a partial list of Article I federal judicial appointments, excluding appointments to the District of Columbia judiciary.As of March 13, 2019, the United States Senate has confirmed 91 Article III judges nominated by President Trump, including 2 Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, 36 judges for the United States Courts of Appeals, 53 judges for the United States District Courts, and 0 judges for the United States Court of International Trade. There are currently 62 nominations to Article III courts awaiting Senate action, including 6 for the Courts of Appeals, 54 for the District Courts, and 2 for the Court of International Trade. There are currently 9 vacancies on the U.S. Courts of Appeals, 129 vacancies on the U.S. District Courts, 3 vacancies on the U.S. Court of International Trade, and 15 announced federal judicial vacancies that will occur before the end of Trump's first term (1 for the Courts of Appeals, 13 for District Courts and 1 for the Court of International Trade). Trump has not made any recess appointments to the federal courts.

In terms of Article I courts, as of March 5, 2019, the Senate has confirmed 7 judges nominated by Trump, including 2 for the United States Tax Court, 4 for the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims, and 1 for the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. There are currently 9 nominations to Article I courts awaiting Senate action, including 4 for the United States Court of Federal Claims, 4 for the Tax Court, and 1 for the United States Court of Military Commission Review. Trump designated Susan G. Braden and Margaret M. Sweeney as chief judges of the Court of Federal Claims.

In terms of Article IV territorial courts, Trump has not made any appointments or elevated any judges to the position of chief judge.

List of members of the United States Senate

The United States Senate consists of 100 members, two from each of the 50 states. Below is a list of U.S. senators, sitting in the 116th United States Congress.

MacOS

macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS X, Roman numeral "X" pronounced "ten") is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version is macOS Mojave, which was publicly released in September 2018.

Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold a separate series of operating systems called Mac OS X Server. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is the Roman numeral for the number 10 and is pronounced as such. The X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but gradually receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version also have UNIX 03 certification. macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV.

Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 can run only on the PowerPC-based Macs from that time period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, a separate version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was made and distributed exclusively with early Intel-based Macs; it included an emulator known as Rosetta, which allowed users to run most PowerPC applications on Intel-based Macs. Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was the sole release to be built as a universal binary, meaning that the installer disc supported both Intel and PowerPC processors. Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was the first release to be available exclusively for Intel-based Macs. In 2011, Apple released Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, which no longer supported 32-bit Intel processors and also did not include Rosetta. All versions of the system released since then run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs and do not support PowerPC applications.

Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server. Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.

Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993). On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold. This comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows (that are comparable to competitors) show one third market share, similar to that for end user use.

As of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets, smartphones and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console.

Minnesota's 5th congressional district

Minnesota's 5th congressional district is a geographically small urban and suburban congressional district in Minnesota. It covers eastern Hennepin County, including the entire city of Minneapolis, along with parts of Anoka and Ramsey counties. Besides Minneapolis, major cities in the district include St. Louis Park, Richfield, Crystal, Robbinsdale, Golden Valley, New Hope, and Fridley.

It was created in 1883 and was named the "Bloody Fifth" on account of the first election. The contest between Knute Nelson and Charles F. Kindred involved graft, intimidation, and election fraud at every turn. The Republican convention on July 12 in Detroit Lakes was compared to the historic Battle of the Boyne in Ireland. One hundred and fifty delegates fought over eighty seats. After a scuffle in the main conference center, the Kindred and Nelson campaigns nominated each of their candidates.The district is strongly Democratic with a Cook Partisan Voting Index (CPVI) of D+26—by far the most Democratic district in the state. The 5th is also the most Democratic district in the Upper Midwest. The DFL has held the seat without interruption since 1963, and the Republicans have not tallied more than 40 percent of the vote in almost half a century.

The district is represented by Ilhan Omar, the first Somali American to ever serve in the U.S. House of Representatives, and the first black woman to represent Minnesota in that chamber. Omar, also Muslim American, succeeded future Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison, the first Muslim American to serve in Congress.

Nancy Pelosi

Nancy Patricia Pelosi (; née D'Alesandro; born March 26, 1940) is an American politician serving as speaker of the United States House of Representatives since January 2019. First elected to Congress in 1987, she is the only woman to have served as speaker, and is the highest-ranking elected woman in United States history. Pelosi is second in the presidential line of succession, immediately after the vice president.A member of the Democratic Party, Pelosi is in her 17th term as a congresswoman, representing California's 12th congressional district (since 2013), which consists of four-fifths of the city and county of San Francisco. She initially represented the 5th district (1987–1993), and then, when district boundaries were redrawn after the 1990 Census, the 8th district (1993–2013). She has led House Democrats since 2003 (the first woman to lead a party in Congress), serving twice each as Speaker (2007–2011 and 2019–present) and as House Minority Leader (2003–2007 and 2011–2019) depending upon whether Democrats or Republicans held the majority; she has also served as House Minority Whip (2002–2003).

Pelosi was a major opponent of the Iraq War as well as the Bush Administration's 2005 attempt to privatize Social Security. During her first speakership, she was instrumental in the passage of many landmark bills, including the Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, along with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and 2010 Tax Relief Act, which served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession.

In the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats won control of the House. Afterward, when the 116th Congress convened on January 3, 2019, Pelosi was elected Speaker for the second time, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955.

Party leaders of the United States Senate

The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators and members of the party leadership of the United States Senate. These leaders serve as the chief Senate spokespeople for the political parties respectively holding the majority and the minority in the United States Senate, and manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. They are elected to their positions in the Senate by the party caucuses: the Senate Democratic Caucus and the Senate Republican Conference.

By rule, the Presiding Officer gives the Majority Leader priority in obtaining recognition to speak on the floor of the Senate. The Majority Leader customarily serves as the chief representative of their party in the Senate, and sometimes even in all of Congress if the House of Representatives and thus the office of Speaker of the House is controlled by the opposition party.

The Assistant Majority and Minority Leaders of the United States Senate (commonly called Senate Majority and Minority Whips) are the second-ranking members of each party's leadership. The main function of the Majority and Minority Whips is to gather votes on major issues. Because they are the second ranking members of the Senate, if there is no floor leader present, the whip may become acting floor leader. Before 1969, the official titles were Majority Whip and Minority Whip.

United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.

The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators, each of whom represents a single state in its entirety. Each state, regardless of its population size, is equally represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states they represented; they are now elected by popular vote, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913.

As the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, and the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, ambassadors, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers. In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House.

The Senate is widely considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, and statewide constituencies, which historically led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, who is President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, who is customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers.

Women in the United States House of Representatives

Women have served in the United States House of Representatives since the 1917 entrance of Jeannette Rankin from Montana, a member of the Republican Party. Over 300 women have since served as U.S. Representatives. As of January 2019, there are 102 women in the U.S. House of Representatives (not counting four female territorial delegates), making women 23.4% of the total of U.S. Representatives.Women have been elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from 46 of the 50 states. The states that have not elected a woman to the U.S. House of Representatives are Alaska, Mississippi, North Dakota and Vermont—though Alaska, Mississippi and North Dakota have elected women to the United States Senate. Women have also been sent to congress from 5 of the 6 territories of the United States; the only Territory that has not sent a woman to the U.S. House of Representatives is the Northern Mariana Islands. California has elected more women to Congress than any other state, with 41 U.S. Representatives elected since 1923. To date, no woman has ever been elected from more than one state at different times, switched parties, or served as a third-party member in her career (though one was elected as an Independent).

Months and days of the year
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February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

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