Jan van Scorel

Jan van Scorel (1 August 1495 – 6 December 1562[1]) was a Dutch painter, who played a leading role in introducing aspects of Italian Renaissance painting into Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting. Van Scorel was one of the early painters of the Romanist style who had spent a number of years in Italy, where he thoroughly absorbed the Italian style of painting. His trip to Italy coincided with the brief reign of the only Dutch pope in history, Adrian VI in 1522-23. The pope made him a court painter and superintendent of his collection of antiquities. His stay in Italy lasted from 1518 to 1524. He also visited Nuremberg, Venice and Jerusalem. Venetian art had an important impact on the development of his style.[2]

He differed from most Romanists in that he was a native of the northern Netherlands and not of Flanders and that he remained most of his life in the northern Netherlands. He settled permanently in Utrecht in 1530 and established a large workshop on the Italian model. The workshop mainly produced altarpieces, many of which were destroyed in the Reformation iconoclasm in the years just after his death. He also held clerical appointments. This did not stop him from having a long-time relationship with a mistress who may have modelled for some of his female figures.[3]

Jan van Scorel by Anthonis Mor van Dashorst
Portrait of Jan van Scorel by Antonis Mor (1560)
De stervende Cleopatra Rijksmuseum SK-A-2843.jpeg
The dying Cleopatra (c.1522)

Biography

Janvanscorel
Cornelis Aerentsz van der Dussen (c. 1535)

Van Scorel was born in Schoorl, north of Alkmaar and close to Egmond Abbey. It is not known whether he began his studies under the Master of Alkmaar, Pieter Gerritsz in Haarlem, Jacob Cornelisz in Amsterdam, or with Jan Gossaert in Utrecht, but it is certain that the last two were the master painters he would meet later in his life and who would have the greatest effect on his technique. Van Scorel is recorded in Haarlem in 1517 where he perhaps collaborated with his contemporary Maarten van Heemskerck, who like him, had been born close to Alkmaar (they certainly collaborated in Haarlem in 1528).[1]

In 1524 Jan Gossaert is recorded at Duurstede Castle, near Utrecht, where Jan van Scorel was his pupil.[4] Van Scorel began traveling through Europe in his early twenties after visiting Utrecht. In 1518-22 he is registered in Venice,[1] and along the way, heading to Nuremberg and then on via Austria over the Alps. In the village of Obervellach in 1520, he completed his first representative work, the "Sippenaltar" in St. Martin's church. Giorgione was a considerable influence on Van Scorel during his tenure in Venice. After leaving Venice,[1] Van Scorel was in Rome from 1522 to 1524 and made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. His experiences in Jerusalem are depicted in many of his later works. Perhaps Van Scorel's example encouraged Van Heemskerck to travel to Rome himself later.

In 1521, Van Scorel returned to Rome where he met the Dutch pope Pope Adrian VI, who he may have met earlier in Utrecht. The pope appointed him painter to the Vatican. The pope sat for a portrait by Van Scorel. Van Scorel underwent the influence of Michelangelo and Raphael and succeeded Raphael as Keeper of the Belvedere.

Upon his return to the Netherlands in 1524, he settled in Utrecht[1] where he began a successful career as a painter and a teacher. Van Scorel was a very educated man and skilled as an engineer and an architect, as well as an artist. He was also multi-lingual, no doubt as a result of his travels. He made the plans for building a polder in his native North Holland, called the Zijpe- en Hazepolder, that was later financed by his friend from Antwerp, the merchant Servaes de Haese.[5] Perhaps because of the work on this polder, he is registered in Haarlem in 1528,[1] where he collaborated with Heemskerck and assisted with the school there that Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert would later run.

Jan van Scorel - Maria Magdalena (Rijksmuseum Amsterdam version) - 2
Mary Magdalene, circa 1530

Considered to be the leading Netherlandish Romanist, Van Scorel moved to Ghent for painting contracts before returning to Utrecht for the same reason, where he died in 1562, leaving behind a wealth of portraits and altarpieces. Though many of his works fell victim to the Iconoclasm in 1566, some still remain and can be seen primarily at museums in the Netherlands.

Influences

Contemporary painters that Van Scorel may have met, taught, and/or collaborated with, are Cornelis Willemsz (1481–1552), Aertgen van Leyden, the Master of Alkmaar (or Cornelis Buys), Pieter Gerritsz, Jacob Cornelisz, Jan Gossaert, Maarten van Heemskerck, Antonis Mor, Lambert Sustris, Master of the Good Samaritan, and Martin Schermus van Deventer.[1] He also was the teacher of the painter Michel Coxie whom he took to Italy with him in 1532 for seven years. Coxie & van Scorel returned to Mechlan in 1539 and brought with them the influence of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo. Coxie in particular was known as a colorist and it was his works that were studied by the young Rubens.

Public collections

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Jan van Scorel record at the RKD
  2. ^ Snyder, 467-469
  3. ^ Snyder, 469-473
  4. ^ Jan Gossaert record at the RKD
  5. ^ Map by Van Scorel in Ziper museum
  6. ^ Collection Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
  7. ^ Collection Rijksmuseum

External links

1520 in art

The year 1520 in art involved some significant events and new works.

1529 in art

The year 1529 in art involved some significant events and new works.

1560 in art

The year 1560 in art involved some significant events and new works.

1562

Year 1562 (MDLXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1562 in art

The year 1562 in art involved some significant events and new works.

Aertgen van Leyden

Aertgen Claesz. van Leyden (Leiden, c. 1498 – Leiden, c. 1564), also known as Allaert or Aert van Leyden, was a 16th-Century Dutch painter, draughtsman and designer of stained glass. Works by this artist can be found at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal in Leiden, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza in Madrid.

According to the biographer Karel van Mander (1604), Van Leyden was a son of a Leiden fuller. In 1516, he became an apprentice to the Leiden painter Cornelis Engebrechtsz. Some sources incorrectly name Aertgen van Leyden as a brother of Lucas van Leyden; in fact, Lucas van Leyden was the son of a painter, Hugo Jacobsz.

Van Leydens early work was influenced by the style of his mentor, Engebrechtsz., while his later works shows influences by Jan van Scorel and Maarten van Heemskerck, among others. Van Leyden's style was very diverse, making it difficult to attribute paintings to him with certainty. Most of this works were attributed to other artists, and only in the 20th Century were a number of paintings attributed to him, including a triptych of the Last Judgment which was recovered in Valenciennes in 1969, and a painting now in the Rijksmuseum, The Calling of St. Anthony, which had been attributed to Lucas van Leyden until 1960.

According to the Leiden city records, Aertgen van Leyden lived and worked in Leiden from 1521 to 1564. In 1564, Aertgen van Leyden drowned in the Vollersgracht canal in Leiden.

Aertgen van Leyden's work remained in demand after his death. Rubens owned one of his paintings. The 1656 list of Rembrandt's possessions also includes several works by Aertgen van Leyden.

In 2009, Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal in Leiden purchased a triptych by Aertgen van Leyden dating to about 1530. This work, depicting the Last Judgment, will be part of an exhibition on Lucas van Leyden which the museum will organise in 2011, together with the Rijksmuseum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Billingsfors Church

Billingsfors Church (Swedish: Billingsfors kyrka) belongs to the Steneby-Tisselskogs parish in the Diocese of Karlstad, Sweden. It is situated close to the paper mill in Billingsfors.The church was built in 1763. It was originally owned by the Billingsfors factory and was probably built by the carpenters at the factory. Since 1981, it is owned by the Steneby parish (now Steneby-Tissleskogs parish). At the time of the transfer of the ownership, it had been owned by the factory for 218 year and was one of the last privately owned churches remaining in Sweden.The altarpiece was painted in the 16th century by Jan van Scorel. Among the inventories are a crucifix from the 16th century and a positive organ that was in use until the end of the 1880s. The present organ was built in 1954. The church was comprehensively renovated in 1991, when an additional choir (architecture) organ made by Göran Strand, was installed.

Centraal Museum

The Centraal Museum is the main museum in Utrecht, Netherlands, founded in 1838. The museum has a wide-ranging collection, mainly of works produced locally. The collection of the paintings by the Northern Mannerist Joachim Wtewael is by a long way the largest anywhere in the world. Other highlights are many significant paintings by the Utrecht Caravaggisti, such as Gerard van Honthorst and Hendrick ter Brugghen. Both of them travelled to Rome in the early 17th century to study the works of the Italian master Caravaggio. In the previous generation, as well as Wtewael, Abraham Bloemaert and the portraitist Paulus Moreelse were the most significant Utrecht painters, with Jan van Scorel still earlier.

David Joris

David Joris (c. 1501 – 25 August 1556, sometimes Jan Jorisz or Joriszoon; formerly anglicised David Gorge) was an important Anabaptist leader in the Netherlands before 1540.

Dirck Jacobsz.

Dirck Jacobsz. (1496–1567) was a Dutch Renaissance painter. His exact birthplace is unknown, but it was somewhere near Amsterdam.

Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting

Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting represents the 16th-century response to Italian Renaissance art in the Low Countries. These artists, who span from the Antwerp Mannerists and Hieronymus Bosch at the start of the 16th century to the late Northern Mannerists such as Hendrik Goltzius and Joachim Wtewael at the end, drew on both the recent innovations of Italian painting and the local traditions of the Early Netherlandish artists. Antwerp was the most important artistic centre in the region. Many artists worked for European courts, including Bosch, whose fantastic painted images left a long legacy. Jan Mabuse, Maarten van Heemskerck and Frans Floris were all instrumental in adopting Italian models and incorporating them into their own artistic language. Pieter Brueghel the Elder, with Bosch the only artist from the period to remain widely familiar, may seem atypical, but in fact his many innovations drew on the fertile artistic scene in Antwerp.

Dutch and Flemish painters were also instrumental in establishing new subjects such as landscape painting and genre painting. Joachim Patinir, for example, played an important role in developing landscape painting, inventing the compositional type of the world landscape, which was perfected by Pieter Bruegel the Elder who, followed by Pieter Aertsen, also helped popularise genre painting. From the mid-century Pieter Aertsen, later followed by his nephew Joachim Beuckelaer, established a type of "monumental still life" featuring large spreads of food with genre figures, and in the background small religious of moral scenes. Like the world landscapes, these represented a typically "Mannerist inversion" of the normal decorum of the hierarchy of genres, giving the "lower" subject matter more space than the "higher". Anthonis Mor was the leading portraitist of the mid-century, in demand in courts all over Europe for his reliable portraits in a style that combined Netherlandish precision with the lessons of Titian and other Italian painters.

George van Egmond

George or Joris van Egmont (Egmond, c. 1504 – Saint-Amand Abbey, 26 September 1559) was a Christian religious authority and a bishop, who served as bishop of Utrecht from 1534 to 1559.

Maarten van Heemskerck

Maerten van Heemskerck or Marten Jacobsz Heemskerk van Veen (1 June 1498 – 1 October 1574) was a Dutch portrait and religious painter, who spent most of his career in Haarlem. He was a pupil of Jan van Scorel, and adopted his teacher's Italian-influenced style. He spent the years 1532–6 in Italy. He produced many designs for engravers, and is especially known for his depictions of the Wonders of the World.

Mary Magdalene (Scorel)

Maria Magdalene is a circa 1530 oil on panel painting by the Dutch renaissance artist Jan van Scorel in the collection of the Rijksmuseum.

Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art

Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art is a museum of Fine Arts on Pushkin street in Odessa, Ukraine.

Paul Teng

Paul Teng Ping Ya (born 6 March 1955) is a Dutch comic book writer and artist. He writes and draws mainly realistic historical comics.

Roger de Piles' artists from Germany and the Low Countries

Roger de Piles's L'Abrégé de la vie des peintres...avec un traité du peintre parfait (The Art of Painting and the Lives of the Painters), was a major art biography of painters. It was written by the French spy Roger de Piles. In 1692, during the War of the League of Augsburg, he was arrested in the Hague carrying a false passport and imprisoned for the next five years, where he wote his L'Abrégé in 7 parts; 1) Sketch of the perfect painter, 2) Greek painters; 3) Painters from Rome & Florence; 4) Painters from Venice; 5) Painters from Lombardy; 6) Painters from Germany and the Low Countries; 7) Painters from France and ending with his famous "Balance of painters". The book was finally published in 1699 following his appointment as Conseiller Honoraire to the Académie de peinture et de sculpture in Paris.

Part 6 includes in order of appearance in the text, the following list of Artists from Germany and the Low Countries:

Hubert van Eyck (1366–1426), p 334

Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), p 336

Georg Pencz (1500–1550), p 342

Peter Candid (1548–1628), p 343

Cornelis Engebrechtsz. (1468–1533), p 343

Bernard van Orley (1490–1541), p 344

Michiel Coxie (1499–1592), p 345

Lucas van Leyden (1494–1533), p 345

Quentin Matsys (1466–1530), p 347

Jan van Calcar (1499–1546), p 349

Pieter Coecke van Aelst (1502–1550), p 350

Heinrich Aldegrever (1502–1555), p 351

Jan Mabuse (1478–1532), p 352

Jan van Scorel (1495–1562), p 354

Lambert Lombard (1505–1566), p 355

Hans Holbein the Younger (1497–1543), p 356

Tobias Stimmer (1539–1584), p 360

Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen (1500–1559), p 360

Antonis Mor (1520–1576), p 361

Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1526–1569), p 362

Frans Floris (1519–1570), p 363

Christoph Schwarz (1545–1592), p 364

Willem Key (1515–1568), p 365

Hubert Goltzius (1534–1609), p 365

Pieter Pourbus (1523–1584), p 366

Dirck Barendsz (1534–1592), p 366

Hans Bol (1534–1593), p 367

Maarten van Heemskerck (1498–1574), p 367

Karel van Mander (1548–1606), p 369

Marten de Vos (1532–1603), p 370

Stradanus (1523–1605), p 371

Bartholomeus Spranger (1546–1611), p 372

Hendrik Goltzius (1558–1617), p 374

Hans von Aachen (1552–1614), p 376

Joseph Heintz the Elder (1564–1609), p 377

Paul Bril (1554–1626), p 377

Cornelis van Haarlem (1562–1637), p 378

Adam van Noort (1561–1641), p 378

Otto van Veen (1556–1629), p 379

Hans Rottenhammer (1564–1625), p 381

Pieter Cornelisz van Rijck (1567–1637), p 382

Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), p 382

Adam Elsheimer (1578–1610), p 396

Abraham Bloemaert (1564–1651), p 397

Hendrik van Steenwijk I (1550–1603), p 398

Abraham Janssens (1570–1632), p 399

Gerard Seghers (1591–1651), p 400

Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt (1567–1641), p 401

Cornelis Schut (1597–1655), p 401

Gerard van Honthorst (1592–1656), p 402

Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641), p 403

Adriaen Brouwer (1605–1638), p 408

Cornelius van Poelenburgh (1595–1667), p 409

Roelant Savery (1576–1639), p 410

Johannes van der Beeck (1589–1644), p 410

Friedrich Brentel (1580–1651), p 411

Johann Wilhelm Baur (1607–1639), p 411

Hendrick Goudt (1583–1648), p 412

David Teniers the Elder (1582–1649), p 413

Jan van den Hoecke (1611–1651), p 414

Jacques Fouquier (1590–1659), p 414

Pieter van Laer (1592–1642), p 415

Andries Both (1612–1642), p 416

Daniel Seghers (1590–1661), p 417

Balthazar Gerbier (1591–1663), p 418

Herman van Swanevelt (1604–1655), p 418

George Geldorp (1590–1665), p 419

Isaac Oliver (1565–1617), p 419

Peter Lely (1618–1680), p 419

Cornelis de Heem (1631–1695), p 420

Abraham van Diepenbeeck (1596–1675), p 420

David Teniers the Younger (1610–1690), p 420

Rembrandt (1606–1669), p 421

Gerrit Dou (1613–1675), p 428

Frans van Mieris the Elder (1635–1681), p 430

Adriaen Hanneman (1603–1671), p 431 (Note: in the Dutch translation of 1725, the title of this entry was mistakenly translated as "Lange Jan", referring to Jan Gerritsz van Bronckhorst (1603–1661) instead of Hanneman)

Jacob Jordaens (1593–1678), p 432

Erasmus Quellinus II (1607–1678), p 433

Joachim von Sandrart (1606–1688), p 434

Hendrik Verschuring (1627–1690), p 437

Caspar Netscher (1639–1684), p 441

Romanism (painting)

Romanism is a term used by art historians to refer to painters from the Low Countries who had travelled in the 16th century to Rome. In Rome they had absorbed the influence of leading Italian artists of the period such as Michelangelo and Raphael and his pupils. Upon their return home, these Northern artists (referred to as ‘Romanists’) created a Renaissance style, which assimilated Italian formal language. The style continued its influence until the early 17th century when it was swept aside by the Baroque.By drawing on mythological subject matter, the Romanists introduced new themes in Northern art that corresponded with the interests and tastes of their patrons with a humanist education. The Romanists painted mainly religious and mythological works, often using complex compositions and depicting naked human bodies in an anatomically correct way but with contrived poses. Their style often appears forced and artificial to the modern viewer. However, the artists saw their efforts as an intellectual challenge to render difficult subjects through a struggle with form.

The term Romanism is now less commonly used as a better understanding of the work of the artists that formed part of the Romanists has highlighted the diversity rather than the commonalities in their responses to Italian art.

Schoorl

Schoorl is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Bergen, and lies about 8 km northwest of Alkmaar. Until 2001, Schoorl was also a municipality of its own.

Schoorl is a village in between the polder area of North Holland and the Kennemer dunes. The village is about 8 km (5mls) long and never wider than 2 km (1mls). The village is heavily protected by the highest and widest dunes of the Netherlands, which reach about 54 m (164 ft) above sealevel right behind the center of Schoorl, and are more than 5 km (3mls) wide.

Schoorl is a major local tourism location in the summer and counts over 25 campsites, the largest concentration of campsites in the Netherlands.

The village, earlier named Scorel contains evidence of a long history in the form of two raadhuisjes (town hall) aging from 1600. The Dutch painter and evangelist Jan van Scorel was born here.

Meidenmarkt is the most renowned yearly festivity that is celebrated once a year on the second day (Monday) of pentecost (see also this list of dates to see when Pentecost begins). The celebration is a 100-year-old tradition where the local youngsters can meet partners of the opposite sex. The celebration takes place on the klimduin in the center of town. This klimduin is a century old attraction and many Dutch people have visited it as part of a school trip.

During World War II, Kamp Schoorl was a concentration camp originally built as a Dutch army camp. Jews and political prisoners were imprisoned there and some were then deported in camps in the east where they were later murdered.

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